In 1863 in Ukraine in the city of Alexandria (the so-called until 1921 the city of Zaporozhye) was founded by small factory for the production of agricultural implements. After the October Revolution, it was renovated and expanded in the yearsthe first five began to produce harvesters
During the Great Patriotic War, was completely destroyed and rebuilt after the war and re-equipped.
In 1956, the Moscow plant of small cars - MZMA (now AZLK) ceased production of small, lightweight, four-Moskvich-401 "(length - 3855 mm, weight -840 kg.) And switched to production of more spacious, comfortable and expensive" Moskvich- 402 ". Demand for compact, lightweight and simple machine remained.
In 1955-1960 years in Soviet factories and research institutes has been designed, built and tested many prototypes mikrolitrazhek. This allowed us to define more clearly the requirements for ultra-low-class machines. At the same time, the decision on reconstruction combine factory Kommunar in Zaporozhye and light diesel engine plant in Melitopol, so that from 1960 to deploy the production of minicar.
Designing, building and debugging prototypes of the new machine has commissioned a team of MZMA. Development of a small car launched in autumn 1956. For a sample taken FIAT-600, the most successful car in its class. An important circumstance determined the choice, was the fact that this machine was the newest (it began production in 1955) and that it was best to fulfill the conditions of mass production at that time
FIAT-600 was first shown publicly in 1955 at the Geneva show. By 1960, it produced more than 950.000 cars FIAT-600, including the extension of the modification "Multipla". All in all, counting the machines made under license, was issued 4,034,000 cars of this model.
The first prototype machine has received an index "444" and was ready just one year, in October 1957. In its appearance and construction sites felt the influence of Fiat-600. Nevertheless, even at this stage there have been significant differences.
Given the road conditions, designers have increased planting size for tires from 12 to 13 inches. That in turn will require major changes in the kinematics of the wheel suspension, increased wheeled niches.
In contrast to the FIAT, the prototype is not established four-cylinder engine cooling, two-cylinder boxer MD-65 Irbitsky motorcycle factory, which had air-cooled. The disadvantage of the engine, and quite substantial, with lay-out point of view, was very advanced Carter - its depth (the distance from the axis of the crankshaft to the bottom of the oil pan) was 184 mm. Therefore, to obtain an acceptable value of clearance at the hub of the rear wheels "Moskvich-444" had to set the wheel motors, such as those that apply today LuAZ-969M.
In addition, the first prototype in 1957 differed from the Italian machinery form the rear, otherwise registration Chuck, enhanced transmission. Triangular emblem in front, convex sagittal podshtampovka on doors, decorative "comb" before opening the rear wheel (motive, borrowed from the "Moskvich-402") and the four round air intake on the rear wing. The machine had interchangeable windshield and rear glass.
The new design, created MZMA in 1958, with the modified design elements: the front wing with a higher top, modified form of liner, was exhibited in the winter 1958/59, at the Exhibition of Economic Achievements of the USSR. This machine, the emblem of which, instead of "444" stood "650", have survived from the first sample of the front suspension springs and transverse shear (impossibly) glass in the door.
Car Moskvich-444,prototype ZAZ-965. 1958.Number of seats: 4Engine MD-65: 2-cylinder,air coolingvolume of 649 ccPower 17.5 hpTire size: 13 "Dimensions: Length 3295mm,width 1380mm,Height 1420mm,Base 2024mmCurb weight: 656kg
Engine MD-65, based at the motorcycle, during the tests proved to be unsuitable for the car. MD-65 on the stand developed capacity only 17.5 hp Hence, poor dynamics machine: sluggish acceleration and the shortage of maximum speed (80 km / h instead of the project 95 km / h). The motor was very noisy, poorly cooled. But the main drawback is that the engine was short-lived: the life of the overhaul could hardly be 30 thousand km
Consequently, on MZMA in 1957, and later in the U.S. started to design new engines (NAMI-In "and" NAMI-F). For the sample were taken from the engines Citroen 2LS "," Volkswagen Beetle "and« BMW-600 ". All these engines were air cooled. Were conducted full-scale test prototype machine with all engine choices. The best performance was at the NAMI-V, developed by the engine of the Volkswagen, which was created for the machine to the same location of the power unit, manufactured in 1947, was technically and technologically communicated. The only drawback was the complexity of the operation valve adjustment because of the opposed cylinders: Stop the wheel arches.
Everything was ready to start series production.
However, the board of the State Planning Commission adopted a different solution.First, production shifted from the factory, "Moskvich" in Kiev, the former factory of agricultural machines Kommunar.Secondly, to help developers were involved in a number of other experts KB, in particular from the group BM Fittermana (NAMI).Third, as a motor, citing a higher technical level, it was decided to use "NAMI-T" - despite strong objections of developers. And for the objection was a pretext. NAMI-G had an axial cooling fan - that is was designed for counter flow cooling air. In other words, was located just ahead!
What prompted the Planning Commission to stay on this version? The argument was quite significant: lack of technical basis for the release of NAMI-In "at the same time the engine NAMI-G was almost ready for mass production, there are appropriate capacity. Silent, however, that this engine was not the origin of civil and military-industrial complex designed by specialists for easy desantiruemye amphibians. As a consequence, a number of technical solutions (located behind the oil cooler, high position timer, the case of aluminum-magnesium alloy, lightweight engine blocks) was dictated by the primary customer.
Restrictions on the noise level is not overlap, so the engine "popped" at all. But overall it was quite advanced for its time, the engine has a number of original technical solutions. His foundation served as the engine of German firm "BMW", developed in the early 50's for desantiruemye Rover.
The dimensions of the new engine that has already received an official name - "MeMZ965" - turned out to be somewhat larger than used previously. The worst thing was that because of the V-shaped arrangement of cylinders at an angle of 90 degrees the engine just did not fit into the engine compartment height. I had to hastily change everything back clearance machines. Sloping, flat rear hood was replaced with a convex and slightly modified rear fenders. Then make changes to the gearbox, as FIATovskaya not suitable for distributing the numbers.
It was decided to use the box, developed in conjunction with "MeMZ" for the army. But it represented a uniform design of the actual box, clutch, differential, and demultiplier razdatki.
After some thought decided to "cut" block "demultiplier - razdatka" and change the design of gear selection mechanism. At the same time had to make changes to the bodywork and the rear suspension. For these works were involved, developers of the very desantiruemye amphibians. By the time they managed to create a lot of good off-road vehicles for the armed forces, such as "BTR-40 and BTR-150.
Previous experience of designers was reflected in the minicar: independent suspension, power unit of an SUV (though "opolovinenny"), flat bottom, good load distribution (60 per cent of the burden falls on the drive wheels). Here is a fantastic source of cross-Brokeback. "
At the same time the car got a front suspension system on longitudinal counterweight lever and plate torsion, "borrowed" the car "Volkswagen Beetle" and the side air intakes in the form of an elongated lattice. Sliding glass doors were replaced with more advanced standpipe design.
Later samples were prepared with the modified front wings and vyshtampovkami on the front. These machines remained Position on the front fenders but the front panel displays the emblem and the inscription ZAZ Zaporozhets square letters. 965
The model has received the official name of "ZAZ-965". By tradition, the new car was taken to show the Kremlin. July 18, 1960 test driver factory Kommunar AV Skidaenko drove Khrushchev's along the building of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, turned on the Ivanovo area and drove back. Khrushchev was pleased with the innovation, calling it "a good gift to the workers." The price of the machine set to 18000 rubles in the old scale of prices (up to the denomination 1:10, conducted in 1961).
Assembling the first copies of the new car began Oct. 25, 1960. The first batch of factory assembled on 22 November and the end of the year produced about one thousand five hundred "Zaporozhtsev. During the Soviet period of history the plant was mastered several versions of "plows", nicknamed by the people "hooked":
- ZAZ-965AB with manual control for disabled people who do not have one or both legs;
- ZAZ-965AR for the disabled who do not have one arm and one leg;
- Postal option ZAZ-965S with the right wheel, and close up rear side windows and a box for letters instead of the rear seat.
Because of its affordability (cost of ZAZ-965 - 1200 rub.) Car won popularity among the Soviet people. The car was equipped with air-cooled engine capacity of 784 cu. cm capacity of 23 hp
In 1966, the vehicle has been restyled.
ZAZ-965A has a more powerful 1927-horsepower engine, with a working volume of 887 cc It is distinguished as the steering wheel hub with recessed, Position, mounted in the wings (not on them), the decorative molding along the sides of the bus, changed the rating symbol (instead of stars - the rectangle), grille panel front end. On some machines, mainly for export, along the sides of the moldings were brilliant!
Zaporozhets-965 "from the beginning has been well received by the consumer. In fairness it should be noted that (especially on machines of the first issue) are often the front suspension torsion bars lose their elasticity, and in hot weather, the engine overheated. But despite these "childhood diseases" minicar immediately showed its best in rural areas, areas with poor roads. Good cross-ZAZ-965 must smooth the bottom, all wheel independent suspension, sufficient load (60% of the total mass) of drive wheels. In severe cases, when the car is not able to get himself out of the mud, the crew at a known effort was always able to release from captivity, which weighs only 665 kg car.
Townspeople quickly appreciated the "Zaporozhets its maneuverability, good economy, high body strength. The latter contributed to the quality of having only two doors, openings are not weakened sides, on machines with four-door bodies. And of course, with some engine cylinders is relatively lightweight and easy to dismantle, always able to quickly and easily removed and repaired in-house "in the kitchen" and without great loss of time to put in place.