In Russia, tea came earlier than in Europe, but later than in the East. In the 16th century, small quantities of tea were imported into Russia in the form of expensive gifts from Asian envoys. Known the exact date of entering the Chinese tea to the Russian Tsar - is 1567. Two Cossack chieftain Yalyshev Petrov, who visited China, and tried to describe this drink, but also brought a gift from the king, the emperor of China with an expensive box of yellow tea. In 1638 the Russian ambassador Vasily Starkov brings a gift from the king of the Mongol Khan 64 kg of tea. In 1665, tea was treated Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich. Over time, tea reached Siberia and the eastern part of the researchers of the Russian Empire discovered there widespread consumption of tea. By the 17th century tea drinking in Russia, nobles and their retainers, he served at royal receptions in the homes of rich merchants. In the 18th century, these categories were added nobles and wealthy merchants, and to the 19th century tea has spread everywhere.
Originally tea to Russia got by land from China and neighboring countries. Later, with the opening of the Suez Canal and tea were supplied by sea. Our ancestors knew only the green and yellow tea, drank it without sugar. Perhaps that is why for a long time did not drink tea woman. Bitter taste of the drink was not used in comparison with traditional Russian beverages (sbiten, honey), which had a sweet taste.
Tea in Russian Tea russkiTraditsiya - one of the most difficult to describe. Over the past 150 years have seen many changes in society and way of life that is no longer clear what is considered important in the Russian tradition of drinking tea. For foreigners, the symbol of Russian tea drinking is strange Russian samovar, previously used for cooking was brought down.
Samovar, drinking from a saucer, a glass in a silver holder - this is only the external features that are available to us by the descriptions of the classics and from paintings by famous artists of the past. Should be separate from the technical side of making the inner, spiritual essence of tea drinking in Russian. Tea in Russia has long been an occasion for a long leisurely and good-natured conversation, a way of reconciliation and solving business issues. The main thing in a Russian tea party (except tea) - is communication. A lot of tea, treats and pleasant company - that the component parts of tea in Russian. Contemporary Russian meal often consists of two parts: the food and alcohol, and tea with sweets. So, more precisely in the tea (not alcoholic), there has been talk of the guests indulge in pleasant memories, and there are interesting ideas. Hostess only has time to warm water, and tea flows like water and ended sweets - not a hindrance to its continuation. This tradition has a practical meaning. Unsweetened tea after a while after a heavy meal helps digestion, and the guest gets up from the table refreshed and alert.
Technically, the brewing process exists in 3 versions.
The first - the most "Russian": the water is heated in a samovar, tea brewed in a large pot that is placed on the crown (top), samovar and poured into cups without adding water and sugar. Sweet made in this way is a bit of sugar. It is important a large amount of Kettle and heating throughout the cookware at every stage. Tea does not love cool - he loves the heat. In the second method is replaced by the samovar tea and special tea Kettle is covered hot water bottle to heat does not go away - almost as much as in the English tradition. Tea is not diluted with water, eat a bit of sugar and sweet. There is a third way, which has its roots poor Soviet times. Tea is brewed strong, and this brew is poured into cups, which topped hot water. The same procedure is sometimes performed with a samovar place the teapot.
Tea in Russian to drink when there is at least half an hour of free time. Not taken to intercept a cup of tea and run down the business. Not accepted in silence at the table, as is done in Japanese or Chinese ceremony and ceremony too and play "tea presentation," as they do in England. Silence of the samovar is regarded as a sign of profound disrespect to the owners house. For the "Russian tea ceremony" is commonly used red (in the European classification - black) Ceylon, Indian or Chinese tea. Green with this tea party will not work.
Samovar Russian tea tradition has its stereotypes, which, one way or another, affect the perception of tea by the Russian or visitors.
Stereotype One: The tea and the samovar. Samovar invented for tea and perhaps only real Russian samovar tea.
However, the samovar - not the Russian invention. His principle was used in ancient Rome, where a bowl of water heated stones were placed for heating. Later, the samovar had penetrated into Europe and used for heating water. It is known that Peter the Great, among other curiosities brought from Holland, a device resembling a modern samovar. Later, Russian craftsmen produced his own version of the instrument, giving him a resounding Russian name, and the end of the 18th century began to make samovars in Tula and the Urals. Thus, the samovar "Russified" and has been adapted to suit our needs - the first for the preparation was brought down, and then water for making tea. I must say that the widespread samovars began only in the 19th century.
Stereotype Two: Russian tea from a saucer or cup in holder. Both, of course, existed, but it was optional. From the saucer to drink tea in a small circle of friends or relatives, because in a society such behavior was considered vulgar. Also liked to drink from the saucer people from the merchant environment who were not European 'decency', considering them to be stiff and contrived, and offered their own rules that guests feel comfortable at the table. Later, this tradition of "example" and burgers, copying different versions of teas and blending them together.
Tea in Rossii Stereotip three: tea is brewing, and then diluted in a cup of boiling water. This custom appeared in post-revolutionary years, when the "manor" was plenty of tea and how to brew it, they knew a few. In an era of deficit tea diluted with water for economy. This "economical" way to steal a true taste of tea, making flavored drink in tinted fluid zapivaniya sandwiches.
The stereotype of the fourth: green tea and bitter for a Russian tea party is not suitable. Bitter, he can turn in two cases - bad or improper brewing tea. Properly brewed green tea has a sweet taste and delicate aroma. And its color is very light, greenish or yellowish, but not intense, and almost transparent. Infuse green tea should not be - you should immediately begin to merge as soon as the Gulf of Kettle hot water. If the tea still tastes bitter, try to pour tea leaves or less quickly pour finished drink.
Another stereotype is that the Russian Tea was ordered species such as English. This has never happened before, and this may be the greatest value of tea in Russian. Drank tea as you want, every house had its own tradition. Unwritten laws are fixed and do not have Russian tea dead, as happened in England.
Tea servizEsli talk about tradition, Russian tea, you can select a popular print image, averaged over a "brand" of tea in Russian: a samovar, kettle-bellied Kettle, porcelain cups on saucers, sugar lumps and tea treats: pancakes, pies, tarts, bagels and other sweet and not very "snacks." This merchant-philistine way of drinking tea and it had become a Russian, as the aristocratic tea party with his copy of British traditions can not be Russian.
Tea to drink several times a day. As a rule, 4-6 times, and in the days of fasting and drank tea in the winter active. Indispensable attribute of Russian hospitality - tea refreshments. Now this tradition has been brought to automaticity and requires mandatory except tea talk, entertainment sweet (jam, honey, cakes, sweets and biscuits). For guests in the house holds a special "holiday" service, which does not participate in everyday tea parties. The same service is used in the tea of the Russian feast. In Soviet times, a beautiful tea set was an indicator of the status of the owners. Best regarded as "foreign", those are hard to find, especially it was important to have a nice tea service at home as opposed to obschepitovskim glasses with a weak, sweet tea.
Samovar obscure foreign tradition of drinking tea from glasses has its roots in the 17th and 18th century. While tea was served in restaurants in the glasses, because the European cup and sets not yet in vogue. Later beakers were gradually replaced by cups, but in some families, it was decided to use such traditional dishes until the Revolution. Porcelain cups almost everywhere supplanted the glass, but in restaurants they still tea, as a rough man's drink was served in the same pot, and that cheap alcohol or alcohol mixed with tea. In order not to burn your fingers, contrived cupholder. It was a rather camp, railroad dishes, which, if any favorable conditions, was replaced by a porcelain or earthenware.
In the mandatory list of items of classic Russian holiday tea party consisted of: a samovar or kettle to heat water, stand or tray for the samovar, the service, which consisted of a Kettle, tea pairs (cup and saucer), milk jug and sugar bowl, tongs, refining, curling splitting cubes , a strainer for Kettle, vases for sweets. Water for tea preferred to spring, soft. Tea at this water produces a fragrant and fresh. The method of brewing was similar to English. In the Russian tradition, however, decided to make tea not so strong as in England. Tea Kettle in preparing and pouring into cups, do not dilute with water. If you add milk or cream heated and added to their cup of tea before. Tradition to make a strong brew separately and then mixed with water taken root in the worker-peasant community, and now for some reason is the people's way. But given that tea with this method is considerably worse than brewed correctly, it is better not to use it.
Russian tradition of tea drinking. There is a tradition of complete tea. In the Russian version of the classic 18-19 age it was a topsy-turvy glass or cup, posed on a saucer. Somewhat later in the European manner are putting a spoon in a cup. Teaspoon into an empty cup was a sign that the visitor does not want tea. It was impossible to blow on the tea to cool it, and chink spoon stirring sugar. The rules of etiquette dictated that the spoon should not touch the walls of the cup, and after mixing does not remain in the cup. Pour tea into the saucer and drink from it too was considered contrary to these rules. But as you know, the tea-merchant denied all overseas regulations and provides greater freedom at the tea table.
In tsarist Russia, drank mostly Chinese tea. Until the 19th century it was the only Chinese in the late 19th century, began to appear Ceylon and India. Until the 19th century tea in China, shipped on dry land, valued very highly - they do not spoil the journey, not dampen, although they were very expensive. This tea is prized by gourmets European, who was unavailable for an expensive Chinese tea. They bought it in Russia for big money. In the mid-19th century, China abruptly cut supplies of tea to Europe, and some varieties altogether forbidden to be exported. For Russia, by contrast, was an exception, and our ancestors were able to enjoy an exclusive yellow tea, inaccessible to Europeans.
Tea in Russian late 19th century, Russia began to be sold teas from India and Ceylon, the first harvests of tea from Georgia and Krasnodar. Indian tea has always been a lower grade and cheaper than the Chinese. There were exceptions - alpine tea northern India or Ceylon mountain. This tea was a mass market, and enjoyed success with the unsophisticated public or in taverns. Indian tea can be brewed strong and economically, and its purpose is most often was "water and warm." Black tea was the tea to cakes, tea tavern. Later the same niche occupied and Georgian, who was still below grade and was sold in blends (blends). Krasnodar tea has always stood apart from all known chaevodnyh areas. Experiments on the removal of the tea bush in a rather cold conditions have been successful, and interesting and distinctive taste of the Krasnodar tea found its admirers. However, the complexity and high price of "native" tea is not allowed and still does not allow it to compete with Chinese and Indian varieties.
Tea in Russian samovar in the 20th century. Chinese tea drinking to the 70s until the strained relations with China. Since the 1970s moved to Ceylon and Indian tea, as well as Georgia and Krasnodar, which first appeared 100 years ago, but were considered low-grade and were only podmes to inexpensive Chinese and Indian varieties. In the 80s of the 20th century in the Soviet Union deteriorated the quality of imported tea (especially in Georgia). In the 90th leaked to Russia and a high-quality Chinese tea together with a knowledge of Chinese traditions, but the bulk of tea was very poor quality. Now in stores is dominated by cheap varieties of Ceylon tea, the second most popular can be called Indian, followed by Chinese, Kenyan, Javanese, Vietnamese, Turkish, Iranian, and completes the rating Krasnodar tea. Georgian tea completely disappeared from the market because of its poor quality.
As for the expensive teas, their choice is so great that everyone has the opportunity to choose a tea to your liking.