Russian bath.

History of the Russian bath is probably much deeper than we can imagine. For some reason, many underestimate the civility of the Russian people, believing that his entire story on closer inspection turns out to be a true chronicle of barbarism and backwardness. How do they go astray, these skeptics! In fact, Russian bath - perhaps the oldest, because its occurrence is about the same period that the very origin of the tribe of Slavs! Even writing and as such was not, and we are already seeing in the oral folklore references to the bath and its healing power.

After a bath procedure would come together as the two most powerful elements of nature - fire and water. Ancient Slavs, as we know, were pagan in its beliefs and worship a variety of gods. And most "strong", hence, the most revered god were the sun and fire and the goddess of rain and water. Combining these two forces during the procedure of bath, the ancient Slavs as it attracted them to his side and thus took over part of their power. The pagan holiday of Ivan Kupala, also, incidentally, goes back into the old Slavic beliefs. Jumping over the fire, our ancestors tried to "burn" evil and sick, cleanse the soul. A night swim in the river or lake represented the union with Mother Nature and her introduction to the life force.

Virtually all the epics and tales, we can see echoes of ancient beliefs in the healing and purifying power of water. Our ancestors knew that health is associated with purity. Arising from such "vague conjectures" tales of "dead" and "living" water tells us that the pure "living" water has healing powers. Bath was considered the guardian of the "living" water and health, since it seems to be strengthened and guided human life energy in the right direction.

Bath at first considered a symbol of overcoming everything bad that can surround a person in this life, but more recently it has become the embodiment of friendly and home. In Russian fairy tales Ivanushka requires Baba Yaga first hover it in the bath, food, drink and sleep to pack, and then to conduct inquiries. These notions of hospitality have been preserved in the villages until the present day, and now his guest, to knock at the house, first offer to take a steam bath house, and then offered a desk and bed. Bath in the life of Russian people has always been so important that in the ancient chronicles XX-XII centuries, which tell about the ways of "Rusich", very often we find mention of "soap".

Baths were called "soap", "movnitsami", "movyu", "vlaznyami" and "movnyami." Even in the agreement with Byzantium (applies to 907) rusichi explicitly stated that the Russian envoys arrived in Constantinople, would be "tvoriti mov" as they will. Bathhouses are mentioned in "The Tale of Bygone Years" (945 years), and the statute of Kiev-Pechersk Monastery (966 years). In the old days the monks of the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra was very knowledgeable about medicine, because they had the opportunity to read works of ancient Greek physicians, namely, Greek medicine was first highlighted for the benefit of steam bath.

In an effort to verify the information received, the monks began to build a bath and watch the healing effect they produced on the sick and "suffering." When the healing properties of baths have been fully confirmed, at the baths began to arrange things like hospitals and such baths is known as "unfit for the institutions." This was probably the very first hospitals in Russia. Russian bath can not be compared with any European or Asian with baths. Russian bath in contrast, is much stronger affected by his fervor. Indispensable attribute of a Russian banya - a birch broom - pouring hot body at full power. It seems that this is not room, and torture.

Thought so at all times, foreigners, trapped in a real Russian banya. In pair under the blows of brooms they felt that "death has come and their stands on the threshold." But after the bathhouse foreigners reported that they feel great. Amazing, the thrill associated with a Russian bath, remain forever in the memory of strangers. The fame of the Russian bath-healer spreads around the world. In many other books of antiquity and the present day travelers to share their impressions of Russia. Is it possible to understand the Russian character, not having been in a Russian bath? Russian bath-house of his healing powers have won the love of many people outside our country. Fans of Russian baths are building them in France and in America. Once in Canada, our countryman can take heart in Sandunovsky baths.

They are based on a prototype Sandunovsky baths in Moscow. Attractive force and healing ability of Russian baths are widely recognized. In one of the ancient Arabic manuscripts preserved the memory of one traveler who visited Russia and warm up in the bath. From this source became known as our ancestors arranged bath: "... They were building a wooden house on a small size. There was only one small window, which was located closer to the ceiling. All the cracks between the logs of wood caulked with resin, mixed with tree moss. In one corner of the hut is a fire hearth, surrounded by stones. Also, the bath was a large barrel with water. When the focus of flares, stones sprinkled with water, and door and window clog. "

Russian bath impressed foreigners accustomed to bathing with warm water. So Russian, who, after burning bathhouse dived into the hole, saw an outsider heroes. The device baths did not undergo any changes over time, it remained as such to this day. The idea of ​​something remains the same, but it's the embodiment of change. Originally baths were a small wooden hut, cut down from whole logs. Bathhouse tried to put some water bodies that do not have problems with water. Internals baths is that about a third of the entire room is oven-stove. Fire is at the bottom, which heats the stones laid on top, and heated bath room. When stones overheat, fire quenched, the pipe is closed and valve soared by pouring water on the stones to form pairs.

Soared, climbing on shelves (accent on second syllable), which represent a sort of stairs with four or five broad steps. The higher a man climbs on the bench, the hotter and "vigorous" pairs. On the last shelf, almost to the ceiling, run the risk of steam only the most durable and strong bathers who transcend the 100-degree heat.
This is called the white room. At first it was built only from the logs, but then there were baths of bricks. The first mention of a brick bathhouse is found in the annals of 1090, as it was built in the town of Pereslavl.

If there is a white room, it is natural that there should be a black room - say, attentive readers and are absolutely right! There was a bath. First, before the white baths, for centuries the Russian people drowned in a bath-house black. The real connoisseurs of such bath now running low, but the idea And this is not quenched. Fairly widespread misconception that the steam in the smoke - it suffocate from smoke and fumes in a small room near the open oven. Of those who thinks so, no single person has experienced at first hand what a black room.

Fear that the steam in the smoke will soon cease altogether, should not be. Across Russia, many places where preference is given to native Russian tradition. Baths in villages
Middle Urals, Western Siberia and other places are built in accordance with the precepts of their ancestors, who knew a lot about this bath. They say: "Black-hot bath wash off."
So what's the difference between a black bath of white? Only in the way of heating a room. He himself a house (like a white and black under the bath), lined up the same way and was very small. There were only two small rooms with a fairly low ceiling. Ceiling height corresponded to the growth of adult males. The small size bath allowed as it should be heated. The main difference bath which is heated by the smoke from all the others - this is no chimney.

The door to the bath was made very strong, with no gaps. So that it tightly closed and there was no draft, before the door of a wooden stile made. The first room of the home-bath called vestibule. Its equipped with maximum comfort. In the dressing room was a bench and a coat hanger. Waiting room much smaller than the size of the bath, from which it separated the thin wooden partition. Such preferred to do the partition of the linden or pine. In the septum made a door that closes tightly, thus preventing the penetration of smoke and steam in the dressing room.

In one corner of the furnace bath, on which lay the large round stones, boulders. Near the stove stood a tub with plenty of water. The bath had one small window and it was located over the stove. Thus, the bathhouse could ventilate as necessary. As already mentioned, the furnace in the steel bath was without a pipe, so that smoke and soot came directly to the steam room. Of course, after the first attempt heated the bath-house in this way the walls and ceiling of the pair became blackened, soot and this did not yield to delete. It is for the black color of the walls and ceiling are called black bath. After the bath to heat, all the windows and doors open so that smoke came out and air in the steam room was fresh.

Of course, no one started to steam until all the smoke does not fade, or in a bathhouse without ceremony could be poisoned by fumes. Fanned a bathhouse, it must prepare to ensure that you can bathe in it. For this bath, "oparivayut": scraper is carried out on the walls, wash off excess soot, doused with hot water from the walls of the gang, and only after these manipulations "subjects a couple of" water on the stove plesnuv. Here is the way to steam and is known as "black." It is the most ancient and dates back, figuratively speaking, in a Russian stove.

Indeed, long before there were baths, ancient Russians soared into the stove. How did this happen? Pretty uncomplicated, yet very clever. Used quite remarkable property of Russian stove to keep the heat long after the food was cooked or baked bread. Removing from the oven vent soot and ashes, trying to wash the walls, the litter tray, the same set kadochku with water and put the broom. More help needed: someone who is steamed first, sit on a shovel or even on an ordinary whiteboard, and the assistant gently slide it into the mouth. Furnace damper tightly closed, and people began to steam. Sprinkled water on the furnace wall, got absolutely wonderful fragrant with the smell of steam just baked bread.

When bathers wanted to get out of the oven, he banged on the throttle, and it was removed from the furnace in the same way that was placed there. In general, this process is very much like baking bread like a loaf, "put" rights in the oven, and when it is "flush" the heat, and quickly removed. Napara man drenched with cold water, and if near a stream, then ran and immersed in a river. Most likely, bathing with hot water was not very common, much more often just soared, alternating it with a cold douche. But his head was washed very strange (in modern notation).

To wash the hair first used wood ash! Or rather, not the ash, and so-called liquor, which is made of ash. Only then began to wash my hair an egg, it is this ancient way of preserved to this day. And now many beauties, wanting to preserve the beauty and luster of hair, the old-fashioned wash their eggs. Is not this the best proof of wisdom of our ancestors, when modern man deliberately rejects fashionable branded cosmetics, preferring the money people have been tested for centuries!

If we want to trace the "path" of the Russian bath, then it will be this is how: first - the Russian stove, which could steam after cooking and baking bread. Then close the mouth of the furnace, "expanded" to the size of the dugout, which is unheated in the smoke. Heaters as such has not yet appeared, instead dug in the center towered pile of stones, on which and splashed water. Smoke coming out not only through the inlet pit, but also through the cracks in the roof. Then close and squattish dugout "grown up", becoming a small house, half dug into the ground. Such black bath heated stoves and they already had a separate heater and several regiments. And only after that began to equip their rusichi bath black chimneys that smoke does not accumulate in the steam room, and went outside. So there were white bath - first timber and then stone.

But with the advent of white smoke sauna bath is not handed over their positions - they have to exist simultaneously. And to this day in many villages you can find spas, which are fueled by both white-and black-on. Russian has always been very democratic, and therefore tried to take into account the interests of all residents of the village, village or town, building two types of baths. After all, there are still people who bath, heating of the smoke, like much more. They argue that the steam bath in the black more fragrant and valuable than white, because only in the bath, baked old-fashioned way, remains a special, some ancient feeling of comfort and warmth.

Probably, these feelings had primitive hunters who have returned from the hunt all the hardships behind us and finally we can sit back and relax, enjoying the quiet. A modern man, who saved civilization from a severe need to fight with wild beasts and with the elements for its existence, it is sometimes easy to feel like an ancient hunter and warrior, capable of hard physical labor. Because to be honest, our contemporaries, men are more effeminate in comparison to their courageous ancestors.

A black bath their primal feelings, apparently, awakens in them some sort of generic, genetic memory, which is just like them back in those hard times. And this is so cool! Not for long, feeling himself a warrior, a man tries to keep this feeling, when he knows that his courage and determination, much depends, it behaves quite differently. He in fact becomes more masculine, it appears some special quiet dignity, is the brutality that is being lost in our refined, civilized society. That's right. Checked into practice!

Actually, this is certainly not a scientific theory - about the genetic memory, which "wakes up" hot Russian bath, heating the black way. But with them (with men in terms) and the fact that something is happening, because they are some other out of the Russian banya! Want to check out - go to some dead village, which has preserved ancient smoke sauna. Ensure that your civilized companion, the most "murderous" act which has been cutting meat fillets, you have purchased in the supermarket, after visiting a black bath expresses the ardent desire to go hunting. You will simply amazed to the depths occurred changes.

And besides, after a bath and body, something happens: it becomes more obedient, flexibility and grace almost any animal there, and the whole body at least ten years younger! Amazing! But doctors have found a scientific explanation of "life-giving" properties of a black bath: it turns out, the smoke contains a special antiseptic substance that destroys harmful bacteria and germs. That is why the black room so helpful.

Of course, now not everyone has the opportunity - to experience the action of iron baths, and not everyone can tolerate. To be honest, in a black habit with a bath and be poisoned by fumes for long, especially if the person previously had never steamed himself in the bath! But the power of any steam in a white bath-house: it's nice, and not less useful.
Primordial Russian white bath with side looked shabby. The wooden hut was half buried in the ground.

This prevented the winds blow bath, thereby rapidly cooling it. In addition, such "mundane" location bath was very convenient for the proper placement of the furnace and chimney. In contrast to the black bath towered above this chimney. Bath room was divided into two parts. Dressing room (lower part), arranged by tradition only, but to meet the needs. Immediately bath or steam room, occupied a large part. Its main attraction was the furnace to the chimney.

Furnace - the heart of Bath - had a few levels. The lowest level was a small cut - ash pit. Above it was located oven. From the oven in the wall stretched chimneys. And on the stove there was a layer of stones. Tub of water next to the stove to allow the need to add pairs. Such a furnace design ensures good "craving" in combustion and ventilation for the bath room. Very often the reason why the steam bath in white were no windows.
The air in such bath is always saturated with oxygen.