Culinary Traditions of the Russian people have their roots in antiquity. Even in pre-Christian Russia, when Carnival was celebrated and sacrificed bloodless sacrifice to the gods were once known for such ritual dishes like porridge, pancakes, spring larks and others.
The Slavs were engaged in arable farming, cultivated rye, barley, wheat, oats, millet. In the tenth century, the allegations of travel, the Slavs "most sow millet." At harvest time they take the millet grain in the bucket, raise them to heaven and say: "Lord, you who gave us food so far, give it to us now and in abundance."
A little later comes the ritual porridge - kutya. It was prepared from cereals with honey. The usual mess of flour cooked Slavs, which was ground grain with water or milk. Of flour to make bread - unleavened cakes first, then rolls and pies, cooked with honey.
In Russia were engaged in cultivation and vegetable crops. The most popular were cabbage, cucumbers, turnips, rutabaga and turnip.
The ancient chronicles, tells the story of the state, wars and disasters, though sometimes mentioned facts, one way or another related to food and nutrition.
Year 907 - in the annals of the monthly dues is called wine, bread, meat, fish and vegetables (in those days was called vegetables and fruits).
969-year th - Prince Svyatoslav says Pereyaslavl conveniently located - there converge "ovoscheve raznolichnye" of Greece, and honey from Russia. Already at the time table of the Russian princes and wealthy people decorated with pickled lemons, raisins, walnuts and other gifts of the eastern countries, and the honey was not only an everyday staple, but also the subject of foreign trade.
971 th year - during the famine was so expensive that the horse's head was worth polgrivny. Interestingly, the chronicler says no beef about, not about pork, but the horse meat. Although it occurs during the winter forced the troops of Prince Svyatoslav on the way from Greece, but the fact still remarkable. Therefore, the prohibition against eating horse meat in Russia was not, but used it, probably, in exceptional cases. This is evidenced by the relatively small proportion of horse bones in the garbage, which are archaeologists.
Usually, to describe how we would now say "price index", indicating the cost of food everyday. So, another chronicler reports that in 1215 poor harvest in Novgorod "was a possibility of two turnips hryvnia."
996-year d - describes the feast, which was a lot of meat from cattle and feral, and drove around town and people were handing out bread, meat, fish, vegetables, mead and kvass. The brigade murmur that she has a wooden spoon, and Prince Vladimir ordered to give them silver.
997-th year - the prince ordered to gather a handful of oats or wheat, or bran, and commanded wives to "tsezh" and cook pudding.
So bit by bit you can collect in the annals of our many interesting information about nutrition in the X-XI centuries. Describing the simplicity of manners of Prince Svyatoslav (964), the chronicler says that the prince in the campaigns along the wagons did not take the meat and not cooked and thinly sliced horse meat, beef or beast ate them ispekshi on coals.
Roasting over charcoal - an ancient method of cooking, which is characteristic for all peoples, and Russian is not borrowed from the peoples of the Caucasus and the East, and used since ancient times. The historical monuments of literary XV-XVI centuries are often referred to chickens, geese, rabbits, "spinning", ie, on a spit. Nevertheless, the usual, the most common way of cooking meat was cooking and frying large pieces of Russian stoves.
For a long time cooking was strictly a family affair. Was in charge of them, usually the most senior age women in the family. Professional cooks were first introduced at the princely courts, and then - in the monastic refectory.
Cooking in Russia identified as a profession only in the XI century., Although the mention of chef professionals already found in the annals of the tenth century.
In the Laurentian Chronicle (1074) states that the Kiev-Pechersk Monastery was the whole hut with a large staff of cooks monks. In Prince Gleb was the "elder chef" on behalf of Torchin, the first known Russian cooks.
The monastery was very skilled chef. Prince Izyaslav, who had been outside the borders of the Russian land, much battered, was especially fond of "meal" Crypt monks. Survived even the description of work chefs of the era:
"And put on sackcloth and Bb on the hair shirt votolyanu retinue, and the beginning of ugliness tvoriti and pomagat beginning povaram, cooking at his brother ... And matins idyashe in povarnitsyu and prigotovashe fire, water, firewood, and other chefs pridyasu ot take. "
In times of Kievan Rus were a cook in the service of the prince's courts and great houses. Some of them were even a few cooks. This is evidenced by the description of a house rich in XII., Which refers to the set of "sokachy" ie, the cooks, "working and making potm be with."
Russian cooks piously preserved the tradition of folk cuisine, which serves as the basis of their professional skills, as evidenced by the earliest written records - "Domostroy» (XVI century). 'Painting the royal dishes "(1611-1613 gg.) Table books and Patriarch Filaret Boyar Boris Ivanovich Morozov, consumables monastic books, etc. They are often referred to popular dishes - soup, fish soup, cereal, cakes, pancakes, pie, pies, jelly, kvass, Medcom and others.
The nature of cooking dishes of Russian cuisine is largely due to the peculiarities of the Russian stove, which, as a focus for centuries served as a true and simple urban common people and nobles the boyars, townspeople and peasants. Old Russia can not imagine how, without chopped huts, with or without the famous Russian oven.
Russian stove his mouth was always turned towards the door, so that the smoke is the shortest way he could get out of the house through the open door into the hall. Furnaces in smoky huts were big, they could cook several dishes simultaneously. Despite the fact that food is sometimes slightly gave the smoke a Russian stove was and benefits: food cooked in it, distinguished by a unique taste.
The peculiarities of the Russian stove caused such features of our cuisine, as cooking pots and iron pots, frying fish and poultry into large chunks, plenty of steamed and baked dishes, a wide range of baked goods - cakes, Krupenikov, pies, pie, etc.
Since the XVI century, we can talk about the differences of the monastery kitchen, rural and royal. In the monastery played a major role vegetables, herbs, vegetables and fruits. They formed the basis of power of monks, especially during Lent. Rural cuisine was less rich and varied, but also in his own research: a festive dinner was supposed to serve not less than 15 dishes. Lunch at all - the main meal in Russia. In the old days, more or less wealthy homes on a long table made of strong oak boards, covered with embroidered cloth, and in turn served four dishes: cold appetizer, soup, main - in nepostnoe time usually meat - and cakes or pies, who ate "for dessert ".
Appetizers were very different, but chief among them were all kinds of salads - a mixture of finely chopped vegetables, usually cooked, which you can add anything you want - from apple to cold veal. Of these occurred, in particular, known to every Russian house vinaigrette. By the end of the XVII century became popular jelly (from the word "chill" that is cold: first, jelly and must be cold, otherwise will be spread on a plate, and secondly, it is usually eaten in the winter, from Christmas to Epiphany, that is, the coldest time of year). Then there were the ears of different fish, corned beef and sausage. Bewitched her exquisite taste of foreigners pickle. Soup - remember this proverb: "Soup da kasha - our food" - and so, soup was served with mushrooms, fish, with pies.
Of the most popular drinks were berry and fruit juices with Morse, as well as a tincture. Mead - the drink based on honey bee - was stronger, but then came the vodka. But the main Russian drink kvass old, remained. With what only it did not do - from up raisin mint!
But at the feasts of the boyars began to appear a lot of food, amounting to fifty. At the royal table was served the same 150-200. Lunch lasted 6-8 hours in a row, and included nearly a dozen changes, each of which in turn consists of two dozen of similar dishes: a dozen varieties of fried venison, salted fish, a dozen varieties of pancakes and pies.
Dishes prepared from the whole animal or plant, all kinds of crushing, grinding and crushing food were only used in fillings for pies. Yes, and then very sparingly. Fish for pies, for example, not crushed, but plastovali.
At feasts were made to drink honey before the meal, as an aphrodisiac appetite, and after the conclusion of peers. Food is washed down with kvass and beer. This has happened to the XV century. In the XV century appeared in Russia "bread wine", ie vodka.
In the XVII century began to change the order of meals (this applies to rich holiday table.) Now it was 6-8 to change and every change served only one dish:
- Hot (soup, stew, fish soup);
- Cold (okroshka, Botvin, jelly, jellied fish, corned beef);
- Roast (meat, poultry);
- Positive (boiled or fried fish, hot);
- Savory pies, pie;
- Porridge (sometimes served with soup);
- Cake (cakes, pies);
As for drinks, for example, the registry of the court dispensed with a hearty reception of the Polish ambassadors was: "Vstol in order (from the wholesome yard) was about pitey moderated. Emperor: 1 feed: a novel, brown sugar, renskago by Kupka, 2 feed: malmazei, mushkatelya, alkanes, by Kupka zh 3 flow: Cypress, French wine, wine tserkovnago by Kupka zh; honey red: 1 feed: vishnevago, malinovago, smorodinnago by the bucket, 2 feed: 2 buckets of honey malinovago, honey bucket is seigniorial 3 flow: 2 buckets of honey mozhzhevelovago, honey bucket cheremhovago, white honey: 1 feed: 2 buckets of honey with patochnago gvozdtsy, honey bucket kovshechnago 2 Feed: 2 buckets of honey with mushkatom, honey bucket kovshechnago 3 flow: 2 buckets of honey with cardamom, honey bucket kovshechnago. Results about the Great Emperor: Roman, brown sugar, renskago, malmazei, mushkatelya, alkanes, Kinah, wine frantsuzskago, wine, church, 6 cups, but with 6 charok vodka red honeys: vishnevago, malinovago, smorodinnago, kostenichnago, cheremhovago, mozhzhevelovago, obvarnago by the bucket, honey white: kovshechnago with gvozdtsy with mushkatom, cardamom, 8 cups, 9 cups saharnago. About the boyars, and about the roundabout, and about the duma people, and about the messengers, and about the royal nobility: 2 cups of vodka from the novels of anise, cinnamon tozh, 8 cups of vodka Boyar, Boyar 5 buckets novel tozh, 5 buckets of brown sugar, 2 buckets renskago, 5 buckets of alkanes, 4 buckets of wine fryazhskago, 3 buckets of wine tserkovnago, 8 buckets of wine vishnevago, 4 buckets of honey malinovago ... "And that's not the end of the roster.
However, despite the difference in the number of dishes from the rich and the poor, the nature of the food preserved national traits. Separation occurred later, with the time of Peter.
The formation of the Russian cuisine influenced and cultural exchange with neighboring nations. Immediately, as soon after the baptism of Rus in Bulgaria comes from the Slavic alphabet, were translated and rewritten the book, not just prayer. Russian reader at this time, little by little acquainted with the literary works, historical chronicles, the natural-scientific writings, collections of sayings, in a very short historical period - the time of Vladimir, and especially his son Yaroslav - Russ is attached to the culture of Bulgaria and Byzantium, the Russian people actively assimilate the legacy of ancient Greece, Rome and the ancient East. Along with the development of spiritual and cultural life in Russia, the introduction of church canons has changed the nature of power. Came into use herbs and spices: black pepper and allspice, cloves and ginger, foreign fruits - lemons, fresh vegetables - zucchini, sweet peppers, etc., new cereal - "Saracen wheat" (rice) and buckwheat.
Russian "Kuhar" borrowed a lot of secrets from the masters who came to Muscovy Tsar grad - "men skilled, highly experienced not only by the writings of the icons, but the kitchen and art." Familiarity with the Greek-Byzantine cuisine was for our kitchen is very useful.
No less strong was the influence on Russian cuisine, and our neighbors to the east - India. China, Persia. The first Russian people who have visited these countries and brought back a lot of new experiences. Learned a great deal of Russian famous book Athanasius Nikitin, "Going Beyond Three Seas" (1466-1472 gg.) Containing a description of unfamiliar foods in Russia - dates, ginger, coconut, pepper, cinnamon. A book Basil loon (written in 1634-1637.) Pushed the horizons of our countrymen. They learned about the foods that people ate the Caucasus and the Middle East. Here are his observations about how the East was carried sugar: "Yes, in the same Egyptian born a cane, and from there to make sugar. A cane digging near the sea ... and arrive in time as a cane, and yasti it as a honeycomb. "
But not only the practical methods of cooking mastered by our ancestors. They wonder about the nature and occurring at the same phenomena. Very long possessed the secrets of making dough, as mentioned by the chronicles: the monks of the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra able to cook a long time cherstveyuschy custard bread.
Already in the XI-XII centuries. Russian was known to many pretty sophisticated methods making kvass, Medkov, hmeliny. They can be found in the famous ancient Trawniki, as well as in various "Lives." For example, were widely known kvass - Zhitny, honey, apple, yashny etc. Our ancestors not only well versed in the intricacies of cooking different kinds of kvass, but the mechanism of action of yeast, the yeast, as evidenced by numerous teachings of the ancients:
"Wheat and tolchashe melyashe, and flour seyashe and paste mesyashe and kvasyashe." Or: "A brew them sour kisloshnuyu guscheyu rather than yeast. ' "Kvass also separates copulation and glued the dough and make bread and zhidok buhon."
And other literary sources confirm understanding of Russian people in the food. For example, in "The Book, glagolemoy cool Vertograd» (XVII cent.) Contains numerous arguments about the distinction, for example, cow's milk from goat, rabbit meat from the bears, etc. It is interesting that even then the Russian people had an idea of the antiseptic properties of the protein "Egg protein is put into a medicine ... on sores and wounds all subcutaneous. Also on oprelinu posoblyaet protein, in hot water obmachivayuchi prikladyvati "(section" of eggs kurechih ").
For an overview of nutrition in ancient times in Russia give a few recipes then popular dishes.
Turnips are cleaned, boiled in water until soft, cool, scrape the skin, cut out core. Excavated flesh finely chopped, add the minced meat and fill this stuffing turnips. Sprinkle with grated cheese, sprinkled with butter and baked.
Cereal pour warm water and leave for a day in a warm place. Then drain and squeeze. In the liquid, add salt, sugar and boil, stirring constantly, until thickened. In the hot pudding add milk, stir and pour into dish, greased with butter, put in the cold. When the jelly cools, cut it into portions and serve with cold boiled milk or yogurt.
Peas are fully tenderize and pounded, seasoned with salt obtained puree and mold (you can use tins, cups, etc., buttered). Pea puree molded spread on a plate and sprinkled with sunflower oil with fried onions, sprinkle with herbs.
Bread soup peasant.
Small dry crust of white bread fried in fat with chopped parsley and chopped onion, then add water, salt and pepper and bring to boil. Stirring constantly, pour the soup in thin stream mashed eggs. This soup tastes like meat, you should immediately bring to the table.
To get a punch and sugar in a spoon heated over a weak fire, until a dark brown syrup. Honey dissolved in 4 cups water and simmer for 20-25 minutes, then add spices and simmer for another 5 minutes. The resulting mixture through gauze and add color to punch. Serve hot.
A head of cabbage chopped very finely not put in a pot, cover with whipped eggs with milk, salt, cover the pan and place in oven. Cabbage is considered finished when the gain beige.