Ambiguous moniker received during World War II passenger all-wheel drive American-made cars and Soviet GAZ-67. They were carrying light artillery, and drove staff officers, intelligence ... "Goat" machine dubbed, not because, having a short base, they "bounce" - "kick" and jumped on the roads. This feature of the behavior was indeed inherent in them, but the roots of the name - after all others ...Cars Wars: GAZ-67 against Willys'a
GAZ-67 Dvusmyslennuyu got the nickname during World War II passenger all-wheel drive American-made cars and Soviet GAZ-67. They were carrying light artillery, and drove staff officers, intelligence ... "Goat" machine dubbed, not because, having a short base, they "bounce" - "kick" and jumped on the roads. This feature of the behavior was indeed inherent in them, but the roots of the name - after all others ...
The nickname is a way of phonetic transformation (GAZ-A - Goat - goat) received by the first Gorky cars. By inheritance it passed to the GAZ-67, and so it stuck. American cars because of similar appearance to him, too, was sometimes called "goat" or "goat", but more often - "Jeep" or "jeep". On your first name below, the second - a derivative of the Ford-GPW, which is pronounced as "Pee Wee Ford, GM. Subsequently, the jeep began to call all the light-wheel-drive cars.
Car WillysPoroyu even veterans have to hear that, well, we have the car "stripped" from the Willys. Indeed, a car lot in common (in the first place - all-wheel drive transmission and spartan appearance), but to honor the Soviet designers, our car, though at a higher per 300 kg weight, turned still more simple and reliable.
Work on the creation of off-road vehicles began in Russia before the revolution. Living witness of the early national era of SUVs - is stored in the Lenin Hills Rolls-Royce from the garage of the Romanovs, equipped with rear wheels instead of caterpillar engine for design A. Kegressa. In Soviet times, designers have created semi-tracked vehicles and cars with 6x4. They feature low ground pressure, which correspondingly increased permeability, but also has a number of serious shortcomings. With the creation of all-wheel drive have been resolved many problems. If this was the technology of constant velocity joints, which is a big step forward.
Many foreign firms to mid-30's have produced for the army vehicles with wheel formula 4x4. In 1938 such a machine (GAZ-61) appeared in our country. It was designed by the GAZ Group for design special machines under the direction of A. Grachev. In principle, the GAZ-61 - a body GAZ-M1, put on a new all-wheel drive chassis with a six-cylinder engine GAZ-11. Depending on body type (sedan, pickup, or phaeton), these cars were also used to transport people, and for towing light artillery.
Farah GAZ-67Armii was very much needed cheap, simple general-purpose wheel drive vehicle with a primitive open body. Designing such a vehicle in the prewar years was conducted by the same group Grachev. We used already existed at that time, prototypes of the AR-NATI and P-1.
Almost all of the mechanics of the new model - parts and components are already standing on the conveyor Gorky models (with modifications, of course). Engine, transmission, gas tank, hood, dashboard and shortened fascia with soldered brass vertical rod "took" from the "lorry GAZ-MM, and both bridges, wheels, transfer case and rear springs - from GAZ-61. Were the only new frame, front suspension on four chetvertellipticheskih springs and body. The last bend of the cheapest sheet metal on wood bending machines without the use of complex lekalnyh stamps, had a simple form and chopped okantovyvalsya steel pipe for strength. The absence of doors and rigid roof not only simplifies production, but also allowed to jump over the side when retracted awning. When required, such as camouflage, the frame of the windshield, fixed hinge, fell on the hood. For protection from the weather had a canvas awning, supported by two folding edges, and the same canvas canopies on the doorways. On the panel - only three instruments: a tiny ammeter, speedometer in the form of rotating around a vertical axis of the cylinder with written numbers on it, and a pointer to the level of gasoline, connected through a rocker arm with a float in the executable and still function torpedo fuel tank.
Cantilever suspended front axle would do without longitudinal leaf springs, which increase the overhangs. This increased the permeability of the car.
Four, even a Ford (designed for twenty years before for Ford-A), nizhneklapanny engine had a volume of 3,285 cc. and tremendous torque across the rev range that with a small (1320 kg) machine weight would do without demultiplier. Generally, the instructions, the car was supposed to get a move on the 2 nd gear (like a truck), the first program in the operation almost did not apply, except that when Hill climbing steeper than 25 degrees. Old carburetor upstream was replaced with a new one, with the incident, which added a few "ponies." In addition, has been replaced by a more advanced pump cooling system. Taking a sample of U.S. army vehicles, the then People's Commissar of Heavy Machinery Malyshev told Sause up to 1250 mm gauge known as GAZ-64 car, which later is not the best way affected its lateral stability.
The war was already under way, leading to the tight deadlines to comply with army orders. On receipt of technical specifications to create the first "live" car has only been six weeks - unheard of a short time. Release of the new machine lasted for a year at its units in the spring of 1942 created an easy double BA-64. Small size, big slope bronelistov and filled with a spongy rubber tires provide him a small vulnerability in combat, and four-wheel drive and small front and rear overhangs - a good cross.
Operation identified some flaws "goat," for example - the lack of lateral stability. Improve its managed, returning to the broad gauge (1446 mm).
At the same time on the machine, known as GAZ-67, appeared rear - narrow - the wings and the front are wider. This design was engaged in refining G. Wasserman. "Widely ramified" benefited "sixty-seventh, which acquired the ability to walk on the track," beaten "trucks. After some time, was yet another upgrade, in particular, facing a solder bars replaced with stamped, which added to the designation of the letter "B".
The shortest life was in those "goats" who dragged a 45-millimeter guns. According to statistics, they kept an average of five fights, and then died. For example, a direct hit.
It so happened that before the end of the war have made a total of about six thousand of GAZ-67 and GAZ-67B, and therefore more prevalent at the time were supplied under Lend-Lease American-made SUVs. They were ten times more.
GAZ-67V war years in the U.S. due to the strong reduction of civil registration of models has dramatically increased production of vehicles for the Army. In addition to trucks 4x2, 6x4 and 6x6, for military action were needed light-wheel drive cars. They are engaged in the development of the firm Ford, Willys and Bantam. Earlier than others - in 1940 - has developed the latest issue, releasing a couple of years, about one and a half thousand cars models BRC. The concept car was correct, but because of the small circulation and a very narrow gauge (1205 mm), thus encouraging frequent overturning a special distribution is not received.
Most popular army SUV of all time, who does not want to grow old and no significant changes comes in a range producers so far, has been created by designers Willys in 1942, and then repeated Corporation Ford (Ford's own development was unsuccessful). The car was designed with the possibility of using ready-made components and assemblies that are already in production, and became known as, respectively, Willys MB and Ford GPW. He was very similar to the Bantam BRC, but had a wider (1225 mm) gauge, large size, more powerful engine, the speed increase, and so fond of our soldiers, even GAZ-67 are often called "Ivan Willis." The machine had no such margin of safety as our "goat." For example, in heavy traffic conditions sometimes broke half, springs and even frames. As a rule, the Soviet army life of the engine limited to 50 thousand kilometers. Motor, which had a high degree of compression, a small heater intake manifold and a low thermal regime of the cooling system was designed for petrol with an octane rating of about 70p80. He is reluctant to consume quite "edible" for our cars with gasoline cracking does not hold up to 60 octane numbers and had a high content of hard evaporating fractions. Draining into the crankcase, these fractions induced flushing oil film on cylinder walls and liquefaction oils impairs its lubricating properties. Due to low technical culture of our mechanics disdain poured into engines sparse U.S. oil comes in paper bags. Assuming that the thicker, the better, they ran the engines of domestic products of dubious quality.
Despite the abundance of spare parts delivered, the Soviet factories began to produce a variety of domestic components. Looked quite funny, for example, cast iron cylinder head with the star and the inscription "Willis." Some of the problems caused for the exotic Russian-wall liners, but the craftsmen have learned to quickly fill their place Babbit, however, engines after this long walk ...
Some cars are remade in avtotachanki, which were equipped with machine guns, the Willys for this had even a mounting pad on the floor. There was a modification of the Ford GPA, Godyaev to overcome water obstacles. She had a different frame, the body in the form of a boat propeller behind, and on the nose - capstan (not to be confused with the winch) for self.
Each of lend-lease car were equipped wonderful leather coats or jackets. It was assumed that our drivers will use them as overalls. Naive Americans! And clothing, and wonderful wrenches are also included, of course, were lost in transit. In one of those years overseas newspaper photographs of a meeting of some high (our and American) officials, had the caption: "At our airfield near Moscow government delegation met a group of Russian drivers." Russian ranks were all dressed in the lend-lease skin!
Dashboard Willys'aProvedennye in 1943, comparative tests have shown that in many important ways GAZ-67 superior to their foreign counterparts - he developed a greater effort on the tow hook, overcame a steep, was stable. For example, fine mechanics Willys require delicate handling and skilled service. Same Soviet design was not as sensitive to lack of driving skills and proper care.
According to the Soviet-American agreements majority had experienced the war overseas technology was supposed to come back, and in complete and in good condition. Thousands of cars were in the Far Eastern ports awaiting loading to ships. Baleen mechanics Yankee meticulously listened engines, causing the valve to remove the slightest knock. Had to withdraw from remaining in the Soviet machine wheel nuts and look for lost wrenches. After acceptance cars ... were initially under the press, and then loading in the form of briquettes. So compact.
GAZ-67 has successfully manufactured before 1953, they traveled between the fields of collective farm chairmen, and some particularly desperate farmers have even tried using these machines to plow ... Plowed and the "Americans". Citizens also tried to "goats" to ennoble, vvarivaya door pridelyvaya rigid box and setting the soft seats. Especially masterovitye managed to make even a homemade vehicle.
In 1948 he appeared amphibious GAZ-011 (MAB - small car navigation), similar to the Ford GPA. In 1952 he began to produce more comfortable GAZ-69, which gradually began to supplant the "old soldier" from civilian life. And in the late 50's in Moscow, the decision GAIshnogo superiors all the cars with mechanical brakes (and, hence, GAZ-67) have been banned for use. This, supposedly, was dictated by the antiquated design of the brakes, although the reliability of hydraulics can and to argue, but with the complete failure of mechanics no one has yet faced. Most likely, this was done for the expulsion of decrepit vehicles from the capital. The people who rushed to sell, those who adapt their cars ...
A certain amount of our own and lend-lease SUVs saved by collectors. They were still occasionally be found in rural areas - and in completely working condition ...