A brief history of the city of Bryansk
In the centuries-old history of the earth goes Bryansk. Here in the III-X centuries Slavonic tribes lived - vyatichi, northerners radzimichy, Krivichi. Colonization of this territory took place after the retreat of the glacier. It was then that began the slow progress on the rivers of ancient man Desnyanskiy pool. Traces of the time sites are found near Bryansk. More than a thousand forts, Selishchev, settlements, sites of ancient human burial mounds - the witnesses of the past years far Briansk stores. Thirteen cities and villages are the status of "historic town".
The city of Bryansk (the old name Debryansk) originated in the period of Kievan Rus. Located almost in the center of the Russian Plain, Bryansk region has long been distinguished by advantageous position and has played an important role in protecting the Russian land and Russian state. Unfortunately, direct evidence on the exact date of foundation of Bryansk is not found, but there are indirect. The second volume contains the complete collection of Russian chronicles of 988, says: "And reche Vladimir Behold is not good that the little towns near Kiev, and started to put the city on the Desna and the acute, and Trubezh, and Sule, and Stugna."
After conducting excavations at the mound Chashin (located on the right bank terrace of the Cape Gums, opposite its left tributary of the river Bolvy) is considered the birth year of Bryansk, 985-st. Apparently, at the confluence with the Desna Bolvy formed an ancient settlement, which has played the role of the transit and support base during the campaigns of Prince Vladimir of Kiev and the Khazars of the Volga Tatars. It is known that the troops of Prince Vladimir in this military expedition moving by river: from the Dnieper River in Desna, from gums to Bolve to the point where it begins to portage Zhizdra and Oka.
After a fire in the settlement Chashin mound, city of Bryansk was re-erected on the hill of Protection.
For the first time mentioned in the Bryansk Hypatian chronicle of 1146, as an existing city. He further mentioned in the Resurrection, the Laurentian, Trinity chronicles. It tells about the Moscow and Chronicles.
Bryansk princedom appeared in 1246. Prior to that, Bryansk was part of the principality of Chernigov. In 1237 the hordes of Batu Khan fled to Russian territory. Particularly suffered from the invasion of sparsely inheritance Chernihiv principality. Utterly destroyed Chernigov and Novgorod-Seversky. Then the center of the principality, and became the city of Bryansk. First Prince of Bryansk was the Roman Mikhailovich. Then, his son Oleg, who participated in the campaign against the Lithuanians in 1275, Prince Vasili Alexandrovich, who died in 1314, Svyatoslav, who fought with Vasili Alexandrovich, Dmitry Alexandrovich, brother of Basil; Svyatoslavovych Gleb, assassinated in 1340 Bryantsev, Basil Duke Smolensky (he was the last), received a shortcut on the Bryansk in 1356 - a year of taking it Olgerd Lithuanian prince.
More than a hundred years, from 1246 to 1356 years of wars, unrest and infighting stood Bryansk princedom. By the middle of the XIV century, the internal and external shocks have undermined the former glory of the Bryansk princedom. In 1356, the Bryansk began to own the Grand Duke of Lithuania Algirdas.
Participation in the Bryansk Warriors Kulikovo
September 8, 1380 occurred the famous battle of Russian soldiers, led by Moscow Prince Dmitry Ivanovich with the countless hordes of Khan Mamaia. In this battle, participated, and excelled in history and entered Bryansk heroes.
In the Complete Collection of Russian chronicler says: "... on the right hand has appointed his brother Prince Vladimir Andreyevich, giving him a regiment of princes of Yaroslavl with their warriors and to the left - Bryansk appointed Prince Gleb ... And in 1380, in September, when the Grand Duke Dmitry I. came to a place called Birch, the 23 pursuits until Don came to his Lithuanian princes to pay homage and service. Polotsk Prince Andrew Olgerdovich from Pskov, and his brother - Bryansk Prince Dmitry Olgerdovich his soldiers .... "
At the dawn of the historic day the Russian army was built up in battle order. The main part - the "Big regiment" stood in the center. Bryantsev with Muscovites and Suzdal is located behind the "Big shelf", making it a reserve, commanded by Dmitry Bryansk. Russian battle with the Mongol-Tatar army started to fight the most removed of soldiers. The Tartars put his Temir-Murza (Chelubeya) from the Russian side came a noble warrior and lord of Bryansk, accepted and became a monk schema Trinity Sergius Monastery - Relight Alexander. Locked in mortal combat both - and Chelubey and Relight died.
He distinguished himself in battle at the Kulikov field and Prince Gleb Ivanovich Bryansk, who commanded the first regiment of the Russian army and was killed in battle, and Bryansk Prince Roman M. (Jr.), named one of the lists Novgorod Chronicle, along with Prince Vladimir Andreyevich of Serpukhov and Governor Dmitry Volhynia as the third governor Ambush regiment.
Zachary Tyutchev (ancestor of Tyutchev) is known as an ambassador to Dmitry Donskoy Mamai on the eve of the Kulikov battle. This is it, to find out plans, outwit wily Mamaia, tore his letter and sent it to the "worst Tartar" to the formidable Khan.
Bryansk - now a major regional center with nearly half the population. The city grew rapidly. He has great industrial, scientific and cultural potential.
In the city of four districts. Bezhitsk - the largest one. His birth is associated with the emergence of this enterprise - the industry leader of Bryansk, now known as OAO "Bryansk Engineering Works." Prior to 1956 Bezhitsa (Ordzhenikidzegrad) - an independent city.
In the XIX century on the ground Bryansk was the first railroad Eagle Vitebsk, Riga, and then the Bryansk-Gomel. Railway - the forerunner of two more districts - Volodarsky and Fokine.
The Soviet - the central area of the city. This is the part which is known under the name of historical Bryansk. Here, his roots, origins, its rich history. All the great breadth and went to Bryansk growth is from its center. Soviet area now covers an area of over 37 thousand square kilometers, or nearly one-fifth of the city territory. There are more than 127 000 people. In the area are almost all regional agencies. Here, 30 large and medium-sized industrial enterprises. Compared with other regions of the Soviet the largest number of educational institutions, 2 theaters, 46 libraries, 3 museums, exhibition hall, three schools of arts, circus, 3 clubs, Culture House, 2 Park ... is the cultural sphere.
Those who like soccer - "Dynamo" stadium, located in the heart of Sevetskogo area. It is always crowded when playing our football team "Dinamo".
To his millennium, celebrated in 1985, Bryansk received many remarkable gifts. Designers and builders have presented residents and visitors, perhaps, one of the most important - it's light corps hotel "Bryansk" five hundred seats. Just to its millennium Bryansk received as a gift and decoration waterfront Gums - Concert Hall "Druzhba".
In Bryansk more than sixty travel agencies.