Mushrooms - a lower spore plants that contain large amounts of protein, minerals, extractives, and vitamins. The content of protein and fat content in mushrooms is much more than vegetables. Mushrooms - a valuable food product. They are distinguished by a special taste and smell, which gives them zest and increase their nutritional value. Used as food in the main mushrooms. In the caps of nutrients more than the legs. Mushrooms consumed in dried, stewed, pickled, fried, boiled, pickled and canned forms.
Processing of mushrooms
It is known that mushrooms have no chlorophyll, so they do not absorb carbon in the sunlight. Fungi feed on organic substances in finished form in the soil. Fungi, as perishable commodities are not subject to long storage and transportation over long distances in a fresh way. That they are not spoiled, they should be processed within 4-5 hours after collection. To store mushrooms for the future, extending the season of consumption in the home they are dried, salted, pickled or canned. To get a high quality of mushrooms good product, you must observe the following conditions: mushrooms, recyclables in the home, must be young, healthy, nechervivye, fresh, without impurities, sorting, cleaning and cutting to remove damaged, broken parts, slugs, sticky leaves, twigs, spruce and pine needles. Particular attention should be paid to the sink. But we can not keep mushrooms in water for longer than 30 min. to avoid leaching of nutrients and loss of extractives. To fungi do not darken in the air and did not lose the look after the cleaning, cutting, preparation for processing, they should be kept to 1-2 percent solution of salt or citric acid. Salt edible mushrooms should immediately after cleaning, washing, cutting, and fungi that produce sharp, bitter juice can be used in food only after soaking. Soak the mushrooms in a cool room temperature 14-15 ° C in order to avoid zakisaniya. Processed, sorted mushrooms with the presence of bitter juice with cold water. During the day changing the water 2-3 times. Milk, podgruzdi, volnushki soaked for 2-3 days, gorkushki - up to 8 days. Morels are soaked, dried or boiled for at least 10 minutes. - The complete disappearance of bitterness, a line must be before eating to expose the long drying process. Mushrooms are soaked, when the bitter taste disappears, mushroom bends in their hands, but does not break. The water after soaking is not used in food and do not let animals. You can not soak mushrooms in cold water, and blanch at 100 ° C for 7-10 min. If enough fresh mushrooms, then before processing fresh or canning to blanch them at 100 ° C in a saline solution or a weak solution of acetic acid. After that, rinse in cold water until the complete disappearance of the salt taste or smell of vinegar.
One of the simplest methods of processing of mushrooms is drying. You can dry all the edible fungi. However, mushrooms, mushrooms, chanterelles, russula, svinushki darken during drying and the quality of their decline. White mushroom (boletus), aspen, boletus, boletus and others give a higher quality product. Be freshly dry mushrooms. Before drying mushrooms are sorted out, thoroughly washed and cleaned. Dried mushrooms each type separately. Not all are suitable for drying mushrooms washed, because the caps absorb water in this dry and bad, and some, particularly older mushrooms, from this dark. Therefore, they only dry wipe clean with a damp towel, cap separated from the legs. Large mushrooms cut into several pieces, the grease should be removed from the skin hats. Prepared mushrooms were dried in air or in the dryer. The legs are dried separately, slicing into transverse slices of 3-4 cm in size starting temperature should not exceed 40-45 ° C. As the temperature of the drying of mushrooms can be increased to 70 ° C. At the beginning of drying mushrooms to wilt if they are watered, so the temperature is too high. These fungi do not have the taste and aroma. Drying is considered complete if mushrooms are brittle. Store dried mushrooms in a dry plywood, plastic bags. Properly dried mushrooms can be stored for a long time. Dried mushrooms in quality not inferior to fresh. Some mushrooms after drying quality is improving. Dried mushrooms are not considered a finished product. However, one can make high-calorie meals, as well as salt, pickle and preserve. Dried mushrooms before consumption must be washed.
Mushrooms in brine
There are two ways of pickled mushrooms - dry or cold and hot. The cold way. Freshly picked young, healthy small, medium and large sized mushrooms are sorted by name and size. Salt every sort and size separately. When sorting remove corrupt, wormy old, broken, damaged, as well as leaves, grass, moss, various insects, slugs. Cut backs, cut out damaged, razmyakshie place. At butter rind hats. Small mushrooms pickled whole, large cap is separated from the legs and cut depending on the size of 2, 4, 6 pieces. With legs to Cutting scraped skin, hats cleaned of any contamination. Do not wash mushrooms, wipe with a damp towel. Prepared mushrooms are placed in a container layer (5-7 cm in height), make sure caps up. Each layer pour table salt per 1 kg of mushrooms 40-45 grams of salt. The taste is added or not added fresh herbs (parsley, mint, dill). On top lay a wooden mushroom circle, and the circle must be smaller than the container, to enter freely into it and cover mushrooms. The lid is covered with a clean linen cloth and napkins are placed above the cargo. Within a few days give the mushrooms to settle, then add a new layer of mushrooms, pour salt, cover, put the goods and so is repeated several times until the container is full. Densely packed mushrooms covered with a lid, pour in brine (40-45 g per 1 liter of water) so that the mushrooms were completely covered, and go in a cool place, cellar, cellar. As the mold during storage of towels and wash the circle and back cover. After 2-3 weeks, mushrooms ready for consumption. Hot way. Mushrooms for pickling hot to cold prepared similarly. Prepared mushrooms blanched in boiling solution of (2-percent saline) hats - 3-5 min., Legs - 5-7 minutes. After blanching solution decant, mushrooms are placed in the prepared container, pour salt on top and put a wooden ring load and endure 1-2 days in a cellar or other cool place. When the mushrooms will settle, add a new batch of mushrooms, as described in a cool way. Add a 5 percent salt solution (50 g of salt dissolved in 1 liter of water) and in a cool place give prosolitsya. After 2-3 weeks, ready to eat mushrooms.
Marinate mushrooms in each grade separately. Suitable for marinating the following mushrooms: white (mushrooms), boletus, boletus, honey, chanterelles, and others. Mushrooms are sorted by name and size, remove unusable. Washed under running cold water until complete removal of contaminants. Cut legs, leaving 1-3 cm with a hat. Secondary washed, then placed in an enamel bowl, add 1 kg of mushrooms 200 g of water and 40-45 g of salt. Cook over moderate heat, stirring gently and removing the foam with a wooden spoon. When will the foam and broth is translucent, add 1 kg of mushrooms 1 teaspoon of acetic acid and the taste - allspice, bay leaf, cloves and cinnamon. Mushrooms are ready as soon as they settle to the bottom, and the marinade is translucent, then stop cooking. Casserole with cooked mushrooms immediately cooled under running water, so mushrooms are not digested. Finished cold mushrooms and broth is poured into a prepared container and store in a cool place. The difference between salted and pickled mushrooms that are used for marinating vinegar and spices.
At home, you can preserve fresh mushrooms, salted or pickled. Preliminary preparation processes similar to those described above (for pickling). Suitable for canning mushrooms (mushrooms), mushrooms, aspen, boletus, russula, butter mushrooms, mushrooms, mushrooms and chanterelles. Conserve each item separately (possibly the cap and stem separately), small mushrooms - whole, medium and large - cut into pieces. After preparing the mushrooms, a solution of salt (1 kg of mushrooms - 40-45 grams of salt and 200 g of water) was added 2-3 g of citric acid, wine-stone to prevent darkening. Pan placed on a moderate fire. When the water boils, lower the mushrooms and cook a few minutes, stirring occasionally and removing the foam. Then add spices to taste - bay leaf, allspice, cloves, cinnamon (about 1 kg of mushrooms - 2-3 bay leaves, 1-2 pc. Bitter, black, and allspice and cloves, cinnamon pinch) and continue cook until tender. Boiling is considered complete if mushrooms settle to the bottom of the pan, and the brine becomes transparent. For 1-2 min. before the end of cooking add to the pot for 1 kg of mushrooms 1 teaspoon of 80 percent acetic acid, previously diluted in broth. Then remove the pan from the heat and hot brine with mushrooms pour into the prepared glass. Value of products: Mushrooms - 60-65%, the liquid - 40-36%. Liquid or broth with a high content of suspended solids before bottling filtered through a double cheesecloth. Since in the process of cooking mushrooms release juice, the liquid may be more than you need to fill. This liquid is boiled a second, the third installment of fungi, and the remainder are used in food (except water, which boiled lines, milk, volnushki, podgruzdi, because the water when cooking the mushrooms become a substance that can cause poisoning). Filled jars covered with lids and sterilized at 100 ° C: the banks capacity of 0.5 liters - 40 min., 1 l - 50 min. After sterilization, the banks are immediately sealed, check the quality of sealing lids and put down to cool. Acetic acid, because it evaporates when heated, add to pan for 1 minute. until the end of cooking.
Preservation of pre-salted and pickled mushrooms
For longer storage salted or marinating mushrooms, cooked in a non-watertight closed container, preserve them. To do this, fungi are separated from the brine or pickle, drained of liquid and thoroughly washed, sorted, removing damaged, broken, crumbled. Firmly placed in jars, add salt to taste, spices, acetic acid (about 1 liter jar capacity - 2-4 pieces. Allspice, 2-3 pc. Bay leaf, 2 teaspoons of 80 percent acetic acid). Fill to 2 cm below the top of the bottle with boiling water, cover with lids and sterilized at 100 ° C: the banks with a capacity of 0.5 liters - 30-35 min., 1 L - 40-45 minutes. After sterilization, the banks are immediately sealed.
Mushrooms marinated with onions
Prepare mushrooms as for pickling, but placed in jars with layers peeled and cut into thin slices onion so that the upper layer was not a bow. Banks filled pickle filling, as in pickling, pre-filtered through a double cheesecloth. Banks filled with 2 cm below the neck, placed in a bath and sterilized by sterilization: banks with a capacity of 0.5 liters - 30 min., 1 L - 40-45 minutes.
Fresh healthy young edible mushrooms (boletus, russula and others) are sorted out, remove impurities, leaves, twigs, and in syroezhek oil from the cap is removed the skin, wash thoroughly in cold running water. Prepared mushrooms folded into an enamel saucepan, add 5 kg of mushrooms 0.8 liters of water and 200-225 g of salt, put on a fire and cook over moderate heat for about 25-30 minutes. During cooking several times with a wooden spoon mix, remove the foam. As soon as the mushrooms will settle on the bottom and the brine will become transparent (a sign of willingness to fungi), with a slotted spoon take out the mushrooms and hot mince or finely chop with a knife. Onions are cleaned, washed, cut into slices and fry in a pan until golden yellow. Mince and add to mushrooms. There also add vegetable oil, 6 percent vinegar and finely chopped dill, parsley and cilantro. The whole mixture was stirred and placed tightly in clean proshparennye banks. Covered with lids and sterilized at 100 ° C: the banks capacity of 0.5 liters - 40 min. Mushroom spawn is served in the cold as an appetizer. The recipe for a bank with a capacity of 0.5 liters: mushrooms prepared - 250 grams, fried onions - 175 g vegetable oil - 70 g, 6-percent vinegar – 15 g. Salt - to taste, without salt used for cooking mushrooms.
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