Athletic shells from ancient times to this day.

It seems there is a man who would not want to have remarkable strength and a beautiful physique. For this purpose, the basic exercise equipment is a common weightlifting bar. The word "boom" comes from the German Stange, that means a metal rod (in modern terminology - neck). Before you buy a modern look, weightlifting bar has undergone a significant facelift.

Make Yourself! In ancient Egypt, the warriors to determine the winner in force used stone or iron beams.
This was one of the first weightlifting shells progenitors of modern bars.

The ancient Greeks was the first to manufacture of dumbbells that were used to develop strength in young people. Dumbbells weighing 1.5-2 kg were made of stone, iron, lead. In addition to dumbbells, the Greeks used as sports equipment and weights of stone blocks. Thus, the largest weight, which is stored now in the museum of Olympia, weighing 143.5 kg (68x39x33 cm size it). Giers on the inscription: "Bibon lifted me over the head with one hand."
On another huge block of black volcanic stone weighing 480 kg, found on the island of Santorini, is inscribed: "Evmast son Kritobula, picked me up from the earth."

In ancient Greece, young men to develop strength of not only exercising with dumbbells, lift and carry from place to place stones of various weights, while maintaining consistency in the load increases, but sometimes worn on the shoulders of a live calf.

Exercises with weights found in the display of art paintings and sculptures in the Hellenic. Thus, one Greek vase painter depicted a young man, lifting alternately with each hand on a big stone. On another vase depicts a young Hellene, bouncing with dumbbells in your hands. In VI. BCE. Oe. unknown sculptor had carved Moskofor (carrying a calf).

Thus, we can assume that in Ancient Greece (through targeted use of different weights), athletes can develop enormous power to raise the weight above. Unfortunately, we do not know yet which way they were able to raise them. And the Greeks invented the iron and lead weights, which had thickened at the ends, have undergone little change and is now widely used by people of all ages.
The followers of the ancient Greeks in the exercises with weights were the Romans. Athletes and strongmen of ancient Rome in their studies on the development of heavy armored forces used clothing, leaden buskins (boots), rising to the severity of the stairs, etc. Strength training were demonstrated in the arena of the Colosseum. For example, the athlete-actor walked on stage Atanat a shell weighing 200 kg and a hefty shoes to 100 kg each. Another athlete, Fuvy Silvius, had developed a leg strength that I could climb the stairs with a 320-pound weight.
Consequently, the Romans, like the ancient Greeks, skillfully developed by using different exercises with weights. After the fall of Rome, focused development of strength and improvement of sports equipment became widespread only in the Renaissance.

In the XIV-XV centuries. British soldiers practiced in the shot put iron rails, like the ancient Egyptians. In the same period in Scotland was extended hammer throw projectile consisted of an iron core, which was attached to the meter stick. Interestingly, all ball weights, athletes applied later had the bar length of 1 m.

At the end of the XVI century., During the reign of Queen Elizabeth, exercises with weights recommended by the young men instead of dancing and other "empty pleasures." Historian John Nordbruk wrote that the occupation with a stick, which hung on the ends of lead sinkers, strengthen the chest and arms. In addition, athletes have as much fun as in boxing, but do not receive hits. Consequently, we can assume that this was the first simple rod, whose weight changed.

During the XVII-XIX centuries. purposeful development of strength with different loads (hefty stones and kernels, iron sticks, maces of various weights, heavy weights, ball rod AC and weight, etc.) produced positive results. In several countries in Western Europe and America came strong men, artists who showed their strength on the circus stage.

Ball bars were a constant weight (solid balls) and bulk (hollow spheres, which can add sand or shot). Interestingly, the Germans at first called a barbell only the iron rod without balls on the ends. So, an assistant anthropology Commission in Karlsruhe A. Stolz, who later moved to Russia, in his "Tutorial to develop strength and muscle," pointed out that for classes with an average weight of athletes can enjoy an iron rod 50 mm in diameter and weighing 50 pounds (20, 5 kg). Therefore, we can assume that the weight of the modern fingerboard (20 kg) determined in the last century, but it decreased diameter - up to 28 mm.

    In improving the sports bar as a shell and played the role of the so-called "axis of Apollo" (165kilogrammovaya axle trucks with a shaft diameter 50 mm). (Read about the French athlete Apollo)
    All of the above weightlifting shells had the same flaw: it was impossible to quickly increase or decrease the weight of the projectile. Remember, to iron rod suspended from lead sinkers, and the ball bar poured fraction. It was necessary to develop these sports equipment. According to the well-known Soviet historian in the field of physical culture and sport BS Chesnokov, in the 60s years. XIX century in Germany was introduced collapsible rod. On a metal rod (neck) instead of balls put on metal disks (pancakes) with holes in the center corresponding to the diameter of the neck. Detachable rod is gradually replacing its predecessor - the ball bar - with the athletic arenas. Initially it was used for training sessions, and since I Olympic Games of today (1896), the competitions are held only with a collapsible pole.

At the beginning of the XX century. first appeared folding boom with a rotating neck. The author of this improvement was a German engineer Berg. As the sport began to use its shell for competition from the European Championship in Vienna (1929).

The peoples of our country has long been famous for their heroes. Rare holidays do without athletic amusements, in which warriors competed in strength, agility and endurance. Entertainment shells were sometimes self-weight of the enemy, kamenvalun, the anvil of a blacksmith, the heavy sword, horseshoe poker or iron rod, cast iron "walking stick", the kernel, the weights of various weights, heavy maces and mace, etc. Thus, the famous Ukrainian strongman Ivan Poddubny its walks always come out with a cast iron "cane", vesivshey peck around. Another hero, Ivan Zaikin Volga region, once bent the rails in a knot. This unique exhibit is now stored in a museum. Of Paris. Was popular among athletes and Moscow strongman Peter Krylov, who was styled King of the weights of the art exercise with weights. On one of his demonstrations of the bar, he pushed the hollow spheres, in which sat two tall soldier.
You can name the many wonderful athletes, who used the honor and respect the Russian people. Many strong men created their own distinctive system of exercises with weights. Thus, in the XIX century. Azerbaijani athlete Alty Aylyh created the original system of exercises with gymnastic clubs, vesivshimi to 46 kg (!). These old oak maces are kept to this day at the Azerbaijan History Museum.

    Tangible contribution to the world of weightlifting, weightlifting improvement projectiles made the father of Russian athletics VF Krajewski. In the second half of last century, after a tour of Western Europe, he has equipped his apartment in the athletic office with a unique set of athletic shells. According to the magazine "Hercules", "a collection of weights, which was in this office, had not equal in all of Europe." Dr. Krajewski VF is the author of a collapsible rod of original design. At the bar, cast iron wheels Krajewski put on weight from 2 to 10 pounds and were secured to the stop nut. At the neck were three special notes: two extreme - to capture the two hands, and the average - for the capture of one hand. Demountable rail Dr. Krajewski enjoyed great popularity. Here's what he wrote in one of his correspondence mid 90s. XIX of the famous Russian writer Alexander Kuprin "In Kiev, no shop could not produce for us the bar. Only through the efforts of Dr. EF Garnich-Garnitskogo (founder of the Kiev athletic cup, which was actively engaged in Kuprin. - VD), which was in contact with the leaders of the Petersburg athletic societies, athletic cup Kiev managed to buy a collapsible rod, which can be set to 6i pounds of weight. "
    First collapsible rod used by athletes to training sessions only, but since I Championship of Russia (1897) - competitions of various levels. Prior to that weightlifters were with bulk ball pole.
    Rod VF Krajewski repeatedly improved. Before the revolution, he worked on it a popular Moscow weightlifter SD Dmitriev. After 1917, the bar Krajewski improved deserved masters of sports Ya.Yu. Sparre (Moscow) and N Koshelev (Leningrad).

Currently, all major international competitions used rods with rubber wheels. Model of the Soviet record boom VISTA approved as a sports projectile, which was used at the Moscow Olympics.