GAZ-21 Volga - Russian car

Half a century ago, in October 1956, three production cars saw the light, and in April 1957 of 21 I started on the assembly line is already quite large quantities. And "a dead heart came alive"! For 14 years, the model sold huge numbers in 640 nearly thousand copies. Needless to say that she enjoyed wildly popular. The story, after the completion of registration for second-hand "the twenty-first" without hesitation gave the GAZ-24. Worthy of "seeing" a decent car!And his birth began in 1948 when the U.S. led by George Dolmatovski project was born restyling "Victory", which had resulted in the construction of a pair of three-volume prototypes. At a gas of modernization begun three years later. Nor in any other case, the machine was not even a prototype of the future of the Volga, but these attempts should be regarded as forerunners of the success of its appearance.Lipgart, head gazovskogo KB, saw a new car solely for the AKP, with more spacious than the "Victory", and bright interior. Liphart on the denunciation was sent to UralZIS, however the problem of replacement "Victory" there is so much that its decision did not prevent the absence of the plant's ideological inspirer.The team created a promising model, was international. Lead designer Alexander Nevzorov, designer Leo Eremeev, overhead valve engine developed an American Harry Evart, and a parallel exterior project involved the Englishman John Williams. Contribution made and Yuri Dolmatovsky, offered in the face of the pilot NAMI-013 rear-engined layout.The latter could not go in the series due to excessive "mod". Williams' version with pronounced "missile" keels declined due to technological reasons. As a result, won the job Eremeev, their shapes clearly looking to overseas Ford Mainline. This model not only wanted to borrow the style. Engineers drew-box "machine", and taken without change. Alas, almost half the less powerful motor gazovsky could not "stir up" the hydraulics of the American ACTs.But it was much later. A first in the Volga did not even own engine and rear axle. Fulfilling commitments, factory workers, as already mentioned, the first batch released in October 1956 but before June next year car went off the production line, equipped with uprated to 65 nizhneklapannikom forces. Some of those "experienced" "twenty-first" came with pobedovskimi bridges, terribly noisy, and the other - to cut down on the "stockings" and semiaxes of the beam from the Winter, among whom 50% were frank marriage. Most of the machines, of which only 1100 have created pieces, sold for taxis and other civil service.The Soviet system of "performance and over-fulfillment" played in the history of "Volga" is not only a negative role. Two upgrades (in 1959 and 1962), which together with the sample in 1957 is popularly called "three series", the car owes "Gosplan" - had to be continually held accountable for "improvement and development." Versions differ mainly in the "iconostasis" - facing front end. We shall not enumerate its characteristics, the people, giving the Volga respective names, aptly defined the character design nuances - "Star", "Shark Mouth" and "whalebone". The history of the emergence of the first. According to official information, Georgy Zhukov, takes one of the first prototypes in 1955, did not like the grille, and its designers are quickly altered, in favor of Marshal adding a star. But there is another view. Like, the second takes - Nikolai Bulganin - said: "What is it we" Volga "nonpartisan"? Thus, forcing the stylists to add the main Soviet symbol. In the latter case, "the twenty-first" and has changed the bumpers, which have lost teeth. And, oh my God, with a bonnet in 1962 has disappeared already seemed inextricably linked with the "Volga" figurine of a deer. Tom was three reasons. First, the "horned" enjoyed a stable popular with collectors of heraldry and just hooligans, which resulted in damage to paint or even iron. Secondly, he became a lethal weapon in pedestrian accidents. And, thirdly, to speeds in the area of ​​one hundred horns so shaped air flow that the windshield is actively flying dirt and dust. Said - deer fashioned.General upgrades of the Volga was much greater than three. So, on the first series ended with issue of modifications to the "automatic". The original (and not borrowed from the Americans) the construction of the AKP did not involve service somewhere in the outback. It is soon realized, and all 700 copies with an automatic transmission "concentrated" in Moscow and Leningrad, were sold (and gave) their mostly well-known people. Most cars are then gave way to "machine" at the mechanics. " While on special ACT released until 1962.On the second series has disappeared, and a centralized lubrication system. Made in the image of an American she could not stand the hardships of the Russian operation. Her pipes bent and broken off in the required volumes at the plant was not oil-resistant rubber. In the end, the drivers do not bother about where and when "centrally" lubricate chassis. Before solid institutions appeared pools of oil - like the Volga flowed leaky seals.Not once in my car interior decoration materials, correct combination of devices that are installed with telescopic shock absorbers with balance, forced by increasing the compression engine (up to 75 hp..). For all time of issue in the design of GAZ-21 have made dozens of changes. And how many versions! Differences between them at times boiled down to the nuances, but there they were! For example, on the Volga taxi did not install the antenna, cigarette lighter and deer figurines, not leaned back the front seat, but attended a green light (not to mention the taximeter) at the long Soviet years became the personification of the possibility of quick and high prices "to get to where it is necessary . Later, one-piece sofa in the front, replaced the separate seat, right from which could emerge, forming a platform for hand luggage. Machines, available in the Central Asian republics and the Soviet south, with six different fan blades instead of four remote stove and radiator shutter, as well as bright "sun" stains. In some embodiments, there was no thermostat. In addition, a wide variety of distinguished export versions. This is - a separate issue.Presence in foreign automotive markets for the party was a matter of principle. And with nothing on them to leave, but with a beauty! For the first time in the car lighted version of "The Star". The star on the grille just did not like. Too much it was associated with a hostile Soviet regime. Therefore, hastily prepared version of the "shark mouth". She got the best finishing materials and sill chrome trim strip. Engine power at the expense of an increased degree of compression was adjusted to 80 liters. with.It increased, and later - up to 85 power. The most successful variants of the same should be regarded as diesel. Imagine another 46 years before the domestic passenger car powered by a diesel traction. Unfortunately, GAZ engineers designed this model and they were designers of motors. Initiator dizelizatsii Volga became a Belgian importer - company Scaldia. On production capacity Belgians were car without an engine, and already "behind the hill" at different times of their already equipped with three motors. At first it was the English 1.6-liter 48-hp Perkins. Then its 2.3-liter Rover countryman capacity of 62 power. Finally, under the hood of GAZ-21 was placed Peugeot volume 1,9 liter of 58 "horses". Despite the fact that these versions released only 167, this fact in the history of the Volga is one of the most remarkable.Perepalo from exports and the Soviet people. Models with the best interior finishing and chrome surround windshields resulted in the internal version. Surely the owners of such copies to others boasted some special blat through which they get a car that probably was not far from the truth.We can not say about another interesting point - the number of countries to which exported the "Volga". I Strip to envy the current Russian automobile industry had quite an extensive dealer network. Belgium, Finland, Austria, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Indonesia, Greece, Cyprus, England, not to mention the Warsaw Pact. For states with a drive on the left produced a car with right rudder, differing from other export versions outdoor location lever box. Among other things, offered abroad, including the wagon.Two-volume body of the GAZ was born not as a station wagon. Even when he was on the line of the first series of the Volga factory workers have created a van that was supposed to be used as razvoznogo urban transport. Its relevance and profitability to prove he is not smog, but became the basis for the development of universal serial GAZ-22. He appeared only as "whalebone," that is in 1962. Personally, I think touring more interesting than the sedan in terms of style. Expensive car! And how she needed a Soviet citizen, for whom every warm season - a hot harvest planting and harvesting! In the government thought otherwise. The model was not sold. Only a few exceptions allowed her to acquire well-known people and gave. For example, the owner of the car was Yuri Nikulin, who managed to convince the Government that he needed a more solid body for the transport of circus props.There were several variations of 'twenty-second. " In addition to the southern option, export and taxis, public service get an ambulance and fire the coach. Specially for Leonid Brezhnev was prepared by five four-wheel drive vehicles, which he presumably with pleasure enjoyed hunting.Special contribution to the attractiveness of the model introduced the Finnish importer of the Volga firm Konela. Our Scandinavian neighbors wagon was adopted with enthusiasm, and for the development of successful Finns increased to 600 kg capacity (with two rider, a Soviet version of this quantity reached 400 kilograms), and later suggested that even the eight-modification.Perhaps, "the twenty-first" was the most remarkable post-war "event" Gorky plant. Literally sung in the national cinema, with capacity of 24 thousand copies sent abroad, loved by virtually all social strata, she served as a beacon, illuminating the main way the company for further development. "Volga" was actually a car of its time. Sufficiently comfortable, fast, affordable. Now it seems that for a gas it was the most important success.The Soviet "Premium"Machine that had a chance to feel all the charm of the Soviet automobile charm of the last century, was released in 1969. In one of the last party! The first owner, a doctor, to make the car, went on a business trip to New Guinea, and in 1970 from Irkutsk, a sporting goods store has received notification that the "Volga" has come and you can pick up. The car was lucky - for three decades under a love blowing dust she dashed off no more than 60 thousand. And now run nearly 66,000. And no twists or "second round". Find out what was the "Volga", you can almost without adjustment for age!Where for decades he had gone velvety, rolling in a whisper at idle, a baritone with which breathes this archaic four dinosaur? At present "barges" sound - a cacophony of mechanical friction parts. And here - slyly revelation like animated creatures. It seems impossible, but balanced inline "four" with a capacity of more than two liters without the use of "special means" hard and now, at the same time gazovtsam make such a success.Stumbling in moving and demanding podgazovok, the engine pulls well on bottoms. Embark on a journey as a diesel engine can transfer from the second and the third in the most used. It is not expected that the lever on the steering column is so convenient. The first - to yourself and down, and returned to the original, and the spring in the mechanism itself is pushing "kulisku" in the next step, and the third - just the opposite. He was afraid that all messed up, it turned out to master this process is not harder than to learn to handle the "automatic".Of course, the car in the current understanding that the prehistoric reptiles. Slow in reactions, too heavy to lift, but as his allegorical prototype of more than impressive. It seems that he is respected. At least, lingered at the traffic lights, I do not hear of nerve signals, and feel the only honorable expectation.Thick like armor, "the Austin-Putilovites" metal body for 37 years, resigned rust only in rare chervotochinkah, and even then not through. Sometimes, applying it, but if you want carefully. Scratches, scratch - at this age, this "dust of time" only underscores the retro-status instance. Still not "jig" kind. Pogulivaet body on uneven, well, so forgivable. But how easy rulitsya "Volga", as if floating. Small irregularities effusions his thin legs, wheels with the dignity of this "chlenovoza. It is clear that perceptions of comfort then were somewhat different, and answered them, 21 I'm pretty tough meets the seams and pits. Ah, beam, pins yes sirs with two levers. Knocking suspension, almost in convulsions do not beat, but remember, what's down there "armored" scheme, and for the running part is not scary. In contrast, hardly felt no pride in the Soviet engineers that have created such an "everlasting" design in which all the owners of this car had to change a shock absorber. Incidentally, the motor and box have also become a symbol of reliability. Famous "trehstupku" where only the plant did not set (for example, a GAZ-69, where she experienced a load Pobol), and if the car drive chatter on the handlebars, and other resourceful drivers are put on the cover of the manual "sixty-ninth, thus transferring lever on the floor. Motor same craftsmen still equip all sorts of equipment, or simply plucked up "assembly-line" states.The interior is light and spacious. Made in the American style front sofa is made with the claim for comfort. The back is not adjustable, but his entire block of foam can move along the longitudinal sled. Villages, drowned the fifth point in the soft insides and found that the steering wheel so the levers are arranged slightly worse than those in modern cars. According to the current terminology, "Volga" car for the driver, not to mention "The Seagull" where the driver was only a working tool sitting behind the Boss. But still here is not the consciousness of the power to comfort and ergonomics, and style of his majesty. Ivory plastic handles and steering, a grid of regular radio, an elegant watch - chic 50's, which is now in an era of urbanization, it seems the message from the distant world where the car was a continuation of her soul, the designer. And what is the 21 th speedometer! It does not matter that the concept was borrowed from Ford model 1954. Now these are found except on the most recent Citroen.Despite the 'authentic' driving habits, the weak stove, the heavy braking, "Volga" still enjoys the reputation not only as a collector's copy.Throughout the model number of the Volga was one interesting modification, which started a whole phenomenon in the domestic automotive industry. Model 23 or the twenty-first "with" eight "from" Chaika GAZ-13!195-hp V-«obraznik" was also the first in the history of the domestic auto industry case SWAP-tuning and it is not excluded, the first such experiment in the world. Also no record of any major engineering work carried out on gas.However, in order of "bodies" we could do anything (in 1962, GAZ-23 appeared it was with the filing of the KGB). In this case, put in a relatively short hood space is truly a huge 5.5-liter V8. This required two things - the flattened steering shaft and remove the engine vacuum brake booster. Plus, the original home to arrange a pair. Oh, hard times had drivers from the "outdoor advertising". Huge "Plural" motor weighed almost half as much native volgovskogo engine, increased dynamics, why on the brake pedal had to "develop" because of its "bezusilitelnuyu" purity "superhuman" effort. In addition, rear-wheel drive with some of our winters. I think, worsening weight distribution is only partially compensated for the 100-pound ballast in the trunk. But over the handling job. Built a lever instead of telescopic shock absorbers, has already had while walking. It was believed that their longitudinal elements are able to play the role of additional leverage.Meanwhile, the GAZ-23 is quite actively in the amount of just over six hundred specimens used in the KGB. And on what, one asks, could "accompany" the guests of the not entirely friendly states? One source of information is just written about this "support", in which our "Eight", as it says, "led» Morgan and Porsche, in what this "road sharks of capitalism" is not conceding.
Injection in GazovskiFew people know that in 1965, actively work on gas over the system E (!) Distributed injection.Imagine the shock made the engineers of the plant by going with a twin-carb at once so complex and high-tech mechanism for the fuel! And this despite the fact that at that time only the Mercedes as the leader in this field producer could afford to equip their engines mechanic (!) Injection.And volgovskogo was an electric motor gasoline pump, installed in a modern way on the fuel tank. Four electric injectors and fuel rail. And, of course, the processor (using transistors), manager of all of these economies. Gazovskaya injection system, if we compare it with the current, is simple. The main sensor on the evidence which repelled the "brain", was a vacuum sensor. In that system was not necessary to take into account the air flow, to determine the throttle position, air temperature and coolant. Warm-up mode by the resistor, which enrich the mixture, which could run driver and who stood in place suction arm.For all the undeniable and obvious advantages injection system in gazovski was unclaimed. Firstly, it is simply ahead of the engine, which has been installed. Injection required a good promotion of the engine, and a maximum aggregate nizhnevalny spun to 5000 rpm. But even with such a measure already developed 2.5-liter 130 forces. In those days - an enormous power. Which, incidentally, was achieved with 20-30% fuel savings.System ahead of its time ... When the "Volga" appeared distributed injection? If not that short of money or opportunity, just anyone, it was not necessary.