How to build a Russian bathhouse

Recently, interest has grown in the bath. This is no accident. In addition to performing hygiene functions, sauna (steam bath) is a place for disease prevention.
Russian and Finnish sauna are different modes of heat - humid, respectively (up to 60-80% at 40-45 °) and dry (20-30% at 90 ° C and above).
In the Finnish sauna use heat-reflective screens, which create a steam room effect "thermos". They are corrugated metal or crumpled foil with a shiny surface. Have screens installed in locations under the heater furnace wall lining boards.

Place for a bath in the area can be determined with the overall layout of the site topography, availability of other facilities on site, sanitary and fire requirements. Most appropriate to place it in the economic zone area, interconnected with other buildings, although it is desirable to put a bath in the lake or river - the water is better for cleaning than Kolodeznaya; to the same summer, after a bath in the river for a swim and cool off. If there is no natural body of water, you can make a small artificial pond or swimming pool.
When deciding on the location, design and size appropriate to consider the bath and the possibility of blocking or combine with other structures. For example, the baths at two adjacent sites can be interlocked to the side wall blank and make for them a common sewer.
There are many options for bath unit in the garden shed. It can be done as an extension of the kitchen: they have a common oven, general sewerage system, may be combined with a bath house.
Size 4.3 baths m2 of total area on a washable, although in practice, these dimensions do not exceed 2.0-2.5 m 2. In composition, bath rooms may be simple, consisting of one room area 06.05 m 2, where the combined washing, steam room, dressing room, as well as a set of premises where there may be provided a waiting room, dressing, washing, steam room.
A simple bath from room to room is not quite convenient, since the conditions are uncomfortable after parks, no place to rest after thermal procedures, and dress better than in a hot room.
In the garden of the area of ​​600-800 m2 can accommodate a family bath, consisting of the changing room, shower and sauna. Shield with insulating bath house is heated by a wood burning stove with a furnace, where the wood load in the changing room. For the rest along one wall in the dressing room with extensive bench above it on its hinges strengthened further folding shelf.

For the tempering and cooling to a veranda can be built swimming pool.
However, most gardeners need simple, cheap and proven solutions. In this sense, the most interesting are the variety of Russian bath, a device that worked out for centuries.
Everyone who wants to build a bath, it should be remembered that the bath - a source of increased danger of fire. Therefore, you must know and consistently perform all fire requirements.

The plan of the Russian bath family use:1 - pair, 2 - a low bench removed;3 - high bench is removed, 4 - shelves;5 - water tank, 6 - oven-stove;7 - entrance hall, 8 - dressing room

During the construction of baths, you can use different materials, but the best will be room made entirely of wood - from the foundation and ending with the roof.
We must remember that for parts of the baths require different types of wood. Thus, for the foundation piles, the first crown of the walls, log floor oak logs are needed, not dead.
For the lower rims of the walls, floor suitable pine, larch even better. For ceiling, wall cladding good lumber from spruce and lime. Shelves, benches, is best done from linden planks and beams.
In practice, as a rule, the baths are built of the same materials and using the same methods as the farmhouses and cottages, and the homestead buildings. However, there are features and rules that can raise the most convenient and cheap bath, taking into account individual needs and capabilities.
If the bath is constructed of wood svezhespilennogo, is at least a year before the raw logs to dry and will absorb moisture from the air. Heat bath have a longer and more often than the construction of the well-dried wood.

Family room with wood burning stove:1 - wash room, 2 - steam;3 - boiler for water, 4 - furnace;5 - dressing room, 6 - bench for rest;7 - Woodshed, 8 - screen;9 - veranda

Usually consists of a steam bath, komnanty changing, sometimes the hallway. This option is convenient because the hallway beyond the door of the steam room and changing room out, allowing all three rooms to heat a stove.
In a waiting room should be a hanger, bench, first-aid kit, cabinet for clean linen and bath accessories.
The dimensions of individual rooms, each developer defines the bath according to his wishes and possibilities. The optimum ratio of the area steam room, washing and dressing - 1:1,5:2. Although it is often combined steam room and car wash. In the free-standing baths, must be a waiting room or, in extreme cases - vestibule where you can place wood, water, fire fighting equipment. If you use only a bath in the warm season, you can instead restrict ourselves to the changing room with a terrace or porch roof.
Regardless of the type of sauna stove is usually placed against a wall near the front door, opposite the window. Best of all, if the oven door is in the vestibule. In this case, the furnace does not need to enter the steam room and sauna is clean. All equipment is unacceptable bath varnish or paint. The bath is desirable to have a wooden stock, rather than plastic.
Light bath log cabin, consisting of one room, sometimes put on the stones, laid on the ground. But so long served as a bath, the walls are not sags, not cracked, it should be put on the foundation.
The design of the foundation depends on the soil. If the ground under a uniform bath, dense and dry, bath bars, treated with antiseptic, put on a large natural stones. The gaps between the stones filled with mint clay.
If the ground uneven, wet or if the surface is uneven, arrange this foundation, albeit a simplified type. These foundations can be tape - in the form of continuous columnar walls and - in the form of separate columns, towers.
For a bath is usually made of concrete pier foundation, rubble or brick. You can use ready-made concrete blocks, or asbestos cement pipes filled with concrete.
The best material for the walls of a bath - wood. In the room with wooden beams a special atmosphere, climate. Walls made of logs and timbers built in the same way as the walls of the huts. There are several ways of stacking, "in oblo", "the thicket", "in a paw," etc. But the most simple and yet fairly reliable way to connect "in the socket groove."
After the end of the wall prokonopachivayut. To do this, use flax, hemp, moss, felt. Caulk should be carefully to prevent movement of air through cracks and condensation in cold weather, destructive tree.
After graduating prokonopachivaniya seams closed with wooden planks.
If it is very difficult to get wood, steam can be built from brick. These baths less fire and more durable, but they have high heat losses.
Masonry brick walls for a bath is the same as any other masonry buildings.
One of the best options available to design a bath - this frame walls. In this case, you can use any available building materials. First, to construct a foundation frame baths in general, including the roof. Then his sheathe the outside conventional boards, and inside-planed. The space between is filled with insulation valances.
The floors in the bath can be concrete and wood. In the washing and steam room is better on top of concrete floors to put wooden lattice, in the vestibule and a waiting room floor made of wood.
Before you do the floor, it is necessary to establish the foundation for the stove, the stove and make drainage. If the base of a sand bath - you can dig a hole under the washer size 0,6 x 0,6 m and 0,5 m deep and fill it with gravel, crushed stone. If the soil absorbs water poorly, instead of doing the pit sump to collect water which is drained through a tube into a pit outside the bath.
First and foremost ensure the normal flow of used water and its discharge into the sewer. His suit in the form of an inclined surface of the water-repellent material with a slant toward the pit. Pit can be made from any material with one condition, that he should be sealed. At the level of 10-12 cm from the bottom of the pin is put an end to the spillway pipe and leaned toward him set the plate, sealed fixed on all sides except the bottom edge, separated from the bottom at 50-60 mm. This device and forms a water seal that prevents the penetration of odors from sewage systems.
Wooden floors in the baths may be occurring and leakproof. In the first case, the board is laid with a gap of 5-6 mm and fixed to the joists and laid loose. This allows them to turn over and dry after bathing procedures.
If the floor is leakproof, one end of the boards should be lower than the other. Below him arrange collection tray of water and its direction in the pit.
To sex in the bath for a long time served, it must be thoroughly dried. For drying the floor and remove the moist air out from under him have space under the floor to ventilate. For this purpose, at the corner of the washing install vent risers. It is made of asbestos cement pipes or planks and output through the roof.
The bath is very important to create a proper heat and comfort mode. For ventilation of the heater is a furnace (in the furnace) and doors, vents in the windows, vent (hole in the wall above the top shelf) and air ducts.
In order to better retain heat in the bath, windows and doors make its small size and high thresholds (20 - 25 cm).
Doors can be made of boards in a single layer of outer insulation padding. Insulation can be felt, hemp, wool, foam. Cover the insulation leatherette, plywood and fiberboard.
The windows in the bath should have double glazing. It can be run on a single frame, securing the glass on both sides of the frame. Frame to the binding and the glass must fit tightly to prevent condensation on windows.
When using a bath in the cold is very important to reduce heat loss through various cracks, leaks. Special attention for this purpose should be given to windows of the correct glazing.
Dimensions of glass should be such that it tightly, without gaps and distortions in bear a binder.
If the folds are uneven, put a layer of putty bed, laid him on the glass and pressed so that the putty stuck to it and fill the gap between him and folds. Then the glass is fixed from the top has a thick putty. Excess of both sides are cut with a knife, and the surface zaravnivayut.
Damage from the top layer of putty should cover the nails and bolts, fixing the glass, otherwise they will rust and will run on the binding of red threads.
In baths with brick walls and window openings can be filled with glass blocks.
Lights in the bath should be quiet, absent-minded. For the normal coverage of only one window.
Window (or window) baths, possibly oriented toward the West, as is usually steamed in the evening.
Log in to the bath is desirable to do from the south.
To minimize heat loss in the bath, the house must be thoroughly warmed. It is important to provide windproof walls. Achieve this is simple. Enough under the exterior cladding (of course, if any) to put a dense material - cardboard, thick paper, roofing felt, roofing felt, plastic sheeting. Fascia boards at a quarter or a tongue can not be considered windproof.
It is worth also insulation ceiling. Heaters can be as mineral (glass wool, rock wool, polystyrene, polyurethane foam) and organic (sawdust, shavings, moss, straw, chaff, straw, reeds, etc.). But to build a sauna - it's only half the story. It should also set the oven to build shelves and couches, to make the bench. Of this equipment are the most important shelves for bathing. If the size of the sauna room, they are building in 2 or 3 tiers along the walls without windows. Sometimes along the adjacent walls have an average shelf.
The distance from the upper to the ceiling should be 110-120 cm
Shelves do better in fast-thin boards with a gap between them in 1 cm
But here's bathhouse built, and you can not wait to steam it. Take your time. The bath should be well to heat, and this - a kind of art. Before you use the bath, it is important to bear in oven for some time to "mature" bath, after the heater overheat. During this period, the flame in the hearth furnace goes out, the heat from the stones evenly distributed, and the walls, ceiling and floor are warm and dry. If you use a bath immediately after firing, the air may be too wet, cold shelves and benches, and the room smells of smoke.
The main element in any bath - this is, of course, the oven - stove. It allows you to heat the room to heat water for washing, get steam. For furnaces many requirements: that was inexpensive, economical, small footprint and at the same time warmed as much space, gave as much as possible with warm water and, most importantly, provide long-term dry steam.
Furnaces - Heaters for the regime of the furnace can be divided into continuous and intermittent operation. In the first type furnaces minimum thickness and number of stones. Such ovens are heated by electricity or heated liquid, gaseous fuels and equipped with automatic control and regulation.Stove with built-in water tank
Stove with built-in water tank

Batch Ovens have walls of considerable thickness, and a large amount of stones. With intensive firing stones at the bottom can be heated to 1000 ° C.
The most acceptable fuel for the stove - stoves - wood. Coal use is not worth it, because it creates very high temperatures that destroy the masonry stove. Better fuel - solid hardwood, the best to heat the stones are of birch wood.
After prolonged use of birch wood produced a lot of soot. To clear away the chimney should be aspen wood stove protopit or potato peelings.
How long must use the stove? When the wall temperature is maximum, the equilibrium is established between the heat generated in the oven and bring to the surrounding air. At this time, use the stove batch is stopped. The furnace must be continuous heat, while heat is required.
Of great importance to creating a favorable microclimate in the steam room is the selection of stones. Their weight depends on the amount of space and 35-45 kg of stones per 1 m3 of steam. The stones should not expand from the heat, crumble, crack when heated to high temperatures and sloshing water on them. Most other suitable boulders or dark gray are larger than a fist. Very long dark stones are collected from the water. It is desirable that they have been rounded for better passage of smoke and fire between them.
When laying the stones are placed below the largest and smaller - from the top. To accelerate heating the entire mass of stones laid alternately with cast iron or steel chocks blanks.
The stones should be periodically replaced with new ones.
And what a bath procedure without a broom! Broom can be made from virtually all branches of trees that bend, do not have thorns, and do not emit harmful or sticky substance. By the broom, you can add nettle, mugwort, oregano and other herbs.
Before using the broom must be dropped into cold water, so he straightened the leaves, and then shift to the hot.
Finnish sauna on the device is not very different from the usual for us to bath, but its size is smaller: for the simultaneous evaporation of 5-6 people need the room length 240 cm, width 200 and height 210 cm, the height remains unchanged. Benches provide a bath on two levels, the upper part serves as a regiment. Benches placed at right angles along the walls, making the most of the area.
The width of the top shelf should be at least 50 cm ideal distance from the regiment to the ceiling 105 cm
The walls are usually made of the Finnish sauna or timbered timbered with insulation. For the walls can also be used brick, but since its heat fairly high, thick walls of brick should be at least 52 cm
And here's another interesting design bath. It consists of vestibule space, the combustion and steam room, shower and rest rooms.
In the steam room floor is made with a bias towards the hole for drainage, and in the wall under the ceiling around the boiler vent provides a diameter of 100 mm in the steam room is also fitted a folding shelf for steam treatments. In the shower is installed with electric water tank to use a shower. In the rest room is a table (if you want - a samovar), and the bench.
In the steam room set unique indoor unit - the boiler, which consists of furnace parts, combined with podduvalom (ash), and wood from the firebox door hot-water column.
On top of the furnace is packed iron plate size 400x400 mm with a hole for the burner, which is set upright body of the old boiler.

After some simple modifications and boiler with piping form a closed circuit for hot water and space heating.
For the perception of heat, and then return to it when vaporization and to further heat the water are rocks, boulders. But instead they make good use of old porcelain insulators. They charged through the door, which also serves as a window for spraying water onto the hot stones to produce steam.
That the stones do not spill out of the cylindrical part of the boiler furnace, the slab laid grate.
It should be noted that when the closed method of heating by the passage of fire among the rocks (insulators) achieved a good accumulation of heat inside the boiler, as well as indoors. The water in the tank very quickly heated to a temperature of 90 ° C, with low wood.
Heat produced by stones, enough to provide the required temperature steam 4-5.
Very practical and relatively simple to manufacture the heater can be made of two metal barrels, one used as the firebox is equipped with its firebox door, ash pan and podduvalom with grate, the other - as a heater. To increase the durability of fly should be cast iron. On top of the firebox install a water tank in such a way that between the grate and the bottom of the tank was a distance of at least 25 cm to lay enough firewood tank equipped with a crane.
Barrel - the heater mounted on legs (rack) and connect with a barrel-firebox flue pipe with a diameter of about 20 cm
At the top of the wall opposite the door must arrange the size of 220x160 mm for the water to steam. Barrel-heater must be equipped with flue pipe with a diameter of 150 mm.