Soup - liquid main hot meal on the Russian table for now over a millennium. It persisted in different eras, but tastes have changed, and never knew social obstacles; it consumed the entire population.
Of course, the soup was not all the same: some are more complete on the composition, and are called - the "rich", about the others said - "empty", as they sometimes boiled cabbage but one bow. However, when all the many variations of the "rich" to "empty" and all the regional (oblast) ing species, always maintained a traditional way of cooking them, and the associated taste and odor.
Of great importance for the creation of a special, unique taste ing was the fact that they were prepared, and then languished (argued) in the Russian oven. Ing nothing ineradicable scent - "schanoy spirit" - was always a Russian hut. Ing to the value in everyday life have been linked Russian proverb: "Soup - a head," "Soup yes porridge - our food," etc.
The astonishing longevity ing can be explained, perhaps, their nepriedaemostyu. Soup does not get bored with frequent use. They can eat almost every day in any season.
Soup in their most complete version consists of six main components - the cabbage (or substitute its leading vegetable weight), meat (or, in rare cases, fish, mushrooms - dried and salted), roots (carrots, parsley root), spicy bosses (onion, celery, garlic, dill, pepper, bay leaf) and acidic bosses (sour cream, apples, cabbage pickle). Of the six components of the first and last, ie, vegetable mass and lead acid bosses are essential and absolutely indispensable. The most simple soup can consist only of them, remaining soup.
As for the leading vegetable weight in the soup, most often it is cabbage - fresh or pickled. But this does not mean that the soup - a soup made with cabbage. Ing is a sign of acid produced by most of sauerkraut brine (or in the cabbage, either in pure form) or, instead, sorrel (green soup), razvarom greens, wild or Antonov apples, pickled mushrooms and sour cream (in the soup of cabbage). That is why the cabbage soup can be replaced in a different green, acidic or neutral mass (sorrel, goutweed, nettles, hogweed - a so-called green Borscheva soup) and vegetable neutral weight, absorbent acid (turnip or radish - the so-called soup repyanyh.)
Technology of all kinds of cabbage soup is the same. Initially separately with vegetables and meat boiled onions or mushrooms. Then add the broth ready to cabbage or its substitutes, and acid. If you are using sauerkraut cabbage soup, then it is cooked separately from the broth and connect with him after his readiness. In both cases, only after cooking vegetable weight to the desired softness add salt and spicy dressing. Fill with cream soup ready, usually at the time of them.
Originally introduced in the soup more filling and flour (with sauerkraut), cabbage soup broth to make more dense. This was taken generally in the western and southern regions of Russia.
However, such a filling affect the taste soup, coarsens their flavor. Therefore, with the advent of the potato to the broth in the soup krahmalizatsii began to add one or two potatoes - the whole form to bookmark cabbage and sour base. And often the potatoes and then withdraw from the soup, as it solidifies from the acid. Compaction of the consistency of broth in lean and green soup also helps to add a small amount of grains, usually buckwheat (1 tbsp. Spoonful of the whole pot), which completely fall apart.
The simpler of the vegetable soup, lean than they are, the greater the skill required for their preparation. These spicy soup is inconceivable without bosses, which plays an important role in creating "schanogo spirit." First of all, is crucial to making a bow to the soup. The best way is to double his favorite: the first time - a whole onion with the meat, roots and mushrooms (then this bulb is removed) and the second time - finely chopped onions (crumbling), along with cabbage. At the same time never overcooked cabbage soup you can not make a separate onion in butter - in this form it is not peculiar to this cabbage soup.
In the same way twice in making soup, and other spicy bosses - the parsley and celery, the first time - with the spine, which is then removed by the root, again - at the end of cooking, in the form of greenery. The remaining spices - bay leaf, black pepper, crushed pepper, fennel and garlic make this: the first two types - for 15 minutes until tender, the second two - along with the parsley at the end of cooking.
After this soup should always stand up under the lid, pomlet to brew, at least 10-15 minutes. It was at this time, cabbage soup, "reaching up to the present taste": cabbage is soft, acid and aroma of spices, vegetables passed. So before leaving soup thrilled and languish after cooking in a light spirit of the Russian oven where they are not cool down or dismiss the edge of the plate, where the heat is retained, but the boiling ceased.
Particularly in need of this soup from cabbage. They are good to put in a slightly heated oven for 10-15 minutes, or even more. Sometimes the insistence ing may last several hours (12 to 24), why they get better and more distinctive taste. These are called daily soup, prepare them ahead of time for the day.
Finally, we should pay attention to two other circumstances affecting the quality of cabbage soup - it is a choice of meat and podbelka or zabelka.
On beef soup is mostly fat, bacon, thin and thick edge, rump. To create a special smell the beef, you can add a small amount of ham - tenth - eighth (in the south of Russia even third) part of the weight of the beef. In this case the beef in the soup is always boiled in one piece, and the ham is ground. Only in assorted shredded soup meat is subjected to all components.
Soup from a pig, found mainly in the border with Ukraine, areas of Russia, are not typical for Russian cuisine. The same can be said of occurring in some regions of Russia, the soup with fish instead of meat. Ing for these once certainly required a special selection of fish (salted red - beluzhiny and sturgeon, in conjunction with river fish - perch, carp and tench) and separate heat treatment. Another way of cooking cabbage soup with fish, and with the other varieties, yields are not as tasty dish, which is therefore not widely used.
With regard to zabelki, the good soup can not be without it. Zabelki role normally performed by sour cream, which is simultaneously acidulants. Sometimes the cream substitute yogurt or just milk. In the rich soup of sauerkraut mixture is zabelkoy sour cream and cream in a 4:1 ratio. This is a very tasty zabelka.
A few words about the consistency of soup. Soup of all kinds can be thick or liquid, depending on the ratio of water mass and embedded products. Once considered an ideal thick soup, in which "the spoon stands," or "cabbage with a hill," ie, when a piece of meat rises above the surface of the liquid poured into a bowl and grounds.
Our recipes are designed for more than a soup of medium thickness, which means that the amount of liquid in a portion must not exceed 350 g. Therefore, the need to pour cold water not more than 2 liters 4 servings, but rather 1.5 l broth was ready to 1.25 a liter (after boiling). Cook for 2 hours Spices should make a soup for 5-10 minutes until tender.
Eat soup usually with black rye bread.
* - For recipes that are marked with an asterisk, you can prepare in the days of fasting.
Soup Rich (FULL)
750 g beef, 500-750 g or 1 half-liter jar of sauerkraut, 4-5 dried porcini mushrooms, salt 0.5 cups mushrooms, 1 carrot, 1 large potato, 1 turnip, 2 onions, 1 celery root and greens, a root and parsley, 1 tbsp. Spoon dill, 3 bay leaves, 4-5 cloves of garlic, 1 tbsp. spoon butter or ghee, 1 tbsp. Spoon cream, 100 g sour cream, 8 peas black pepper, 1 teaspoon marjoram or dried angelica (dawn).
Beef with onion and half of the roots (carrots, parsley, celery), put into cold water and boil for 2 h. After 1-1.5 h after the start of cooking, add salt, then strain the broth, discard the roots.
In a pot put the sauerkraut, cover its 0.5 liters of boiling water, add butter, cover and put in a moderately heated oven. When the cabbage starts softening, remove it and connect to the strained broth and beef.
Mushrooms and cut into 4 pieces potatoes folded in enameled saucepan, pour 2 cups of cold water and put on fire. When the water boils, remove the mushrooms, cut into strips and re-dipped in mushroom broth be done to a turn. When ready mushrooms and potatoes combine with meat broth.
Compounds of the broth and cabbage add finely chopped onion and all the other roots, cut into thin strips, and spices (except garlic and dill), salt, and cook for 20 minutes. Then remove from heat, season with dill and garlic and let stand for about 15 minutes, wrapped with something warm.
Before serving, season with salt coarsely chopped mushrooms and sour cream directly into plates.
250 g beef, 200 grams of mutton, 100 g of ham, 100 grams of chicken, 100 grams of duck or goose, 500-700 grams of sauerkraut, 2 onions, 1 carrot, 1 turnip, 1 parsley, 1 tbsp. Spoon dill, 1 teaspoon marjoram 3 bay leaves, 4 cloves of garlic, 10 peas of black pepper, 100 grams of sour cream.
Cooking on the previous prescription, ie, meat or cabbage boiled first part separately and then bringing the meat until soft, connect.
Each type of meat cut into 4 pieces.
Spices lay for 10 minutes until cooked soup.
* Lenten soup
500-750 grams of sauerkraut, 5-6 dried porcini mushrooms, 1 tbsp. spoonful of buckwheat, 2 onions, 1 potato, 1 carrot, 1 turnip or rutabaga, 1 parsley, 1 tbsp. Spoon dill, 3 bay leaves, 4 cloves garlic, 8 peas black pepper 100 g sour cream, 1-2 tbsp. tablespoons poppy, sunflower or olive oil.
Sauerkraut add 0.5 liters of boiling water and put in a clay pot in the oven for 20-30 minutes.
Then pour the broth into a separate crockery or enamel, and the cabbage with salt, mix with chopped onion, moisten prepared flavored (see below in this recipe) vegetable oil and rub in an enamel bowl with a wooden spoon so completely rubbed oil.
Then again combine with broth and continue cooking on the stove.
For flavoring oil is heated (not fried) in a skillet or saucepan and add to it the seeds of coriander, anise, fennel, dill or green celery, parsley.
Prepare 1 liter of mushroom soup, broth and cabbage combine to add the buckwheat, and continue cooking until cooked cabbage.
EASY MEAT Soup
500 g of beef shank, 100 g of ham, 500-750 grams of sauerkraut, 100 g sour cream, 1 carrot, 1 parsley, 2 onions, 1-2 potatoes, 3 bay leaves, 4 cloves garlic, 1 tbsp. Spoon dill, 8 peas black pepper.
Beef and ham, pour boiling water, add the onion, potatoes and roots of the (whole) and cook for 1.5 hours to half meat.
Then lay the frayed with salt and crumbling onion cabbage, the rest of the roots, cut into thin strips, and continue to cook for 1 h.
Prepare the same way as ordinary soup meat, but no potatoes. Spices lay in part - without the parsley, dill and garlic.
After cooking, wrap in a warm soup, and after 3-4 hours to put in the cold at night.
The next day, reheat, add the garlic and spicy greens, sour cream.
Soup lazy (OR Rahman)
Sometimes incorrectly use the name "Rakhmanov." Actually, the word "Rahman" means "lazy, simple-minded, one-track" (in Old Russian).
In the old Rahman soup cooked with fresh herbs (goutweed) or cabbage, sometimes with the fish, then Rahman came to be called any soup, made from sour green hastily components, from the late XIX - early XX centuries. they were called lazy and cook only with fresh cabbage.
500 g of beef brisket (but more common vegetarian option), 750 g fresh cabbage (head), 3 onions, 1 carrot, 1 potato (half), 1 parsley (root and greens), 1 celery (root and greens), 2 tablespoons . tablespoons dill, 1 teaspoon oregano, 2 bay leaves, black pepper, peas 10, 8 cloves of garlic, 200 g sour cream, 1 tomato.
Cook the meat from the broth, as usual for the soup, with onions and roots, and potatoes for 2 hours, drain.
Clear the head of cabbage from the outer leaves and cut the stalk, without violating the integrity of the head is, to put it on for 30 minutes in cold, lightly salted water. Then take out, scalded with boiling water and cut into large squares (2x2 cm).
Put the prepared cabbage, onions crumbling, cut into 4 parts tomato and sliced into strips the remaining roots in the finished broth, salt and continue cooking until cooked cabbage and roots over moderate heat.
Season with spices and sour cream.
SOUR soup with fresh cabbage
500-750 g of beef brisket, 500-750 g of fresh cabbage (small loaf or polkochana), 6-8 small green unripe apples of any variety, 2 onions, turnips 0.5, 2 tbsp. tablespoons dill, 3 bay leaves, 8 peas black pepper 100 g sour cream.
Cook the cabbage soup for ordinary broth (see previous recipe).
When meat is nearly done, put the cabbage, cut into squares (1x1 cm), finely chopped onions, roots, after 15 minutes of cooking add the chopped apples into strips, and after 5 minutes - spicy greens and cook until the apples are still not fully razvaryatsya .
Apples can be razvarit and separately in the enameled saucepan and pour this broth (1 cup) of cabbage soup almost ready.
This soup can be prepared without meat.
Soup GRAY (seedling)
500 g beef, 100 g of ham, 750 g of cabbage sprouts, 1 cup of nettle (scalded), 2 hard-boiled eggs, 2 onions, 1 parsley, 2 tbsp. tablespoons dill, 6 peas of black pepper, allspice 4 peas, 100 grams of sour cream, 0.5 teaspoons of citric acid.
Prepare the broth for cabbage soup (see above).
The leaves of seedlings free from roots and stems, finely chopped and then scalded with boiling salted cool, cover and leave it for 10-15 minutes. Then recline and sleep in the broth.
Nettle rinse with cold water, rinse with boiling water, discard in a colander and quickly, not allowing it to provide the juice, chop finely and pour in broth.
Continue to boil soup after the laying of cabbage and nettle with the spices for 10-15 minutes. Then remove from heat, season with dill, garlic, citric acid, let stand. Serve with sour cream and eggs cool (by half per serving).
500 g of beef brisket, 0.75-liter jar sorrel, 2 onions, 1 carrot, 1 parsley, 1 celery, 1 tbsp. Spoon dill, 10 peas of black pepper, 3 bay leaves, 4 cloves garlic, 2 hard-boiled eggs, 100 grams of sour cream.
Cook the broth, as described in previous recipes.
Sorrel rinse in cold water, free from stalks, chopped and ready to put in the boiling broth.
At the same time add the finely chopped onion, sliced into strips roots, spices, except the garlic and fennel and cook for 10-15 minutes before turning brown sorrel.
Garlic and dill to make up to 2 minutes before end of cooking.
When a table sour cream and finely chopped eggs.
Note. Green cabbage soup can be prepared without meat. In this case, sorrel, roots and spices bring in 1.25 liters of boiling salted onion broth in which to sleep for 1 st. spoonful of rice and 1 tbsp. spoonful of buckwheat. Boil 15 minutes.
4 cups scalded nettle, 2 tbsp. tablespoons of buckwheat (Unground), 1 tbsp. spoonful of rice, 1 potato, 2 eggs, 0.5 teaspoons of citric acid, 1 parsley, 1 celery, 1 tbsp. Spoon dill, 8 peas black pepper 100 g sour cream, 1.25 liters of water.
In boiling salted water or broth ready to put spicy vegetables, chopped onions, grits and simmer for 10-12 minutes.
Then put the nettles, prepared as follows. Young nettle leaves (the top three or four leaves) release from the stems, rinse several times in cold water, boiling water to scald, quickly cast away in a colander, not letting the nettles to let the juice, and chop finely right-namelko. Boil the nettles in the soup 10-12 minutes.
Remove soup from heat, season with garlic, dill, citric acid, let stand.
500 g of beef brisket, ham 100 g, 500 g turnips, rutabaga 1, 1-1.5 cups of cabbage pickle, 2 onions, parsley, 1, 8, peas black pepper, 1 teaspoon oregano, 4 garlic cloves, 2 tbsp. tablespoons dill, 100 g of sour cream.
Prepare as ordinary meat soup.
Turnips and rutabagas, cut into strips, lay in a broth made with cabbage brine and cook until tender vegetables.
Old Russian skit
1 liter of mushroom soup, 400 grams of sauerkraut, 1 onion, 1 carrot, 8 pcs. potatoes, 30 g of boiled (15 g of dried mushrooms), 1 teaspoon flour, 1 teaspoon sugar, 1-2 tbsp. tablespoons plum jam, 1 tbsp. Spoon fat and salt.
Sauerkraut put out with the addition of fat. Carrots and onions and chop spasserrvat. Vegetables and diced potatoes to put into the boiling mushroom broth and cook 10-20 minutes, add shredded cooked mushrooms, plum jam, browned flour diluted broth, sugar, salt, and cook a little.
Skit pour into pots a la carte and let stand in oven.
Serve with baked potatoes.
* Soup Sauerkraut the old-fashioned
500 - 700 g sauerkraut, 5-6 dried porcini mushrooms, 1 tbsp. spoonful of buckwheat, 2 onions, 1 potato, 1 tbsp. Spoon dill, 3 bay leaves, 4 cloves garlic, 8 peas black pepper, salt, 1-2 tbsp. tablespoons vegetable oil, water.
Cabbage add 0.5 liters of boiling water and place in preheated oven for 20-30 minutes.
Then pour the broth into a separate bowl, salt the cabbage, mix with chopped onion, vegetable oil and rub with a wooden spoon so completely rubbed oil.
Mashed cabbage reconnect with the broth and continue cooking on the stove.
Prepare 1 liter of mushroom soup: a well-washed mushrooms and sliced into 4 parts potato to put in a saucepan, cover with cold water (1.2 L) and bring to a boil, remove the mushrooms, cut into thin strips, put back into the broth and cook until tender, add spices .
Mushroom soup (with potatoes) combine with cabbage, add pre-soaked buckwheat and cook until tender.
At the end of cooking, season with garlic mashed soup and sprinkle with feeding finely chopped dill.
* Soup of the sauerkraut, onion and kvass
1 cup sauerkraut, 6 onions, 1 cup of kvass, 1 tbsp. spoon vegetable oil, 1 carrot, 4 teaspoons vinegar, 1 teaspoon sugar, bay leaf, pepper, salt, water.
Cut onion half rings and fry in oil until golden brown, add water, put the chopped carrot, cabbage, spices, salt and cook until tender.
At the end of cooking, sprinkle them with chopped parsley or dill.
Separately submit crumbly buckwheat.
* Soup Valaam
1 kg of cabbage, 2 small onions, 1 bay leaf, a root or 3-4 stalks of parsley, 8-10 peppercorns, 400-500 grams of fresh mushrooms, 1 tbsp. spoonful of flour, herbs, 2 tbsp. sour cream and salt.
Cut into julienne cabbage and onions put out with the bay leaf, parsley and pepper in a little water, then add the toasted until golden brown flour.
Finely chopped mushrooms and lightly fry cook. All put into the boiling mushroom soup, add fresh herbs and sour cream.
Soup stand 1 / 2 hour over low heat, without boiling.