Russian cities: Arzamas
Arzamas is located on the right bank of the river in the southern part of Teshi Nizhny Novgorod region, just 50 km further from Diveevo.
The first mention of Arzamas, as a Russian fortress and administrative center of a large county in the historical records date back to the 70th years of the XVI century. (Sacred charter of Ivan IV, Local Acts). Tradition connects the emergence of the city with the name of Ivan the Terrible, who his victorious march to Kazan made by Moore in the southern part of today's Nizhny Novgorod region. In discharges - records the appointment of the king of serving people first called Arzamas governor Schetnev Gregory and Ivan Khokhlov. Voivod Khokhlov appointed in 1578 Therefore, it is conventionally accepted in 1578 considered the founding date of Arzamas.
Spiritual, social and economic life in feudal Russia of that time is inherently linked to the Orthodox faith.
The oldest monument and a center of spiritual culture of the city was and is the Spassky Monastery. In 1556 at Arzamas based Holy Transfiguration Monastery. Pretty soon began to develop the city, experiencing and its "Golden Age" (1775-1855 gg.), And a period of decline (second half of XIX century).
First, all the buildings were wooden Spassky Monastery, but in the first half of the XVII century. they began to replace the stone. The Cathedral Church of the Transfiguration monastery, built in 1634-1643 years., Preserved (without the bell tower) and now.
Do not pass by this city and all the known historical events. In the summer of 1670, when troops of Stepan Razin, moving up the Volga, the city took Tsaritsyn, Saratov, Samara and Simbirsk besieged by threatening to Nizhny Novgorod and Arzamas, Russia became known throughout the name Alena Arzamas.
She was born in the Visiting Sloboda, the son of a serf. During the Peasants' War, Allen led a detachment of 300 people of runaway serfs, and who gradually reached a size of 7,000. Taking Arzamas insurgents would open the way for hikes in the central regions and Moscow.
In anticipation of a threat, Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich ordered the city to turn to the main headquarters of the anti-razintsev. Voivod Prince Yuri Dolgoruky in Arzamas arrived September 26, 1670 with the troops and artillery. In September - October 1670 in Arzamas district, a number of battles in which the rebels were defeated. Companions Alena Arzamas for their own personal salvation made a conspiracy against her, was seized and given to Yuri Dolgoruky. Alain was tortured and then burned in a specially built wooden house. Prince Dolgoruky perpetrate mass executions in Arzamas participants in the uprising. For three months, October - December 1670, in Arzamas was executed more than 11 thousand people.
Since 1719 the city and county all have been ranked as the Nizhny Novgorod region. On the basis of "Regulations Chief Magistrate" dated January 16, 1721, the city appears as a city magistrate and police administration, judicial and tax elective body.
August 16, 1781 to Arzamas, as for other county-level cities of Russia, coat of arms was approved: "The gold field two rafters - the upper red and lower - green."
From the middle of the XVIII century is experiencing a sharp rise in Arzamas, the economy, which favored the four converged in critical path: the Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod, Saratov and Simbirsk. Enrichment of Arzamas merchants enabled them to build in the last quarter century, 17 church buildings made of brick. Much money has been spent on the decoration of churches, church plate, and the acquisition of writing icons.
June 11, 1767 Arzamas visited the Empress Catherine II, who made a trip to the Volga region.
In 1787 it was first opened a small public school, which is due to educational reform in 1804 was transformed into the county, and in 1878 - in the city.
During the Peasants' War under the leadership of E. Pugachev (1773-1775) Arzamas district was also covered by peasant unrest. To combat the Pugachev was summoned to the Turkish war and sent to the Volga region of AV Suvorov, for which the Arzamas was assigned apartment in the house of a rich merchant Tsybysheva II. After the defeat of Pugachev was put in irons and taken to Moscow via Alatyr Arzamas and Moore. Through his Arzamas carry 8 - November 9, 1774
Before you start dashing revolutionary years, it was quite typical for Russia, a city with a population of 11.8 thousand inhabitants, which rose a thirty-six churches (including the monastery), eighteen bell towers, there were four active monastery, two male and two female. With the advent of the communist regime city, like the entire country is undergoing dramatic changes. His appearance, formed over several centuries, has been distorted beyond recognition. In particular, many churches were destroyed, almost all of the belfry.
However, not only churches and monasteries was famous city. Was developed by industrial production. For example, there were more than a hundred tanneries were manufactured fur, rabbit fur is actively carried out. Enjoyed great fame Arzamas geese, delivered even in the northern capital. Already in the XX century. becomes known Arzamas variety of onion - one of the best bitter varieties have excellent preservation. At the turn of the XVIII-XIX centuries. A. Stupino opened Russia's first provincial art school, where I studied, in particular, VG Perov, NM Alekseev (Syromyansky). In his time there in society Bannerbearers, fraternity named Cyril and Methodius. In the 90's. XX century. - Orthodox fraternity named John of Kronstadt. The city was county seminary, women's gymnasium, a teachers' seminary, a real and crafts schools, parish religious schools ...
Arzamas city is home to the Patriarch Sergius (Stragorodsky), an architect, MP Corinth, MS Russian writer Zhukova. In the village of Red, which is located near the city, was born Hieroschemamonk Isaac, builder of Sarov. In the same village was born Honored Artist of the RSFSR, VI Telichkina.
The city was passing Catherine II, AV Suvorov, PI Melnikov Crypt, LN Tolstoy, NG Chernyshevsky, VG Korolenko, KG Paustovsky, Vladimir Mayakovsky ... Perhaps in the city was and AS Pushkin. Here lived, AP Gaidar, who was in exile, Maxim Gorky. In Arzamas closely been associated life of St. Anthony (Medvedev), who was rector of Vysokogorsky desert, and from 1831 at the request of St. Philaret of Moscow - the governor Trinity-Sergius Lavra.
Currently, the city opened several churches, many restored, will be a monument to Patriarch Sergius. There are a number of museums: the History and Art, the house-museum AP Gaidar, the house-museum of Gorky Sports Museum at the stadium "Banner", a private museum of antiquities. There are monuments to Lenin, Marx, AP Gaidar, M. Gorky, A. Stupina, VA Novikov - Arzamastsev, the hero of the Soviet Union, GK Zhukov, A. Pushkin, the soldiers-internationalists, the memorial "Fighters for the Soviet power" with "eternal fire." Previously operated planetarium. Powered Drama and Theatre for Young People.
There are a number of higher educational institutions: Arzamas State Pedagogical Institute, Arzamas Polytechnic Institute (branch NSTU), a branch of Nizhny Novgorod State University. Lobachevsky, a training center of the Modern Humanitarian Academy, and several specialized secondary schools, high school.
Russian cities: Arzamas sights
Labels: Russian cities