From the history of Russian folk medicine

Russian folk medicine was different identities - the people he is the guardian of their health care, including obstetrical knowledge. Yes differently and could not have been due to the appalling backwardness of science in pre-Petrine Russia. Apothecary order in charge of medicine at the time, little interest in the organization of obstetric care.
The reforms of Peter, which gave a powerful impetus to the development of Russian science, including medical, barely touched on the organization of maternity care to the population. Although, at this time began to open the first hospital school, which became the beginning of systematic training for local doctors. True, these schools was conducted in Latin, and not all the Russian could enroll in these schools. They studied mainly the children of foreigners and children of the clergy.
"At the same time, great was the maternal and infant mortality as a result of the lack of obstetric care during childbirth in the general population." (E. Danylyshyn, p.6). If women from wealthy backgrounds have the opportunity to apply to doctors and midwives to foreign for obstetric care, the women of the people often found themselves without any help and support.
The state tried to solve this problem with the help of foreign experts (from the Netherlands for the royal family specifically subscribed to "grandmothers-gollandok"), but the Russian folk medicine was different identities, "the people themselves is the custodian of their medical, including obstetric knowledge, thus leading people in Russia believed necessary to create a domestic training of doctors and midwives who would be able to use knowledge and podcherpnutye from foreign papers and spent thousands of years of experience of Russian folk obstetrics.
For example, MV Lomonosov in his writings, paying great attention to increasing the birth rate in Russia recommended that a system of measures, including the development povivalnogo art in Russia to make Russian leadership in obstetrics, as the basis of Western scientific works of scientists and experienced Russian povivalnyh attendants, print it in large quantities.
Thus, learning obstetrics and obstetrical education institutions in the state capacity in Russia have begun only in the second half of XVIII century, when at the suggestion of the first organizers of the Russian health PZ Kondoidi (1710-1760) in 1757 were opened in Moscow and St. Petersburg Ubabichi shkolyF, where they learn the art of midwifery for 6 years, midwives, women, assisting in childbirth.
But the head of these schools initially were placed by foreigners, almost without knowing the Russian language. Education was purely theoretical. There were no modern teaching aids and, consequently, to achieve the European Obstetrics remained unknown. Therefore, the level of training in these schools was low. There were significant difficulties in recruitment and girls: so in 1757 in St. Petersburg were recorded, 11 in Moscow - 4 midwives, they were very limited pool of enrollment. As a result, for the first 20 years of Moscow "babiche school has produced a total of 35 midwives, of which only" in 5 patients were Russian names (Lazarevic, p.27), and the rest - a foreigner.
And only with the advent of well-trained Russian doctors - teachers, genuinely interested in the development of obstetrics in Russia, began to be trained obstetrical personnel in the modern scientific standards. Therefore, the "father of Russian obstetrics" should not be considered any of the Foreigners, which emphasized the limited role of MV Lomonosov, and Nestor Maksimovic-Ambodika (1744-1812). Get a good education and a thesis, he in 1781 appointed "Professor povivalnogo Art in St. Petersburg obstetric school and 3 years teaching at educational institutions obstetrical home.
Unlike some foreign obstetricians, even the first representatives of our national midwifery were widely educated thoughtful doctors who used obstetrical operations only after critical evaluation of all the features of labor-based firm belief that spontaneous delivery end can not.
N.M.Maksimovichu-Ambodiku belongs to the following expression, which vividly describes the careful, thoughtful approach of national father of scientific obstetrics on the run to the genera: U. .. skilful and prompt grandmother and prudent physician about sniskanii vain his fame, but about the universal benefits baking, more can be done during labor among their own hands than all the other artificial fudiyami (instruments) F. In contrast to this view is appropriate to recall that at the same time in the clinic UOziandera Gottingen (1753-1822) the operation of forceps was used in 40% (!) RodovF (Essays, s.282). Leading St. Petersburg Ubabichyu shkoluF N.M.Maksimovich-Ambodik set itself three goals:

Make medical education available for Russian, for that he first introduced the teaching in Russian.
Supply teaching at a high level corresponding to the modern development of midwifery. Were first introduced by the demonstration of obstetric techniques on a phantom made for his project.
Develop a manual on obstetrics in Russian, reflecting current knowledge in the field povivalnogo art.

Talented and educated translator, he translated into Russian by a set of medical books, contributing to this promotion to these medical and scientific knowledge. Maksimovich-Ambodik was the first Russian scientist and an obstetrician, a patriot, as well as a public figure, defended the authority and dignity of Russian doctors to foreigners: Heal and physician edinozemets sootich and each pochitayutsi for ailing and better and more reliable, and rather than an unknown stranger and stranger, Whom and the addition of body and property, and the family life of ailing neizvestnyF. It is interesting to note that Maksimovich-Ambodik emphasized that the physician must learn not only from disease but also with a monster living bolyaschegoF.
In 1784 Maksimovich-Ambodik published his major work: UIskusstvo povivaniya or the science of Babic deleF - the best textbook of the XVIII century in Russian, without which it would have been unthinkable in the successful development of Russian obstetrics and scientific training of midwifery personnel. Therefore, the textbook was trained several generations of Russian obstetricians.
In different cities of Russia has been gradually opened the clinic of obstetrics and maternity hospitals in which Ubednye pregnant women found refuge and pomoschF.
In St. Petersburg since 1771 when the house was based educational URodilny gospitalF for poor pregnant women by 20 beds. Money for the building of the first major maternity hospital donated breeder Demidov Porfiry. In 1821 there were already 45 beds, and in 1836, Maternity Hospital and Povivalnoe School (Ubabichya shkolaF) were merged into a single URodovspomogatelnoe zavedenieF, which operated three offices:

Poor legitimate births,
for nezakonnorozhdayuschih,
"Secret compartment" (for the defendants, sifilitichek, etc.)

In August 1864 institution was transferred to a separate building on Nadezhdinskaya street, where he is now in a maternity hospital named Snegireva.
In 1872, when obstetrical institution was opened on gynecological ward by 10 beds. The institution itself was preparing midwives 1 st and 2 nd places, which were then used in the city and in rural areas.
Among the leaders of obstetrical establishment (in 1904 he was awarded the title of UimperatorskogoF) were such well-known physicians, as physician-in-midwives J. J. Schmidt (1852-1870), AY Krassovsky (1871-1898), NN phenomena (1899 - 1908).
Povivalnoe School (Ubabichya shkolaF and others, where in 1788 he taught Ambodik) eventually turned into an imperial clinical povivalno-gynecological institute now bears the name of D. O. Otto - a true school of obstetricians and gynecologists in Russia.
Since the middle of the XIX century in different parts of the country began to emerge maternity homes for 6-10 beds. In St. Petersburg, directing the city instructed attendants whose jobs were introduced earlier. In St. Petersburg there were senior obstetrician and junior obstetricians. One of the most well-known senior obstetrician was SF Hotovitsky, author UPediyatrikiF - the first Russian manual on children's diseases.
Arose and private maternity homes. One of them opened in 1872 at his own expense V.A.Kashevarova-Rudnev - the first woman, who received the Medical-Surgical Academy diploma of doctor of medicine.
Urban midwives assisted women in labor at home, answered every one for their district, led the district maternity and conducted sessions with midwives. Basically they were talented, highly educated people. After all, if a midwife sets very high standards, adequately described, for example UKurse akusherstvaF IP Lazarevic (1892, p.49): UZhelayuschemu be a good midwife should keep in mind:

concern for the development and preservation of their physical strength, flexibility, body and ability to act independently of individual muscle groups especially arms and fingers;
pizoschrenie all the senses and especially tactile abilities: osyazaya hands he should see them, and acting muscles of his hands, he should feel the degree of stress and thus be able to think about the amount of consumed power;
maintain and develop the ability to clearly understand the brain objects that are only available sense of touch;
possess the ability to quickly, thoroughly and in-depth study it is the case;
gradual improvement in the art of obstetrics and striving to reach the possession of it by such means and methods for action which could be calculated with greater Uvozmozhno uverennostyuF.

reference to the original

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