At all times, Russian soldiers overcame a close-in fighting their enemies, wherever they come - from the West or East, North or South. And our victories were at the foundation - the Russian martial art system of national training men - a warrior.
To this day preserved the names of masters kulachnikov. And among them are mentioned not only heroic people build, such as cracking of Moscow Semion (XVIII cent.) Fist knocked bricks out of the oven, but also of small stature, thin, unattractive in appearance. These were the official mandative Batin and the factory man Sokolik, but both "possess outstanding strength and agility and cunning, moreover, in the battle." This is particularly noteworthy, for it shows - not just given the nature of the bear's strength determines the outcome of the match. There were secret, by the way, and work on the points, and certain types of breaths (an analog of Qigong), and a special state of mind (now fashionable meditation).
Moscow Governor-General of the Patriotic War of 1812, Earl F. Rostopchin, a great connoisseur of English boxing, used to say: "The battle with their fists - the same science as the rapier fight." And the famous Suvorov's "science of victory" provided an important component of trained soldiers to conduct close-in combat. And because the modern Russian style, the man who enjoyed "Wolfhounds Tamantsev" - the hero of the book by V. Bogomolov, "In August the 44th, or The Moment of Truth", the deep roots:
Imagine karate, which performs the kata (formal exercises), or leads to a duel Icy River. Those familiar with the martial arts, will immediately recognize that this is impossible - or at barefoot, dressed in a kimono man will disperse his feet, he will be slips and fall, or you have to wear boots (you can coat and boots and), and fundamentally change their technique, which will not have anything to do with karate. It will happen for one simple reason - in the style fostered in Japan used primarily creeping along the ground displacement, and they are possible when the feet between the base and support a reliable hitch, strictly speaking a high coefficient of friction.
However, the Japanese military system of this in no way diminished - in Okinawa, where karate has gone, no frost or snow does not happen, and fights on the ice a little worried about the locals. They are fine people, created a system for themselves, under their constitution, under the features of the climate, and is doubly deserving of respect, preserve and develop that family traditions.
For many centuries lived in Russia stenoshnogo custom battle. In Carnival, usually on the frozen river, met the boys and men of the surrounding villages and towns and were wall to wall. We fist slaughter may seem senseless cruelty, barbaric rite. But it is not to try to know the country's history, the causes of it.
Why in the winter and converged on the river? The rivers were the main roads of the wooded, swampy Russia. In the summer they ran a boat way in the winter - Sledge. On frozen rivers and swamps and moved troops - the probability of the battle on the ice was great.
And the outcome of battles decided not only combatants (professional warriors), but the militia common people, peasants and artisans. And as the war went continuously (a rare year in Russia, managed to peacefully), each man had to have martial skills. But if the warriors ability to use arms served as the main way to earn a living and they can develop their skills on a daily basis, those who grew the most this bread, doing crafts, traded, had to prepare ourselves for the battles in between times.
Life forced to find a way to make a reliable soldier boy, how to keep fighting in the mature form of her husband, how to achieve a militia ready to fight shoulder to shoulder on the first call. Thus was born the tradition stenoshnogo fight. The rules for the whole of Russia were almost identical. Converged wall to wall, each could have two, three, or more of the series. Beat in the face and the waist was forbidden, lying not touch - because your the same, the Russian (as opposed to, from martial arts, where Denying the enemy a symbolic or real - a necessary condition). But in the chest and abdomen planted without concessions from all over the shoulder. Wins the wall, which broke through the other.
Buckler stenoshny fight was preparing warriors, as they say on the job. The militia tried to compensate for the lack of arms is always professional and the use of unexpected situations. Thus, in the famous Battle of the Ice militia gathered Alexander Nevsky, not wearing armor, and took with them a boat hook. They knew that in April the ice on Lake Peipsi crafty, but because heavy weights on his need to have a smaller one. Hooks as comfortable pulling off heavily armed knights with their horses. Feet, then the animals on the frozen lake slithered, they were slow, but because the militia, accustomed to move on the ice (as it fights stenoshnyh place!), Had the initiative and impose themselves favorable to the opponents of the distance. So they completely destroyed and - one melee, someone drove into open water.
Incidentally, the best Kulikovo field regiment consisted entirely of volunteers, and they fulfilled their task - stood first attack. The cavalry of Mamaia, though crushed them, but the wall is not broken up.
In the battle stenoshnom perfected in the main cooperative action, team spirit, mutual help. Everything was subordinated to a common goal - he dies, and friend help me out. But. in addition to overall coherence, each stenoshnik had to have personal skills. For its use there own ways ...
SKOBAR, broken or danced FUN
Even today one can see in the methods of boxing features of ritual dance. At Pskov call it skobar or broken - break fun. In general, a similar dance is found throughout the territory, where once lived Krivichi Union Eastern Slavic tribes.
One version says the word "skobar" reworked as "pskovar," that is a resident of the Pskov region. Merry break under garmoshechny tune. Nezateyliv motive, rhythmic and fairly. clear purpose. Gradually, the dancing, submitting it to the rhythm, is a certain mental state. Skobarya dancing, resting from his labors, and having fun on holiday, man, in fact, practicing for boxing or cane fight. The music of the same place and ritual fights. They went to different persuasions, for example, to first blood or to the first fall. The fight could have stopped the accordion (in a long time ago - guslar), ending tune. In music, in this case, one might say, was a complete power.
Before you start breaking dancer shaking his head, could tousle his hair. These actions, some exclamations (hoot), pritopyvanie considered part of the ancient folk magic. Man, as it was leaving the familiar domestic space, move to another layer of existence. There is already another time passed, and the senses work differently, and in general, attitudes toward life and death was different. So looks like a gawky dance (it does not compare to alignment and prudence, with the Japanese or Chinese kata tao) was actually very clever and effective preparation for the fights. Relaxed body was ready to respond skobarya not that the actions of the opponent, and even a whiff of wind.
Breaking passed slowly in ritual combat. Such a fight - heritage relic of those times, when men fought for the woman in the marriage fight. One of his names - yar.
On the other hand the word "yar" Slavs meant life force and its manifestation. Considering themselves descendants Dazhboga - Lightbringer god or Yarila, they lived on a solar calendar, as used in the fight against spring force, or energy, which is controlled by the solar (celiac) plexus. Oriental traditions as the internal energy of Chi is its focus point in the lower abdomen - Dantian, and human biorhythms are subject to lunar cycles.
Prepared in the ritual breaking in a critical situation could join in battle fierce - to the complete destruction of the enemy. A trained fighter inflicted blows in 6.5 second. Such a speed determined by the principle movements of the dance. Incidentally, a similar density in karate combat almost impossible to achieve. The fact that karatistskie strikes mostly straightforward, they have some pause in the final phase and it requires some concentration of power. Genetically with less than Europeans, body weight and muscle mass, the Japanese must, they say, to invest in a blow to concentrate in it all his might to reach the devastating effect (we're not talking about "work points"). Slav is to knock down the opponent's feet, send it to the knockdown, it was enough to strike and flow carries. And it's better if it is applied along a curved path - the hand without delay returns, while another is already close to goal. High "rate" is important in a fight with multiple opponents, especially when surrounded by them.
In winter 1991, in Leningrad held the first congress of representatives of Russian martial arts: boxing, fight slavyanogoritskoy, schools Kadochnikova ("Russian style") and Tver buzy.
At the Congress tveryane was the youngest of the men. But when they began to show the technique (although this is not quite the right word, more accurate to say the tradition of boxing), it immediately becomes - approach the guys sound. They seem to be simple, unpretentious, and sometimes at a glance, and clumsy movements created, however, holistic, logically developing harmonious action. Tverskaya shindy (so-called representations guys style) is close to skobaryu. This multifaceted tradition of training voev Tver militia. The word "shindy" has several meanings: salt evaporation home, particularly heady drink of the four types of cereals, the traditional way of fighting voyami Tver. Buzovka whip. Buzovaya land - fertile, wood-buzuet rampant. There is an old pripevka:
Young blood is
The tradition of covering buzy part of everyday life common people, manifested in dances, songs and merrymaking. By the way, we are absolutely not imagine the role of songs in preparation for a fight. Singing, especially choral (not dare to say - "collective meditation"), imbue the people and the spiritual, as a consequence of bodily strength. Because an ulterior motive and not for fun, tveryane sing, danced, has embarked in squatting position, falling on his back, spinning on his back - clowns, and more!
Participating in buze man, as in the broken line, looks like a drunk. (And it's the Chinese one of the most effective style is considered to be "drunk"!) Standard techniques such as virtually no, it defines the situation. Incidentally, this is one of the most typical features of uniting East Slavic styles, lack of clearly defined procedures. Gives priority to general principles (and the mental and physical), working hours as discrete acts, methods and ligaments is secondary, if not unnecessary.
Buz as Kadochnikova system provides management at all levels of combat. Have. tveryan and element "Pokachi," akin to destination and type of traffic "pendulum" (and "goydku" in Zaporozhye system "Christ"). Poedinschiki in buze equally universally opposed, and punches, and wrestling (exciting, twisted, suffocating) techniques.
This encounter is brief and ruthless. But the ritual, the accordion when one causes the other to temper could be long on mood. Tveryane showed a snippet: gradually, with a monotonic garmoshechnym tunes, dancing, they are increasingly renounces all unexpected and sharply converge, and it seems when one touched the other, not had time to completely clear the road flying roundhouse hand, that and the pain - what it felt like. Seeing that the boys no joke razbuzilis, accordion-slow tempo and gradually subsided - shindy was over.
Typically, a group of men in the village, its other name - the party, gang, gang or gang (but not in the sense of Bandit). His name is sometimes rural outlaws, it was something from the Cossacks and the Novgorod ushkuyniki. Gang chieftain chose himself (in some places say "utaman"). He could not even be the best poedinschikom, more importantly, what was valued above all - was well-versed in the traditions and deserve respect for all.
Much with him to ask, but a lot of him and trust, up to the honor and the life of every porter. Everyone knew that he could come and a time when the chieftain lay on the ground for a hat: it's all meant to fight to the death. And pripevka was:
Utaman removed sulfur cap
And put it on the ground.
He took out a knife from his pocket
And he said, do not flee.
Porters carried a knife. Side-arms was a symbol of manhood. It was used only in case of mortal danger. In stenoshnom battle or a fight for the girls - God forbid even remove it! Breaking with tradition, a man rejected by society, becoming an outcast, that had it for dramatic effect. Because of violations of public ethics almost was not. How are you people, and they to you.
I actually have buzy frankly pagan in nature. Participating in the ceremony had some specific mental states. The first begins when the men gathered and marched through the village. Did not go easy, and performing certain rituals, tunes in to a fight. Then, at a meeting with the opposing party was conceived enthusiasm, scoring, broken (each of the match slip in the psyche), continue to fight for a certain persuasion. Buz served in this case means to resolve conflicts between artels ...
In addition to boxing with the Slavs and other non-cultivated less popular forms of martial arts cane fight (not allowed to XV! Pitch), fighting in battle, and not in battle, fighting on one hand, fighting on, belts ... All right now we do not know. At the beginning of the XX century they were revived in new forms of martial arts
But such is the history of our country, that Sambo thirties, long before us is still "terra incognita". Looking sambistskuyu modern literature, and involuntarily ask yourself the question: could this ineffective in real combat technique has attracted so many people? Of course not. Just at some point began the emasculation of art of sambo. Its divided into sports - for all and combat - for the elite. The latter included the NKVD and army intelligence officers. Naturally, the chosen were trained not only as good as shown in the Soviet cinema throwing technique. For example, in the book of Oznobishin "The Art of unarmed combat," published in 1930, published by the NKVD were given very interesting development. In particular, the work mi leg was borrowed from the French savate, recommended to put your hands on the English classical school of boxing, in the melee stake on judo and jiu-jitsu - sweeps, throws, locks ...
How does it not seem strange, but some hard-fighting systems in the section there is another Sambo samoz Vladimir Spiridonov. Unlike the other founders of Sambo Oshchepkova, Kharlampiev Oznobishin and this man did not have good health. On the contrary, received a severe wound, Spiridonov was forced to rely on technique and skill rather than brute force.
Spiridonov's system is much like aikido, the same basic principle as not to disturb the enemy to attack, but at some point, neutralize, using his own strength. Percussion equipment is not excluded, but the tactics of the fight was based solely on the defense. Most important in this system - learn how to work relaxed. It is very difficult to force myself not to strain when in front of you the enemy, armed with a knife or spatula sapper. But if it succeeds, then using the techniques of Spiridonov, in seconds, you can disarm your opponent. Most versions of the weapons against it, while remaining in the hands of the attacker, causing harm to himself.
The system is not generally attack Spiridonov as such, and therefore mind set only on a reciprocal effect. While the throw or hit more often set up to attack.
Engineering of the Russian style does not require some superfizicheskih capacity or high cost of energy. The fight can expect to succeed in a variety of conditions - in the crowded room, in a forest glade, in the snow belt, at all levels - standing, kneeling or lying down. An opponent can be armed with everything: a knife, sword, crowbar, ax, a gun. Looking from side to fight the impression that the opponent simply gives in, plays along. Partner, began to attack, no longer belong to ourselves. Becomes a sort of puppet, from which all the threads in the hands of possession of the Russian style.
The style became the basis of the Krasnodar school, is descended from VA Spiridonov. This style has been tested by war, but the current level is largely due AA Kadochnikova. It was he who brought him to the highest perfection and reliability.
Their studies in fighting Kadochnikov begins with geometric constructions. Shoulder, forearm ... leg, hypotenuse. "And why is this can not guess at the institutes of physical culture!. - Complains" grandfather "(so-respectfully, for the eye, called his disciples.) - Even in the sports movement are the same, the same three-dimensional space. By the way, the work in three planes - one of the basic rules of Russian martial arts. Once you have mastered it, you've got to match the undoubted advantage of being permanently remove the enemy off balance "(it is not surprising that the basis for the preparation of the U.S. Marines went to the" Russian style ", which they in their had adopted by Russian officers, immigrants).
But really all came Kadochnikov to himself, created his own, unlike any in that style? Alexei is not intended to and believed that simply codified the knowledge and skills, which for centuries ruled Russian soldiers. Incidentally, the popular expression of Suvorov "Bullet - a fool, the bayonet - well done," reflects one of the most important tactical objectives battle hand to hand the rapid transition, where the Russian soldiers had an advantage.
Alexei himself Kadochnikov study "Russian style" after the war in one of spetsuchilisch (which trained saboteurs), which after the Revolution, and was hidden away martial art of Russian soldiers. However, during the Great Patriotic War, it still passed around among ordinary soldiers - passed as a craft from generation to generation (for example, the grandfather Alexei, the holder of three St. George crosses, gave his father's art, which during the last war, not just to help out. In Odessa defense, he was able to fend off a five). But after the war gradually Russian art of unarmed combat began to be forgotten. At no time military training was imposed "top secret". Thus, we were on the verge of losing its martial arts.
And at this time formed a niche in an influx of overseas martial arts. But few of us know that martial arts are alien to us not only psychologically but also physiologically. Russian people, for example, sit in a common position in the east "lotus" quite simply inconvenient. The same occurs when a very different impacts.
The term "weapon" in the "Russian style" embedded a different meaning. Kadochnikov likes to say: "Dogfight is an invisible weapon which can not be detected until it has been used, and can not be selected, while the person is alive." But suddenly on their studies Kadochnikov gets pictures with different types of swords, halberds, swords, swords and begins to tell where it came from a form. For example, the sword has a semicircular shape - it has been used to "close the wheelhouse." Huge sword fighting Knights Fighting alone, and not in service ... All this knowledge is necessary for two reasons, says Kadochnikov. First, knowledge of the old weapons will help you understand the mechanics of martial arts. adapted to any subject of self-defense. Second, the warrior is the carrier of their culture, and without this fight-Roe art loses its meaning. Had lost its eastern martial arts in this country. In fact, until we reached a small part of each of these "foreign" systems (as the saying goes - "a kind master of the house just throw trash").
We must not forget that melee only one part of human survival in extreme conditions. And sometimes you can win a duel, only avoid physical conflict.
Situation assessment area, time of day and year are required to. "Russian style". This, probably, the main difference between martial arts from sports, largely lost their connection with this martial art.
Experiments have shown that if a person will reap his fist even at half strength and will keep it so, then after 74 seconds will dry up all his energy. So what's after that, he a fighter? In the Russian style of force is used only by a quarter, while representatives of other martial arts are investing in reception, kick maximum effort. It is only in the movies they endlessly fight - in their lives for long enough. Possessing the Russian style, even exhausted the wounded enemy may win. The school Kadochnikova old "bombarded" healthy young men. Use energy, power hitters themselves, and their minimum spend.
All techniques are based Kadochnikova style, primarily on the laws of mechanics, knowledge of leverage, the stability of bars and similar concepts. Favorite aphorism of his students: "Against scrap no reception - against breakage is the lever." During training students comprehend how to use light to draw traffic to their own advantage the efforts of a rival.
All of the above concerns the preparations for the melee. But nothing of the preparations for battle and say nothing. When Kadochnikov begins to talk about air density (which determines the trajectory of a bullet). sea currents and temperature of water (depends on how many people can survive on water), the color of the leaves and grass (masking methods), it becomes clear that the "Russian style" can not do in his spare time - a way of life, way of thinking. And what a pity that its traditions almost lost. And how good that is in the Krasnodar missile school a person who can help revive it.
It is interesting that one of the reasons that have turned. Land of the Rising Sun in a highly global power, the Japanese themselves consider revival and widespread popularity of martial arts in the late 40s. Their spirit is helped through the moral shock of defeat in World War II. No wonder the founder of aikido master Ueshiba received a government award for the improvement of morals of the nation because of the mass distribution of this struggle. Not assert that such a role we can play native species of fisticuffs. But the fact that their development will respond by turning to some social consciousness to their native traditions, no doubt. After all, the same stenoshny battle skobar, shindy, inseparable from the songs, dances, folk optimism, morality, finally.