Russian holidays

Customs and traditions of the Russian people

National Culture - is a national memory of the people, what distinguishes
This along with other people, keeps a person from depersonalization, allowing them to
feel the connection time and generations, to get emotional support and life
the support.
And with the calendar, and to human life related folk customs, as well as
sacraments, rituals and festivals.
In Russia, called the calendar calendars. Menologion covered the entire year
peasant life, "describing the" Daily month after month, where each day
consistent with their holidays, or weekdays, customs and superstitions, traditions and
rituals, signs and natural phenomena.

The People's calendar was the calendar farming, which is reflected in
names of months, people's superstitions, rituals and customs. Even the definition of
the timing and duration of the seasons due to real climatic
terms and conditions. Hence the discrepancy between the names of months in different areas.
For example, the falling leaves may be called in October and November.
People calendar is a kind of encyclopedia of the peasant
living with his holidays and weekdays. It includes knowledge of the nature,
agricultural experience, rituals, norms of social life.
Folk Calendar is a fusion of pagan and Christian principles,
People Orthodoxy. With the establishment of Christianity, pagan festivals
banned, received a new interpretation or moved from its
time. In addition to adopting a particular date in the calendar, there were
mobile holidays Easter cycle.
Ceremonies to mark the major holidays, included a large number of
various works of folk art: the songs, sentences, dance, games,
dance, dramatic scenes, masks, costumes, original


What did you do on Carnival?
A considerable part of customs at the carnival, one way or another, been associated with
the theme of family relations: on the Carnival celebrated the newlyweds
married in the past year. Young arranged a kind of
bride in the village: put them to the posts and the gates were forced to kiss all
in his eyes, "buried" in the snow or showered snegomaslenitsu. And subjected them to
other trials, when young went in a sleigh through the village, they were stopped and
throwing old bast shoes or straw, and sometimes arranged them "tselovnik"
or "publican" - when the villagers could come into the house to the young and
kiss the young. Honeymooners rolled through the village, but if it is received for
a bad meal, the newlyweds could not ride in the sleigh, and the harrow.
Pancake Week was held also in the mutual visits of the two recently
shalt families.
This theme is reflected in the specific Shrovetide customs,
punishment on guys and girls not married during the
last year (in fact, have not fulfilled their life
use). Such rituals are widespread in
Ukraine and the Slavic Catholic traditions. For example, in Ukraine and
southern Russian regions of the most famous custom was "tyaganie" or
"Tying" shoes, when a guy or a girl tied to the leg
"Shoe" - a piece of wood, twigs, ribbon, etc., and made some time
go with it. To decouple the block, punished or paid off with money
Among the variety of oil-an important place occupied by customary rites
relating to economic affairs and, in particular, magic acts,
to enhance the growth of crops. For example, in order
to flax and hemp grown "long" (high), in Russia a woman riding
from the mountains, trying to move as far as possible, as well as fighting, sang loudly, and so
etc. In some places in the Ukraine and Belarus women having fun and walking in
Shrove Thursday (called Vlas and hair), suggesting that this would
cattle on the farm will be better.
The most important day of Pancake Week was Sunday - the Shrovetide
before the beginning of Lent. In Russia, this day was called Forgiveness
Sunday, when people close to each other asking for forgiveness for all
caused them to insults and unpleasantness in the evenings it was customary to attend
cemeteries and "goodbye" to the dead.
The main episode of the last day was "off the Carnival", often
accompanied vozzhiganim fires. In Russia, this day made a stuffed Winters
straw or rags, dressed in his usual women's clothes, carried through the entire
village, sometimes placing a dummy at the wheel, stuck on top of the pole, leaving
for the village, stuffed or drowned in the hole, or burned or simply torn
part, and the remainder spread straw on the field. Sometimes, instead of dolls in the village
were taken alive "Pancake": smartly dressed girl or woman, old woman or
even the old man - a drunkard in rags. Then a cry and hooting their export
village and there were planted or throw out into the snow ("Pancake performed").
It should be noted that the concept of "Scarecrow Carnival" has
somewhat erroneous, since in fact produced _Zimy stuffed, rolled it, it was seen off and burned, but because it action takes place on Shrove Tuesday (ie, holiday), it is often stuffed
mistakenly called Carnival, although this is not true.
But where did scarecrows rite "wires Carnival" was,
mainly in vozzhiganim obscheselskih fires on the hill behind
village or the river. In addition to wood fires were thrown, any old stuff - shoes,
harrows, purse, brooms, drums and other unnecessary things, pre-
Children gathered around the village, and sometimes specifically for this
stolen. Sometimes burned in the fire wheel, the symbol of the sun to associate with
the approaching spring, it is more commonly put on a pole, stick in the middle of
the fire.
The Western and Southern Slavs of the Russian "Shrovetide" consistent Run
Mensopust, even if some of the other characters - stuffed animals, "wires" which
Shrovetide week was completed.
In the central regions of Russia "off the Carnival," followed by
Disposal outside the cultural space perilous food
symbolizing the carnival. Therefore, the fires do sometimes burned
remnants of pancakes, butter, milk was poured there, but more often simply told to children,
that the fire burned all the perilous course ("burned milk in Rostov
departed "). Some practices were addressed to children and should scare
and compel them to obedience: on the last Sunday Nizhegorodchine
Pancake week in the center of the village installed a pole, which climbed
man with a broom and pretending that beating someone shouted: "Do not ask milk
pancakes, scrambled eggs. "

Farewell to MASLYANA was completed on the first day of Lent - Clean
Monday, which was considered the day of purification from sin and perilous food.
Men tend to "rinse the teeth," ie, an abundance of drinking vodka, ostensibly to
In order to rinse out his mouth remains perilous, and in some places
"Shaking out the pancakes" staged fist fights, etc. In Clean Monday
necessarily bathed in a bath, while the women washed the dishes and "floated" lactic
utensils, cleaning it from grease and residue perilous.
Among other practices, and entertainment Pancake Week was mummers (in
Russian entertainers accompanied by a stuffed Shrovetide), driving the "goat" or "goat"
(Eastern Ukraine), fist fights and ball games (sometimes very severe and
ending injury), and the cock crows fighting, swings, roundabouts,
Vecherki youth and others

Monday - meeting

In this day of straw scarecrow making, put it on the old woman's
clothing, stick a scarecrow on a pole and carried on singing on a sleigh
the village. Pancake then put on the snowy mountain, where skiing began in
sleigh. The songs are sung on the day of the meeting, a very cheerful. Why,
for example:

And we met Pancake,

Met, the soul, met,

At gorushke visited,

Pancake mountain lining,

Cheese stuffed mountain,

Oil poured over the mountain,

Watered, the soul, and watered.

Tuesday - zaigrysh

From that day began with all sorts of entertainment: sleigh rides, folk
festivals, performances. In a large wooden booths (rooms for
People theatrical shows with clowning and comic scenes) gave
presentation led by Parsley and oil grandfather. On the streets
come across large groups of mummers, masked, travel around the familiar
home, where impromptu fun house concerts were held. Large
companies riding around the city, on triples and simple sledge. It was in
esteem and more uncomplicated fun - riding with the icy mountains.

Wednesday - gourmand

She opened the feast in all the houses pancakes and other dishes. In each
family put on the table with delicious food, baked pancakes, in the villages pool their savings
brewed beer. Everywhere appeared theaters, shopping stalls. They were sold
Hot Sbitnev (drinks out of the water, honey and spices), roasted nuts, honey
gingerbread. Here, in the open air, from a boiling samovar can
it was for tea.

Thursday - orgy (fracture, broad Thursday)

On this day, the midpoint of games and fun. Perhaps it was then
were hot and oleaginous fist fights, fist, leading back
of ancient Russia. Were in them and their strict rules. It was impossible, for example,
hit a man when he's down (remember the adage "do not beat lying"), together attack the
one (two are fighting - third do not go), hit below the belt (there is a saying:
blow below the belt), or hit on the head. For violation of these rules threatened
punishment. Beat could be "wall to wall" (again saying) or "one
one "(as the French twosome -" eye to eye "). and were
"Ohotnitskie" fighting for the connoisseurs, fans of such fights. I am pleased to
watched such battles himself and Ivan the Terrible. For this case it's entertainment
prepared especially magnificent and solemn.

Friday - Teschin pm

A number of oil-yielding practices was intended to speed up the wedding,
help young people find themselves in pairs. And really, how much attention and
turned out to honor the newlyweds carnival!

Tradition demands that they went dressed "for people" in the painted sleigh
to pay visits to all who walked in their wedding ceremony to a
song of ice slid down the mountain (and this was also a hidden meaning). However, the
(As you probably already figured out the name of the day Pancake week)
the most important event related to the newlyweds and manages the entire
Russia was to visit Tiffany zyatyami for which it was baked, and made pancakes
a feast (unless, of course, her son was on his soul).

In some places, "Teschin pancakes" took place on the sweet tooth, ie, on Wednesday
Pancake week, but could be held in connection with Friday.

If the medium in-law stayed with their tesch, the Friday-law suit
"Teschin Vecherki" - invited for pancakes. And is usually ex-boyfriend
who played the same role as the wedding, and received for his trouble
a gift. Mother-in-law was obliged to send in the evening everything you need for baking
pancakes: the pan, ladle, etc., and in-law sent a sack of buckwheat and
butter. Disrespect in-law for the event was considered a dishonor and
offense, and was an occasion for the eternal enmity between him and her mother.

Saturday - zolovkiny gatherings

To begin with, that the "sister-in-law" - a sister of her husband. Where matter is
name? Maybe the word evil? Because she always notices in his wife
brother, too many negative traits, and sometimes did not conceal his
dislike it? Well, it happened and so on ... (But not always).

So, this Saturday afternoon the young bride had hosted relatives (wife
sons for their husbands' mother was daughter in law), ie who came not from here, with
their villages, for example, but nowhere - so it was decided somewhere before:
"Not to marry her, and local."

Sunday - off, publican, forgiveness day

In the book of Zabylin "The Russian people," explains how even in the early XVII
century alien Marzheret observed the following picture: if during the year
Russian somewhat insulted each other, having met in "Forgiveness
Sunday, "they invariably greeted each other with a kiss, and one of
They said: "Forgive me, perhaps." The second replied: "God will forgive you."
Resentment has been forgotten.

With the same purpose in the Forgiveness Sunday went to the cemetery, leaving at
graves of pancakes, prayed and worshiped ashes home.

Shrove Tuesday was still known and Cheese Week and was the last week before
Great Lent.


Easter marks the resurrection of Jesus Hrista.Eto most important holiday in
the Christian calendar.
Easter Sunday falls on no one and the same number of each
year, but it is always between March 22 and 25 aprelya.Ono falls on the first
Sunday after the first full moon following the March 21-day spring
Date of Easter Sunday was approved by the church council at Nicaea
in 325 AD
The name "Easter" is a direct transfer of the name of the Jewish
holiday, celebrated annually during the week starting 14 days
spring months nissana.Samo name "Easter" is a Greek
modification of the Hebrew word "pesah", which was interpreted as
"Passing", it was borrowed from the more ancient custom of pastoral
celebrate the transition from winter to summer pastures.
The death and resurrection of Christ coincided with Easter, and he
become like an innocent lamb (yagntsu) kills by custom before
This prazdnika.Hristiane honored Sunday as the Day of Resurrection

Of Christ.

The events of the gospel story coincided with the Jewish holiday of Passover, on
time of celebration, they were close.
The timing of Easter in the present, in
Most of Christian denominations in the lunar-solar calendar.

Every holy rite can only bring us benefit when we
we understand its meaning and spiritual significance. When the Orthodox church
come customary to greet each other with "Christ is risen," to give
Easter painted eggs and Easter cakes decorating the table and cheese passover?

There is a church tradition that Ascension of Jesus Christ to Mary
Magdalene, traveling to different countries to preach the risen
Savior, has been in Rome. Here, she appeared to Emperor Tiberius and by bringing
him a red egg, said: "Christ is risen," and thus began
preaching of the resurrected Christ. The first Christians to learn about this simple,
heart of St offering his wife, began to imitate him, and
remembrance of Christ's Resurrection began to give each other red eggs.
This custom quickly spread and became universal.

Why was donated eggs? This symbol has ancient origins.
The ancient philosophers image showing the origin of the eggs in the world. In
Christianity, the egg reminds us of the future resurrection after death, and
red means joy for the salvation of our Risen Lord.

People with great joy the unexpected are ready to send it to each
a friend. And Christians of the abundance of Easter joy mutually
exchanged kisses at the meeting, expressing brotherly love with the words:
"Christ is risen!" - "He is risen indeed!" By the way, and custom hristosovaniya
bestowing eggs - a distinctive feature of Russia. Nothing of the kind in
others do not.

Russian Easter is also characterized by a variety of traditions, such as
Table decoration sanctified curd Easter and Easter cakes. Easter Cheese
done in the form of a truncated pyramid - a symbol of the Holy Sepulchre. On the side of
sides of the gun depicted the suffering of Christ's cross, a spear, a cane, and
as symbols of resurrection: flowers, sprouted grains, seeds, the letters "HV."
But the most important culinary masterpiece table has always been blessed in
Temple cake, which is like a home Artos, which is
mandatory symbol of the Easter service. Artos - it vsetselnaya
unleavened bread, great bread with the images of the cross, which recalls
sacrificial death of the Savior to atone for the sins of mankind. Artos
placed on the lectern in front of the iconostasis and stands up to the end of Holy Week, and
then divided into small pieces and distributed to the faithful in the church.


Christmas - is not only a glorious feast of Orthodoxy.
Christmas - the holiday returned, resurgent. The traditions of this
holiday, full of genuine humanity and kindness, high
moral ideals, today opened the newly conceptualized and

Why decorate a Christmas tree

It is believed that the first unadorned Christmas trees appeared in the
Germany in the VIII century. The first mention of eating due to the holy monk
Boniface. Boniface gave druids sermon about Christmas. In order to convince
idolaters that the oak is not sacrosanct tree
he cut down one of the oaks. When felled oak fell, he knocked on my
way of all trees except young spruce. Boniface introduced the survival of spruce as
wonder, and exclaimed: "Let there be tree is a tree of Christ." In the 17th century
The Christmas tree was already common attribute of the Nativity in
Germany and the Scandinavian countries. While the tree was decorated with figures and
flowers cut out of colored paper, apples, wafers, gilt
bagatelles, sugar. The tradition to decorate the Christmas tree is associated with paradise tree
hung with apples.
The success of the Christmas tree in Protestant countries was even greater
thanks to the legend that he first coined by Martin Luther light
candles on the Christmas tree. One night he went home, writing
the sermon. Glitter stars twinkling of oil, instilled in him reverence.
To demonstrate this wonderful picture of the family, he set
Christmas tree in the main room, has strengthened its branches candles and lit them. The first
Christmas trees were decorated with fresh flowers and fruit. Were later
added sweets, nuts and other foods. Then - Christmas candles. Such
the cargo was certainly too heavy for the tree. German glass blowers began
produce hollow glass Christmas decorations to replace fruits and
other heavy decorations.

Christmas Wreath

Christmas wreath has a Lutheran background. It is an evergreen
wreath with four candles. The first candle is lit on Sunday for four
weeks before Christmas as a symbol of the light that comes into the world with the birth
Of Christ. Each following Sunday another candle is lit. In recent
Sunday before Christmas all four candles are lit to illuminate the
the location of the wreath on the altar of the church may be, or dining table
Christmas candles
The light was an important component of winter pagan holidays. With the help of
candles and fires drove the forces of darkness and cold. Wax candles were distributed
Romans at the feast of Saturnalia. In Christianity, candles are
an additional symbol of the significance of Jesus as the Light of the world. In Victorian
British merchants were given each year to its loyal customers candles. In
many countries, Christmas candles signify the victory of light over darkness. Candles
Eden on the tree generated by all of us to your favorite Christmas tree.

Christmas Gifts

In this tradition, many roots. St. Nicholas is traditionally considered
giver of gifts. In Rome, was a tradition of giving gifts to children on holiday
Saturnalia. As a gift giver may act by Jesus, Santa
Claus, Befana (Italian Santa Claus female), Christmas
gnomes, various Saints. According to an old Finnish tradition, gifts
scattered to their homes the invisible man.

Christmas on a plate

Christmas Eve is known as "Eve", or "sochevnik" and the word
it comes from a ritual meal, partake in the day - sochivo (or
watering). Sochivo - porridge made of red wheat or barley, rye, buckwheat, peas,
lentils, mixed with honey and poppy seed and almond with juice, then there is
kutya - a ritual memorial meal. Ritual was the number of meals - 12 (in
Among the apostles). Table prepared abundant: pancakes, fish, jelly,
gelatin from beef and pork legs, suckling pig stuffed with oatmeal,
pig's head with horse-home pork sausage, roast. honey cakes, and
Of course, roast goose. Food on Christmas Eve it was impossible to take prior to the first
stars, in memory of the Star of Bethlehem, ushering in Magi and Christmas
The Savior. And at dusk, when the first star on fire,
sit down and share the wafer, wishing each other good-bye and
brighter. Christmas - a holiday when the whole family together is going to the general
the table.

HOW TO Svyatka

Twelve days after the holiday is called Christmas holidays,
that is, holy days, as these twelve days sanctified by great
Christmas events.
For the first time three centuries of Christianity when persecution prevented freedom
Christian worship, in some Eastern Churches Festival
Nativity of Christ was connected with the Epiphany under the general title
The Epiphany. Monument of the ancient compound and of the Holy Nativity
Epiphany is a perfect likeness in the administration of these holidays,
and come down to our times. When these holidays have been separated,
celebration has spread to all days, intermediate 25 December to 6
January, and these days as it were a feast. People these days
called saints in the evenings, because the ancient traditional Orthodox
Christians cease their daily affairs in the evening, in commemoration of the events
Christmas and the Epiphany of the Saviour, who were at night or evening.

Holy twelve days after the Nativity of Christ Church began with
ancient times. Already in the church's statute of St. Sabas (d.
in 530), which includes more ancient chinopolozheniya, writes that
Yuletide in the days of "nikakozhe post, below are kneeling below the church,
lower in cells, "and withhold himself to perform a religious rite of marriage.
The second Turonian cathedral in 567, all the days from Christmas until
Epiphany holiday named.
Meanwhile, the holiness of these days and nights are disturbed by the calls
customs of the pagan celebrations. With television, radio, newspapers,
we are told that in Russia during the Christmas holidays were taken divination, revels in
disguise, folk festivals. The church, taking care of our clean, always
prohibit these superstitions. The Rules of the Sixth Ecumenical Council reads:
"To resort to sorcerers, or similar, to learn from them what-
or concealed, according to previous decisions of fatherly about it, yes
subject to a six-year rule of penance. The same penances should expose
and those that produce the divination of fortune, fate, lineage, and
many other such sects as well, and so called oblakogoniteley,
astrologers, the workers are protective charms and witches. Zakosnevayuschih
Also in this and not turn from these pagan myths and harmful
determine just spewing out of the Church as a sacred right to command.
For what fellowship has righteousness with lawlessness? What communion hath light with darkness?
And what concord hath Christ with Belial? (2 Cor. 6, 14-16). The so-called
Kalends (ie the pagan celebration of the first day of each month). Botha
(A pagan celebration of Pan), Vrumaliya (celebrating the pagan god -
Bacchus) and the national assembly on the first day of March, just want to pluck out
the lives of the faithful. Also, nationwide dance, which may cause great harm and
perdition, as well, and in honor of the gods, who so falsely called Hellenes, dance, and
ceremonies, made men and women committed in the colonial and
alien to the lives of Christian ritual, reject, and define: none of the husbands
do not dress in women's clothes, not peculiar to her husband, do not wear masks.
Therefore, those who now, knowing this, dare to do any of the
above, the clergy - spewing out ordain priesthood and the laity
- Put out of the communion of the church. "
The scripture says: "The woman shall not be male
clothing, and a man should not dress in women's clothes, for vile before
Lord thy God makes these things "(Deuteronomy 22,5).

Orthodox Government of the Russian Empire in its laws prohibiting "in
Christmas eve and during the Christmas holidays start, according to the old
idolatrous traditions, merrymaking and dressing up in robes kumirskie,
make the streets dancing and singing seductive songs. "

Yule divination

Everyone always wants at least a little glimpse into the future, and Christmastide
considered to be the perfect time for divination - and the people wondered. For guessing
picked "unclean" places were believed to inhabit the Evil One,
strongly accelerated in the Christmas-tide period - non-residential space and
custom: abandoned houses, bath houses, stables, cellars, porch, attic,
cemeteries, etc.
Gad had to take off a cross and belt untied
all nodes on the clothes, the girls They gave forth the spit. On divination directed
secret: out of the house will not cross, walked in silence, barefoot in a
shirt, her eyes closed and covered the face with a handkerchief, so as not to be recognized. That
definitely not have made the gap "defensive" measures against the evil forces
- Outlined the poker circle around him and put his head on the clay
the pot.
Subjects ranged from guessing the questions of life, death and health to
offspring of livestock and honeybees, but most of the predictions was
devoted to the marriage - the girls tried to find out the most detailed
information about its narrowed.
The technology of divination lay a universal belief that
subject to certain conditions, will be available "signs" of fate, which, when
the correct interpretation of the veil of time and priotkroyut prompt future.
"Characters" could be anything - dreams, random sounds and words
the form of melted wax and poured into water of protein, the degree of wilted
plant, animal behavior, and the number of even-odd items, etc., etc.
Barking dogs are pointed out which side will come bridegroom, the sound of an ax promised
misfortune and death, a quick wedding music, the clatter of a horse - the way individual; guessing
not only to random sounds and provoked them, knocking at the gate crib,
on the fence, etc. A disposition of her future husband guessed from the behavior of cockroaches,
spiders and ants.
To had a prophetic dream, she had to wash in water,
brought from nine wells, woven into a braid grass, sweep the floor before
sleep away from the threshold to the corner and run around the house naked. Also
helped put under the bed and under the pillow pants for men, with a pillow
grains, comb or a cup of water.
Still, the central point was the Christmas celebrations obschesemeynaya
the meal. Prepared an odd number of dishes, most important of which was kutya -
kind of cool boiled porridge of barley or wheat grains (and sometimes
prepared from a mixture of different types of grain) was also prepared pancakes and oatmeal
pudding. On the table, put additional equipment on the number of family members
who died last year.
At home in the evening and at night went mummers - carols,
specifically, in order to obtain from the owners of the ritual foods and make them
blagozhelaniya in the coming year, plenty of family in the coming year, it was thought
directly dependent on the degree of gifted carols.


15 (28) November - December 24 (January 6), inclusive
As has been installed Advent
Establishment of Advent, as well as other multi-day fasts,
refers to the ancient times of Christianity. From the fourth century St.
Ambrose Mediodalansky, Filastry, St. Augustine mention in their
creations of Advent. In the fifth century of the antiquity of the Nativity
Leo the Great wrote the post.
Originally Advent lasted from some Christians, seven days a
others - a few more. At the council in 1166 when the former
Patriarch of Constantinople and the Byzantine emperor Luke Manuel all
Christians were supposed to keep a fast before the great feast of the Nativity
Christ's forty days.
Patriarch of Antioch Balsamon wrote that "His Holiness himself
said that although the days of the posts (of the Assumption and Christmas. - Ed.) do not
defined by rule, compelled, however, to follow the unwritten church
tradition, and dolzhenstvuem fast ... 15 day of November. "

Advent - the last multi-day fast in the year. It begins on 15
(28 - New Style) in November and lasts until December 25 (January 7),
lasts for forty days and because the statute referred to in the Church Lent,
as well as Lent. Since the post has Shrovetide day
Memory St. St. Philip (November 14, old style), then this post
called Filippov.
Why is installed Advent
Advent - Winter post, he gives us the sanctification
last update of the year, a mysterious spiritual communion with God and
preparation for the celebration of Christmas.
Advent is set so that we on the day of Christmas
Christ cleansed themselves by repentance, prayer and fasting, to a pure
heart, soul and body could find which was the reverence of the Son into the world
God, and that, besides the usual gifts and sacrifices, to bring Him our clean heart
and the desire to follow His teachings.

Agrippina globeflowers YES Ivan Kupala

Summer Solstice - one of the most notable, the turning points of the year.
Since ancient times, all peoples of the world celebrated the end of June the top holiday of the summer. I
us such a holiday, Ivan Kupala.
However, this feast was characteristic not only of the Russian people. In Lithuania
He is known as Lado, in Poland - as Sobotka, Ukraine, swimming or
Kupaylo. From the Carpathians to the north of Russia on the night of 23 to 24 June, all celebrated
This mystical, mysterious, but at the same time hilarious and riotous
Midsummer holiday. However, because of the lag of the Julian calendar
now adopted the Gregorian, style shifts and other complications calendar
"The crown of the summer" began to celebrate in two weeks after the most
Solstice ...
Our ancient ancestors existed Kupalo deity personifying
summer fertility. In his honor in the evening and sang songs and danced through the
the fire. This ritual action has become an annual celebration
summer solstice, mixing pagan and a Christian tradition.
Ivan Kupalo deity came to be called after the Baptism of Russia, when it
was replaced by none other than John the Baptist (or more precisely - its national image)
whose Christmas was celebrated on June 24.
Agrippina globe flower, going after her Ivan Kupala, one of the most
respected, most important, most riotous celebrations of the year, as well as
reaching a few days, "Peter and Paul" merged into one large
holiday, filled for the Russian people a huge sense and therefore
includes many ritual acts, rules and taboos, songs,
sentences, all sorts of omens, fortune-telling, legends, superstitions.
By the very running version of the "globe-" holy. Agrafena called because
day it falls on the eve of the memory of Ivan Kupala - but many related
Day ceremonies and customs suggest that St. Agrippina was
his epithet, without any relation to the Kupala.
At Agrafena necessarily wash and soared in the baths. Usually it is in
Agrafena globe-day stocking up on brooms all year.

On the night of Agrafena on Midsummer's Day was the custom: the men sent to wives
"Roll out the rye" (rye mash that is, rolling on the strip), which was
bring a considerable harvest.
Perhaps the most important event of the day was a globe-Agrafena herbs
for therapeutic purposes and voodoo. "Dashing men and women in the dead of night
remove their shirts, and before dawn dig roots or seek to cherished
local treasures "- written in a book early nineteenth century. It was believed that
That night, trees go from place to place and talk to each other
rustle of leaves, talking animals, and even herbs that tonight
filled with a special, miraculous power.

Before sunrise, the flowers, Ivan tore-wheat. If they invest in the corners of the house,
the thief does not come to the house: a brother and sister (Yellow and purple
plants) will speak, and the thief would seem as if talking to the owner
with the hostess.
In many places, bath suit and tie brooms was taken not to
Agrafena, and in midsummer. After the bath the girl threw herself in a broom
River: If sink, then you'll die for this year. In Vologda brooms
composed of various grasses and twigs of various trees, trick out recently
calve cows were wondering about his future - threw a broom
the head or thrown from the roof of baths, watching, if a broom falls to the top
churchyard, then throwing soon die; Kostroma girls pay
attention to the butt to drop the broom, and there to get married.

Guessed so: collected 12 plants (thistles and bracken must!) On
Night put under the pillow to dream of betrothed, "Tapered-masks, come in
my garden for a walk! "
It was possible to collect flowers at midnight and put under the pillow in the morning
should check whether typed twelve different herbs. If you typed -
This year marriage come out.
Many midsummer beliefs connected with water. Early in the morning the women
"Draw the dew", this is taken with a clean cloth and a bucket, and with whom
go to the meadow. Here cloth drag across the wet grass, and then
squeezed into this bucket and mildew wash face and hands to get rid of all
disease and that his face was clean. Rosa is midsummer, and for clarity in
house: she sprinkled the bed and walls of the house, were carried out so as not to bedbugs and cockroaches, and
to evil "in the house is not mocked."
In the morning at St. John's Day swim - a popular custom, and only in
some areas, farmers regarded the swimming dangerous, as in
Midsummer is birthday boy himself water, which can not tolerate
when in his kingdom people climb, and he avenges that drowns all
the unwary. In some places it is believed that only after midsummer
decent Christians can bathe in rivers, lakes and ponds, as
Ivan sanctifies them and tames a different water scum.
By the way, is associated with many superstitions and evil, witch's power.
It was believed that witches of Ivan Kupala also celebrate the holiday,
trying to inflict as much harm to people. Witches supposedly kept the water
boiled with the ashes of midsummer bonfire. And a sprinkling of water,
witch can fly where she pleases ...
One fairly common midsummer rites - swill
any counterclaim and cross. Thus, in the rural province of Orel
boys wore old and dirty and go to the river with buckets to
fill them with muddy water samoyu, or simply liquid mud, and went on
countryside, spraying one and all, except that making an exception for the elderly and
kids. (Somewhere in those parts, they say, this cute custom preserved
to this day.) But most of all, of course, getting any girls, guys broke
even in the house, pulled out the girls on the street and force here okatyvali to foot
the head. In turn, the girls tried to take revenge on the guys.
Ends with the young, filthy, wet, clinging to the body
clothes, rushed to the river and here by selecting a secluded place, away
from the strict eye of senior, swam together, "and - as noted by anthropologist
XIX century. - Of course, boys and girls are in dresses. "

It is impossible to midsummer night without cleaning the fires. Around them
danced, jumped through them: who prosper and above that will be happier, "Fire
cleanses from all defilement of flesh and spirit! .. "It is also believed that the fire
strengthens the sense of - and therefore jumped and couples.
In some places, a midsummer fire chased the cattle home
to protect her from the plague. In midsummer bonfires burned removed from the mother ailing
Children's shirts, so with this linen and burned most of the disease.
Youth, teens naprygavshis through fires, staged noisy
fun games, fights, running a race. Be sure to play in the burner.

Well, yes naprygavshis played enough - they do not swim! Although Kupala and
is a holiday of purification, often after a joint swimming in young
pair tied a love relationship - that would not say there ethnographers ...
However, according to legends child conceived on the night of Kupala, born healthy,
beautiful and happy.
And so it passed a holiday of Ivan Kupala - a bacchanalian rites,
divination, and other fun and cute antics ...