April 23 (April 10 Old Style)

Ruf. Terence Marevny. Rufus on the road collapsing. Around the dirt - no pass, no pass. In the haze of the sun to be shown on this day. So look: if the sun through the haze - the year of corny, but if the clear sky - will have a field plow, sow again.
St George's Day (spring and autumn), the name of religious holidays on the Christian saint - George (Egorov, Yuri) Victorious. Celebrated on April 23 st. Art. (Cum) and November 26 st. Art. (St. George and the dragon and girl - known hagiographic, icon-painting, folklore and literary plot). In the old days to the day tied Yuriev milestones national agrarian calendar. In the autumn St. George's Day ended with all the work, so on this day there is a calculation of cash and in kind of the peasants. To this day had been released to coincide with the peasants (the change in ownership) in Sudebnik 1497 (week before and week after St George's Day). Sudebnik 1550 affirmed the right of the peasants. In 1580-ies. years with the introduction of reserve the right to secede was reversed (first time), 1590-ies. separate legislative acts of the prohibition extends to other groups of the dependent population, but the act abolishing the right to withdraw at once, apparently, did not exist. In the Cathedral Ulozhenie 1649 ban was confirmed.
George, Egorov, Yury - holy martyr, the days of his memory were observed twice a year: 23. IV / 6. V - «Yuri veshny», 26.XI/9.XII - «Yuri autumn. According to biblical legend, George was born and raised in a devout family and was raised in a strict piety, joined the Roman army, George, a handsome, courageous and brave in the battles of a young man, was seen by the emperor and adopted in its custody a senior military commanders, when he was not yet 30 years old. However, when the emperor decided to give complete freedom in the massacre of Christians, George came out openly against his plan and called on all to recognize the true faith in Christ. He was tortured and then executed on May 6 (23 April), 303, after which he ascended to God and united with the heavenly army, becoming the angel of the Lord, one of the most revered saints. This event and was dedicated to the celebration of Egorov vernal. Same day, "Yegor cold" was established in honor of the dedication of the temple: according to legend, at the baptism Russian prince Yaroslav the Wise was named George, in honor of George the Victorious, and in honor of his guardian angel prince in Kiev, built the temple and the abode of men, and the church was consecrated on December 9 (November 26) Metropolitan Hilarion. The people most revered day Egory vernal as stock-raising feast day of the first pasture cattle in the field, however, and the day of the winter Egory also celebrated everywhere, and in ancient times to him held in conjunction with a special custom: landless peasants a week before the holiday and one week after he had a right move from one landlord to another (but in the XVI century. this right was repealed by Boris Godunov, why there was a saying: "Here, Grandma, and St. George's Day!").The people George was honored as the owner of the land and ¬ krovitel cattle, the lord of snakes and a host of wolvesopening springtime field works ("Egorov unlocks the ground, spring begins") in some places, George, like St.. Elias, considered the lord of spring rain and thunder, the owner and holder of all waters. In addition, George was regarded as the patron and the "great builders of the Russian state and Russian military might, as he, according to legend, during his lifetime was a brilliant military leader and after his death joined with the host of heaven. He is usually depicted as a rider on a gray or white horse with a spear in his hand, piercing the green dragon is an image of old came into use as an emblem of Moscow's empire.St George's Day (Yuri spring) in southern and eastern Slavs was the main cattle holiday of the year. On this day, the first time drove their cattle in the field, and, accordingly, numerous rituals and magical acts committed on that day, were designed to promote the welfare of livestock during the summer grazing, to contribute to its fertility, protecting livestock from all evils and misfortunes and many of these rites were accompanied by prayers and sacrifices of Saint George.For example, many ceremonies, perpetrated in this day and concerning George, have been linked with Wolves and the creeping, threatening livestock during summer grazing. Clearly, such perceptions were associated with the conviction that all the creatures, and wolves, and indeed all the wild animals subject Egorov. Georgia Power over reptiles, primarily snakes over due, obviously, the legend of the victory of Georgia over the Snake. Thus, according to Biblical tradition, near the Lebanese mountains were once a large lake, in which lived an enormous serpent, devouring people, in order to buy off him, the inhabitants of these places every day by lot gave the snake to eat his children. And once the food the snake was given to the only daughter of the king of those places: it was taken to the lake and left there to expect when the lake will be snakes. But at this time to Lake St. George rode up with a spear in his hand, and crossed himself, saying: "In the name of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit", rushed to a snake, a spear pierced his throat and trampled his horse. He then ordered the girl to tie a snake belt, and, like a dog, to the city, residents fled in fear, but George told them: "Do not be afraid, but trust in the Lord Jesus Christ and believe in Him, for it is He sent me to you to save you. " Then George had killed the snake with a sword, and the people burned the body of a snake out of town, and many of the Gentiles in that day believed in Christ and were baptized. Obviously, in connection with this legend among the peasants used to be in prayer to ask George that he has protected animals and humans from the bite of snakes, poisonous insects and other vermin, with the same belief was apparently related the story of how St. . Egor ordered a snake bite hurt the shepherd, who sold the sheep a poor widow, and in his own defense referred to the wolf (when the offender has repented, the Holy. George came to him, denounced the lie, but regained his life and health).Georgia Power over wolves and wild beasts in general ("any wild beast Egor hand") was attributed to the people to another legend: once at the St. George attacked the wolf, who seized his teeth into the leg of his horse, George hit a wolf with his spear, but a wounded wolf spoke with a human voice: "Why did you beat me, if I want to eat?", George answered him: "Would you have - ask I have. Take that horse won, it will suffice you for two days. " Obviously, in connection with this legend and appeared belief that St. George points out wild animals, what animals you can eat. For example, assume that any animal, do not care if the wolves slaughtered or carried away by the bear, George was selected as a victim, with the peasants believed that if George and doomed to be devoured by animals, it always makes it so that people could not see, and that doomed animal itself obediently went to meet the enemy and stopped in front of him defensively, as if in a stupor (cf. the proverb: "What is a wolf in his teeth, then gave Egory).In connection with all these ideas, each herdsman in St George's Day sought to appease the wolves, and George, to buy off them, bringing any sacrifice. So, with this purpose in many places, leading the family on the day of the first pasture cattle before dawn went to the meadow and sing out the wolf ", asking him:" Wolf, wolf, tell me what kind of beast oblyubuesh on any mandate from Egor you out? " and after that he grabbed the first available in the sheepfold sheep and slaughtered it, throwing in the head and legs.
In some places the day of George held in conjunction with a special "beer" party. Long before that day, the peasants began to brew beer, and almost every owner was taken to figure out "how much will tubs of beer, how to make" zhidelya (beer inferior), as there were no "Netecha" (when the wort is not running out of the vat ), etc. Women this holiday baked, boiled and obihozhivali (washed) house and the girls prepare their "baenny (outfits). Which ended the cooking of beer to each relative in the village brought the beet or Burtas "(a bucket of birch bark), and invited" guests of the festival. " The very same holiday began with the fact that every turnpike-master carried into the church is a must, which in this case was called "Eve", during his Mass, put before the icon of St. George, and after church clergy sacrificed. The first day of feasting usually at the churchmen, and then went to drink in their homes of parishioners, or (in other provinces) on the first day were treated yourself home, on the second day were treated with relatives, and the third - a neighbor neighbor. In some villages it was customary to walk all over, and the peasants, thus wandered from house to house, from one village to another, with a good guest drove straight to the cellar to the very vat and allowed to drink as it can only be managed and then himself to get out.
YEGOROV day *Feast of St. Egorov (variants of the name - George Yuri) - May 6. According to legend, St. George pierced with a spear of green dragon (serpent) [1] - "the image of old went down in the use of both arms of Muscovy" [2].St. George everywhere in Russia was considered the protector of livestock - that to him have been asked to protect the herd during grazing, he asked for healing in the case of animal diseases, etc."Sometimes in the warmer areas [Egoryev day - May 6,] ... the same as the" pasture "of cattle in the field, in stark forest provinces is only a" circumvention of cattle "... The ceremony to bypass done the same and is mainly , that the owners of bypass with the image of St. George the Victorious, all the livestock, gathered in a heap in his yard, and then herding it into a common herd, collected from the chapels, where he served as the sanctification of waters prayer, after which the whole herd sprinkled with holy water and chases the outskirts of the village, whatever the weather that day ... In the old Novgorod region (in Cherepovets, Borovicheskom and other counties), where cattle sometimes graze without a shepherd, "bypass" owners themselves with the observance of ancient customs. The host for the cattle of his early in the morning prepares a pie with a whole egg baked there. Even before sunrise, he puts a pie in a sieve, take an icon, a wax candle lights encircling belt, plugging in front of his willow and back - an ax. In that outfit in his yard owner bypasses cattle of the sun three times, and the hostess (in Ulomov) your smoking from a pot with hot coals of incense and glances to the door at this time were all locked. Pirog breaking in as many parts as a cattle farm, and each is given by kusku1} a willow tree, according to the accepted custom of the locality, or rushes to the water of the river, swam to, or stuck under the eave * (willow saves during a thunderstorm, lightning). Belozertsev hold more of such customs, the eve of Egorov clean out of sight, combs, brushes and scissors, and (in a Markov parish) is placed at the gate, on the ground, a woolen belt, pliers and a hook, sometimes neck-cross or a hatchet and a knife and thrown out (as Vologodians) animals on the street, and then again to a series of the same and drive the [3 ].On May 6, ... in many villages of the Russian-Belarusian Borderlands still celebrate the ancient stock-raising holiday - day of the first pasture cows in the pasture ...Stand in that day earlier than usual, long prayers in the corner, saying the text of the Sunday prayers. Then each family by bringing his skotinku yard, three rounds it counter-clockwise - posolon ("the sun - in a different way is impossible"). During rounds are in the hands of an icon, a candle, bread, salt, corn, colored eggs, a frying pan with fried eggs, a knife, a whip. Salt or grain "sprinkle cow" - being moved through it with a handful of four sides, as if drawing a cross in the air, the eggs in the same cross, drove a cow, a knife with four sides carved crosses on the ground - "hrestom, bread and eggs blesses" . Pronounced during bypass nagovornye poems "- spells, addressed to St. George or evil spirits (witches, sorcerers, houses, devil), to own a cow or a" wild beast. "After making the yard full of rites livestock herding in the overall herd to Egoryevskoe field, where many generations of peasants were celebrating the first paddock. There are three songs from the bypass herd, and then lay the cloth on the ground, organize common snack. Returning home from the field, always danced - tread the dew Yuruyut: "jump, we skip over the field to bulls so the cow is dancing" and "to have a good grass quickly grew" [4]."In the dull black-earth belt (Orel province.) Believe in Yuriev dew, ie, trying to St. George's Day as early as possible, before sunrise, when the dew is still wet, to drive cattle from the yard, especially cows, so they do not hurt and more milk [5].There is an opposite opinion. So, between the sorceress and witches have a secret tradition that the early Yuryev dew is extremely harmful to the animals. For this they go on the very field sbirat dew. Gathering Dew produce napityvaniem canvas in the morning dew. According to their signs, Yuryev dew dries cattle cows consuming milk, calves blind. As soon as this canvas cover cattle, and then all troubles will flow to them the river. Only one thing can not hurt the cattle - if the settlers kicked her in the St George's Day willow "[6].In some places in Russia at the beginning of this century, preserved footprints Egorov worship as the patron of fields and the fruits of the earth. Firm belief that Yegor had been given the keys to heaven, and he unlocks it, giving effect to the sun and the will of the stars. Many have bought Mass and prayers to the Holy, asking for his blessing nivam and gardens "[7]. Thus, in the province of Tula went on a field sown with vodoosvyascheniem prayers serve, sprinkle the cornfields of the Holy water. After this, men and women ride through the fields, hoping to be strong and healthy as St. George's Dew "[8].In addition to beliefs, telling us about St George as patron of the livestock and fields, Yegor Bold in the Russian folk tradition known as a master of all wild animals, especially wolves. According to legend, St. Egory struck with a spear, "the wolf, who ran towards him and grabbed his teeth into the leg of his white horse. Wounded Wolf spoke with a human voice:" Why did you beat me, if I want to eat? "-" Would you have, ask I have. Take that horse won, it will suffice to you for two days. "Legend, this reinforces the belief of the people that every slaughtered wolf, or crushed and blown bear pig doomed him as a victim, Egor - slave prince and ruler of all wild animals. The same legend suggests that Yegor can talk with animals human language, that, if he would condemn to be eaten by a cow, sheep or horse, it will always do so that people will not see, and she is doomed to meet the enemy and defenseless stops in front of him as if in stolbnyake2) "[9].In the Orel province. "Believe that the candle raised in the church to Egorevu image, save the wolves, who forgot to put, in addition Egory take the cattle," the wolf in the teeth "[10].The plot below is legendary as time devoted to St. Yegorov - the protector of wolves."I was driving once a peasant forest. It was the day in summer, only to suddenly see: a sheep in wolf rushed. Sheep scared, ran under the cart, the wolf was frightened and ran away. The man took the sheep and brought with him, traveled five yards from the spot was not DIG is not visible - dark night. He marveled dalsya. drove on and did not know where, he suddenly saw a light. "And - I think - you can see drover; even ask them where to go." pulls up and sees - the fire is expanded, a range of wolves sitting around with them myself Egory Brave; and one wolf sat on the sidelines with his teeth clicked yes. Says a man that they say so and so, zaplutalsya not know where to find the way. Egory him and says: "Why, - said - a wolf a sheep rescued? "-" Yes, she - said a man - threw me, and I was sorry it was. "-" And what is the wolves that will be fed? These, you see, are well fed, but this one is hungry, his teeth click. I feed them, all happy, only one complaining. Throw him a sheep, then point out the road. After all, this sheep was a wolf was doomed, so what do you take it away? "The man took and threw wolves sheep. As soon as the cast, was again a clear day and found my way home" [11].In some folk legends Egory brave he turns the wolf.Egor day at the same time and chalets holiday when savers herds give a firm commitment at all time grazing is not cut their hair on his head to distract from the herd of wolves "[12]. In the Kaluga region. and today the day of the first pasture cattle "shepherd removal do - bread, salt, lard, the ruble money balls" [13]."At Yurya horses crosses fed, baked in epiphany. At Yurya mildew - and do not have the horses' oats. At Yurya rain - a light year for cattle. Yurya on snow (barley) - the yield on buckwheat; on Yurya rain - the buckwheat family.At Yurya shepherd souse to all summer was not asleep. In the herd to drive and Yegor holler: "Brave you are our Egorov, you saved our cattle!"Yurieva dew from the evil eye, from the seven diseases.[In some places in Russia] "in the Egorov plow tillage.By Egorov, vernal (wool) do not work, so the wolf ate the sheep are not. At St. Yurya Egory travels on Forests on a white horse and gives the beasts to punish. All animals (all living creatures), Egor on hand.Cuckoo to Egorov [cuckoo] - to crop failure, loss of livestock "[14]."Observation villagers say:" Egor - with warmth, and Nicola [December 19] - with food [ie e. will be enough hay]. - THIS seedlings to Egorov, will ing plenty. - "If at Yegor cold day, then under a bush oats. - "If at Yegor day sheet penny on Elijah's Day [2 August] luggage bread kladushku. - Would come at Yegor Moroz, and it will be millet and oats. - "If spring Egory with food, then Nicola will fall from the bridge [t. is, by 19 December freeze of the road and you can ride a sleigh] [15].
St. George defeats the dragon. Russian North. Under the influence of the Novgorod school. The second half of the XVI century."Battle of Egoryev day is not advised on that belief, that that will kill the thunder" [16].1) Vologodians (kadnikovskie) slices of bread, take a toll on the village and handed out after church impoverished brethren: another one this morning of the day Egoreva able to collect these pieces of the whole bag. - Comm. ST. Maximov.2) It follows widespread, a sign saying: "What is a wolf in his teeth, then gave Egor.