Russian cities: Belgorod

Russian cities: Belgorod

Belgorod - one of the oldest cities in Russia, on the site of Seversk towns, situated on the chalk hill above the Seversky Donets River near the mouth of Vezelitsa. Seversk settlement - the settlement of the eastern Slavs, who came here during the second half of the 1st millennium.

The domination of the once surging in these areas to the south of strong tribal government was replaced by Alan warlike nomadic Khazars and Pechenegs, who drove in 884 years squad Kyiv Prince Oleg. In 965 of land in the upper reaches of the Seversky Donets were finally attached to Pereyaslavlskomu principality of Kievan Rus', on them has passed its eastern border. Based on archaeological research conducted in 1951 in Belgorod, Academician BA Fishermen concluded that settlement, on which stands the modern Belgorod, arose in the tenth century.

The decision on the construction of Belgorod was taken Boyar Duma in 1593, but then, perhaps, there was a settlement on the future site of the city. However, Belgorod fortress was built by order of Tsar Feodor Ivanovich in autumn 1596 to supervise the construction magistrates M. Zvenigorod and spongy-AR Volkonsky.

Originally the fortress was located on White Mountain, located on the right bank. Seversky Donets, at the confluence of the creek in her barley pit. Detinets (central part of the fortress) had chopped wood walls, mounted on a shaft that was dug in front of the ditch. It was fortified by an earthen rampart and 8 towers and was located on the edge of the cliff above the river. Roundabout city covered Detinets semicircle on the opposite side and had a wooden outer walls measuring about 1 km from 10-11 towers. Total area is approx. 33 hectares.

In the Time of Troubles Belgorod garrison defected to the False Dmitry I, and after his death, supported False Dmitry II. In 1612 the fortress was captured and burned by a detachment of Poltava Cherkasov (Cossacks), under the command of Prince S. splint, came from the Commonwealth. In 1613 the fort was again rebuilt under the guidance of the remaining residents governor NP Likharev, but on the contrary, the left bank of the river. Seversky Donets. The area of ​​the fortress was now 9 hectares.

In 1635-1658 years. for more reliable protection of the Russian lands from the attacks of the Crimean Tatars was built solid line of military fortifications - Belgorod defense line - a fortress in which the city has taken center stage. This feature stretches for 800 km in the current five areas: Sumy, Belgorod, Lipetsk, Voronezh and Tambov. In 1650, the fortress was transferred to Belgorod on the right bank of the river. Donets to Belgorod Karpovskii shaft features, which currently is the center of town. After the formation of Belgorod regiment and a bit of discharge in the city of Belgorod sosredotachivaestya command the armed forces of the region, economic, administrative and judicial control of the edge. By the end of the XVII century. Belgorod (Detinets and the adjacent earthen city) occupied the territory for more than 90 hectares.

In 1727, Belgorod became the center of the homonymous province with a population of over one million people, which included 34 cities, among whom were the Kursk, Orel, Bryansk, Valuyki, Putivl Rylsk, Obojan, Mnensk and others. The first governor was Prince Yury Trubetskoy (1668 - 1739). In 1730, coat of arms was approved by the city of Belgorod - prototype of the modern. On the blue rectangular shield, pointed below, shows the "lion lying, yellow, and black eagle above him domed, beneath the earth green." In 1766, burned down most of the wooden buildings of the Earthen. The new urban plan, designed by architect A. Kvasov and approved in 1768 by Empress Catherine II, upheld the position of the fortress-citadel, fundamentally reworked the layout of buildings other parts of the city, which has been preserved to this day. Since 1779, Belgorod was a member of the Kursk governorship (since 1796 - in the province of Kursk). In 1785 he was excluded from the forts. Since that time the city became a county center of the province of Kursk. By the 1897 census, its population of approx. 22 thousand people.

In the XVIII century. Belgorod is a major industrial and cultural center. The road from St. Petersburg and Moscow to the south pass through the Belgorod. Therefore, passing from the capitals and from the Russian monarchs stayed here: Catherine II, Alexander I, Nicholas II, and others. For a long time economy Belgorod determined semi-handicraft enterprises and small commercial establishments - are quarried chalk, developed the lime, brick, nitrate, and wax. With the development of industry and the abolition of serfdom in Russia, a marked shift occurred in the Belgorod, in its economic and social aspect. With the construction of railways Kursk-Kharkov, Belgorod and Belgorod-Volchansk Sumi increased communication with the industrial centers of the city and neighboring counties. In the twentieth century Belgorod came as a major railway junction.

In 1918, Belgorod was occupied by German troops until the beginning of 1919 was part of the Ukrainian hetman powers PP Skoropadsky. After the revolution and civil war industry of the city quickly began to revive. Already by 1926 it had reached the prewar level, necessitating the construction of power plants in the floodplain of the Seversky Donets. In the 30s Boiler Plant is being built, the network of educational and health facilities, increase the pace of housing construction. In Soviet times, became the center of Belgorod region (since 1930 - the district) in the Central Black Earth Region of the RSFSR (1928-1934 gg.), And after its dissolution - the center area of ​​the Kursk region (1934-1954 gg.).

During the Great Patriotic War, Belgorod and surrounding areas were the site of fierce fighting. In October 1941, German troops approached the city. At the western approaches of the Soviet troops during the two days of attack by the enemy. October 24, after heavy fighting, our troops have left Belgorod. For residents of the city stretched out painful days and months of occupation. Tens of thousands of Belgorod have been shot in the park, which now bears the name of the park Memory, burned at the reed plant, tortured in the dungeons of the local Gestapo. Of the 34 thousand pre-war population in the city there are only 150 people, Belgorod was completely destroyed, not kept any of a whole building.

February 8, 1943 the city was liberated, but the failure of the winter offensive in the Kharkov area forced the Soviet troops to leave town again. Finally, Belgorod was liberated during the Battle of Kursk, August 5, 1943 On January 6, 1954 Center of the Belgorod region of the RSFSR.

Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet on August 4, 1967 for the courage and resilience shown by the field workers in the defense of the Motherland during the Great Patriotic War, and for progress in restoring and developing the national economy Belgorod region was awarded the Order of Lenin. April 9, 1980 Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR "For courage and determination displayed by city workers during the Great Patriotic War, and for the successes achieved in economic and cultural development" Belgorod was awarded the World War I level.

People who have left the bright trace in the life of the city:

Belgorod Joasaph St., Bishop, one of the great miracle-workers and philanthropists;
Prince Andrew R. Volkonsky, founder of the Belgorod Fortress of White Mountain (1596);
Prince Yuri Trubetskoy (1668-1739), the first governor of Belgorod;
Prince Boris Petrovich Sheremetev (1652-1719), diplomat and military leader, a associate of Peter, the chief governor of Belgorod regiment Big (1687);
Prince Grigory Romodanovsky (um.1682), an outstanding Russian commander of the 17th century, the chief governor of Belgorod Grand Regiment
Shchepkin Mikhail Semenovich (1788-1863), Russian actor, the founder of realism in Russian performing arts, the reformer of the Russian theater;
Nikolai Chumichov (1770-1869), Honorary Citizen of the city of Belgorod, philanthropist, merchant of the second guild;
Anoschenko Josef (1894-1974), aviator, inventor, filmmaker;
Grabbe, Nikolai Pavlovich (1832-1896), Major General, a war veteran in the Caucasus;
Drenyakin Maxim T. (1770-1851), colonel, associate Suvorov;
Michael A. Kurbatov (1874-1959), sculptor, painter, mulyazhist;
Nikitin Aleksandr Fedorovich (1872-1965), one of the founders of the doctrine of social hygiene;
Ruban Vasily (1742-1795), writer and journalist;
Slatin, Ilya Ilyich (1845-1931), a music educator, teacher, pianist, conductor;
Nikolay Strakhov (1828-1896), essayist, literary critic and philosopher.