Russian cities - Adler

Russian cities - Adler

Adler - the southernmost point of the Greater Sochi. Its name comes from the Abkhazian "artlar", which translated into Russian language means "pier". In the first half of the XIX century the area was a place of exile for disgraced poets, writers, political figures, military officers. In 1837, there died a writer, Decembrist A.A.Bestuzhev-Marly, a friend of Pushkin and Griboyedov. For participation in rebellion, December 14, 1825, he was sentenced to death. To enforce the sentence did not have time - penalty was replaced by a reference to Yakutsk for 20 years. From there a goal in 1829 was sent to the Caucasus as a private in the army. June 3, 1837 from Sukhumi left the squadron with troops and went to a course on Cape Adler. Disgraced Decembrist much thought. In one of his essays he wrote: "Give the Caucasus peace and do not look for an earthly paradise on the Euphrates he was here, he's here!" Under the "earthly paradise" Bestuzhev meant beauty and richness of Caucasian nature, "and that to disastrous climate change - all of a devil around the Black Sea." The king knew where to deport undesirables! In the Caucasus, the best sons of Russia, the color and the pride of the nation - the Decembrists' death was waiting for, if not from a bullet of the mountaineers, because of malaria. June 7, 1837 outlaw, whose name was surrounded by a halo of romance, Alexander Bestuzhev-Marly landed with troops on Cape Adler. In battle he was killed. Many did not want to believe it, especially since the last moments of his life are shrouded in mystery, the body was found. Name Marly became overgrown with legends. In 1913 adlertsy decided to immortalize the memory of the writer and the Decembrist, and soon the sea was divided into square, and it set a modest plaster bust Bestuzhev. The present monument was opened in 1957 on the initiative of the old-timer Adler, IK Nedolya historian and archaeologist A. Soloviev. Its authors - local residents, SM Tretyakov, and S. Sklyansky. Pictured in uniform, which was on him when he brought the rebels to the Senate Square, looking towards the sea Bestuzhev. Like he said about himself through the mouth of one of his heroes: "I would like to be shoronennym on the beach at the foot of the mountains, through the eyes of noon let me mountain breeze is blowing, and let the surf roaring sing and cherish my eternal sleep." When the Caucasian War, provoked by the Turkish mountaineers began to leave their homes. Whole tribes left, heading towards the sea. Waiting for them to Turkish courts Highlanders sailed to Asia Minor, hoping to find shelter there, and a new happiness, but met only poverty and misery. Empty region has long remained uninhabited. In 1866 it was approved the Regulation on the settlement areas south of Tuapse to the border with Abkhazia. This is the territory of modern Sochi.

But she mastered slowly. Immigrants from Central Russia were helpless in the new environment and could not adjust to the unfamiliar and alien to them naturally. The region was rampant malaria take many lives. Swamps and dense forests - that saw the coast of the settlers. Yet gradually they settle. "In the 80s come in pre-property of Kamenetz-Podolsk province, previously among the 20 households who had settled in the town Ahshtyr, 10 miles upstream Mzymta, originally occupied the place left and went to Adler," they who have put the beginning of its modern history. Development of the region prevented the absolute off-road. At the end of the last century, construction began on the highway from Novorossiysk to Batumi. The central provinces of Russia were covered by the famine, and thousands of starving peasants moved to the south. Of the one hundred thousand workers about twenty thousand died from hunger, poor working conditions, and malaria. With the construction of roads populated coast went faster, and at the beginning of this century, Adler has represented the town with a population of several thousand people.

Local people have long been engaged in horticulture and viticulture, fishing and hunting. It grew tobacco. However, moisture and rain, the swamp - breeding grounds for malaria, which until the middle of the XX century was a disaster for indigenous people, scared off tourists. Warm, humid climate favored the spread of mosquitoes. Particularly affected persons. Across the river is Mzymta Imereti Valley. Old-timers remember well the time when it was completely waterlogged, covered with alder wood, overgrown with ferns and thorn. Clouds off in the swamps of the anopheles mosquito bloodsucker, a bite which causes illness with fever. Consider that almost every resident of experienced then myself to malaria - a disease severe, debilitating. Mortality was high from it, and the people of these places called "Valley of Death." The whole complex of measures to combat malaria led Sochi doctor Sergey Sokolov, who took over the account and carefully examined all the ponds and wetlands in the area of ​​the city and surrounding areas. For malaria were drainage works, created by anti-malarial plant planted weeping willows and eucalyptus trees that act as living pumps, draining the area around, and the eucalyptus trees and into the air natural antibiotics - volatile. On the coast the water was diluted with pemphigus - a plant that captures the mosquito larvae in their bubbles and destroy them. In small ponds and marshes produced viviparous fishes - mosquito fish, which destroyed the masses of the larvae of the mosquito. The idea of ​​settling with mosquito fish also belonged to Dr. Sokolov. Maloprotochnye ditches and creeks flooded areas of oil, which created a film on the surface of the water and destroying mosquito larvae. To start this work shortly after the Civil War, doctors in 1956 were able to make an official announcement that a swamp fever is over. Clearly, in those days, when a terrible disease was raging, few painted rosy prospects: the resort and ague - the neighborhood is not compatible.

Others expressed categorically: no resort here can not be! Or, for example, as follows: "The question of whether a European living here remains in doubt" ("Journal of Medicine", 1890). Now we seem strange similar conclusions. Fine under the southern sky, this is the "European" live, medical treatment and leisure. True, people have recently Adler weakly believed that their town would soon become the resort of all-union significance. The District was formed in 1934. He developed in the agricultural area, here there were 79 small-scale farms. In 1936, Adler had 79 spas with 300 seats. The same number of them remained and in 1961, when the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR Adler (together with Lazarevskom) was included in the resort of Sochi. The fate of a modest village abruptly changed. All have become a yardstick to measure - the resort. Not so long ago the person was determined small houses of the village. Today, they live out their days. Now you can look at Adler with a height of 15-th floor. Look and wonder, something has changed as handsome!

This resort area of ​​Sochi is located between the rivers and Psou Kudepsta. The district includes the city of Adler, towns Moldovka, Cossack ford, Galitsin, Kepsha, Funny, famous Krasnaya Polyana, and others. The area is rich in mineral waters and curative mud, which is widely used in many spas resort. The district administrative center - Adler located at the mouth of the valley spacious Mzymta, on both banks. The city is located 22 kilometers southeast of Sochi, 8 km from the host. This coming by sea, by rail or by car on excellent highways. Adler - air gate of the resort of Sochi. Airport "Adler" is located two kilometers from the railway station Adler. It is associated with a city bus bus stations in Sochi and Adler. History The name Adler is, according to one version, from the noble family Abaza sadzskoy Ard-ba and the end of the "ler," indicator of the plural in Turkish. "Adler" - Russified form of the Turkish word "Ar-dly lar," which literally means "people of society Ard." In the past, village society Aredba - Ardykuadzh located in a valley right bank in the area Mzymta Liash, near the Cape, known in Russian sources, 1830 - ies under the name Adler. It consisted of several familial and tribal villages, and numbered up to 430 yards. Residents of the valley were prosperous. Aredba Brothers ("Adler Princes") respected by the people, but no authority over them had not. At Cape Adler 400 m from the mouth of a huge oak Mzymta grew, and was a sanctuary Liash, where the surrounding population was going to prayers, the people's congresses and the courts have long been at the beach Adler conducted a lively maritime trade, including with Turkey. In good weather conditions, light sailing -rowing boats going up the river Mzymta. The river raft, harvested in the valley. These goods were brought from other parts of the Black Sea. During the Caucasian War in June 1837, landed at Cape Adler Russian naval landing. The battle was lost Decembrist and writer AA Bestuzhev-Marly.

Soon, half a mile from the coast, the Russian built a fort of the Holy Spirit. Erection of fortifications could not completely block this part of the coast and stop trading links with the local population by Turkey. Fort has been repeatedly attacked by Ubykh and Sadz. In 1854, during the Crimean War, the Russian garrison was forced to sail in Novorossiysk, and strengthening the blow. Russian troops again appeared on the coast in March 1864. Prior to 1874 this former building there was a military post Adler. Coastal and cordon service on this and other posts carrying Kuban Cossacks. The indigenous population was to move to the Kuban valley under the control of the royal military authorities or to emigrate to Turkey. In the highlanders was unusually strong sense of love for their motherland and for freedom, so go to their homes for them was like a death. The outcome of the same faith in Turkey seemed to them at that time the only way out. Vacated after the departure of the mountaineers gradually colonized the land Moldavians, Poles, Germans and Greeks, and later Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian. Cape Adler populated slowly. In 1891, Adler has 125 permanent residents, the Slavs and Moldovans, while others are living temporarily or were foreign nationals. In the village there was the Holy Orthodox Church Dukhovskaya and rural single-class school. By 1915, Adler has changed significantly. In the village there were Customs, an agency of several shipping companies, over one hundred commercial establishments, including shops, stores, coffee shops, pharmacies, cinema, several hotels, agriculture, government, hospital resettlement, two-year college of the Ministry of Education. The population of the village and its surroundings Adler engaged in farming, domestic livestock, fisheries, forest crafts, including logging, and to do so in the most merciless manner.

Very quickly, a beautiful valley, covered with forests, devastated. One of the main industries were profitable and tobacco. It was cultivated Greeks and Armenians, but also in the north county Czechs. Have tried to grow tobacco and the Slavs. Gardeners cultivated cabbage, tomatoes and watermelons. Cabbage seedlings deliver along the coast, watermelons sold in Sochi on the spot, were prepared from tomato tomato paste. Are much less population is engaged in horticulture and viticulture. The gardens were grown mainly plum and filbert nuts, pears and apples, which are exported for sale from local grapes produced wine for their own use. In autumn and spring in Adler held agricultural fairs. Trade-in fishing, hunting dolphins, short sea shipping in Adler engaged in the Turks and Greeks. Catch flounder, mackerel, salmon and other fish. Seafood sold in the local market. In small amounts bred trout. Between Adler and Krasnaya Polyana highway was built Krasnopolyanskaya a stretch of 50 miles. Vacationers came from Sochi usually the sea, and then headed to Red Meadow on a tour by car, Phaeton, stagecoach, or rulers. Big progress for Adler those years was draining wetlands, contributing to the fight against fevers suffered by residents of Adler and his surroundings. However, to overcome the debilitating fever carried by mosquitoes, ultimately failed. Therefore, Adler, in spite of a great climate, beautiful surroundings and comfortable coastline, not developed as a resort town. Only after the complete victory over the swamp fever in 1956 in the area appeared prospects for development of the spa-union value. In 1961, Adler was included in the resort of Sochi. Adler Modern - this is a wonderful resort town with high-rise hotels and spas, beautiful parks and gardens, beautiful beaches and plenty of seating. Attractions The area around the Adler is rich in mineral waters and curative mud. At 39 kilometers from Adler, in the valley Chvizhepse is a source of carbon dioxide arsenic water, the so-called Sochi mineral water. Imereti Bay is rich in clay silt. They are used to mud in many spas resort. Adler is known for its landscaped pebble beach, warm sea, caressing sun. But not only the sea and the sun can not only attract spa guests to these shores.


In the eastern part of canyon ridge propylene Mzymta, forming a gorge Ahtsu. The gorge up to three kilometers deep - about 800 meters, width - 20-30 meters. The gorge is Krasnopolyanskaya highway. Overhanging rock, the gap at the bottom and a narrow winding road make a good impression on passers-by the way. The people that her site was called "carried the Lord!".

However, these places so picturesque, that attracted the attention of famous directors and cameramen, writers movie "The Diamond Arm", "Roman and Francesca," the individual episodes that were filmed on a mountain road. At the thirty-fourth kilometer highway, the narrowest point of the gorge is a tunnel. January 13, 1968 there has been a landslide, which blocked the river and formed a lake depth of 18 meters. The river washed away the dam, but after 7 years the lake has disappeared. But in the river so far are huge boulders, among which, foaming, its waters "mad" river Mzymta. In twenty-two kilometers northeast of Adler, on Krasnopolyanskaya highway, four kilometers to the south-west of the village Chvizhepse, near the confluence of the rivers Mzymta Kepsha situated village Kepsha. The village has a lively corner of the fauna of the Caucasus, not far - a shelter Ahtsu tourist hotel "Burgas". In the gorge Ahtsu at the bottom of which seethes river Mzymta thirty-five kilometers from Adler to Krasnaya highway on the right bank of the canyon at an altitude of 250 meters located Kepshinskaya cave. It is found parking ancient people. People settled here at a time when the air temperature around was very low, about as it is now at an altitude of 1800 meters.


Twenty kilometers north of the ridge located Ahtsu Adler, known for its limestone. There are many craters, pits and caves. The largest of them - a cave underground Khost, a length of 550 meters, mine Unexpected, the depth of 420 meters. Space Mine, 196 meters deep, is known for a huge audience, length 48 width 40 and winds. In the upper East River Valley hosts a rare phenomenon in the Caucasus - a natural karst bridge, overlapping the valley for 45 yards.

Adler silt mud.

Treatment silt muds enriched in hydrogen sulfide Matsesta water, offer the most Sochi sanatoria. These procedures are indicated for many diseases, mainly in the chronic phase: diseases of the musculoskeletal system, nervous system, female reproductive system, digestive system and others.

MUSEUM OF HISTORY Adler district.

The guide will tell you about the interesting pages of history of the area: a prehistoric man found in a cave Akhshtyr, about the ancient peoples who inhabited these regions, the difficulties of everyday life and the first settlers, the development of resort and much more. Duration of the tour -1.5 hours. Opening hours: from 9-00 to 18-00, the day off - Sunday and Monday. Address: Adler Street. Karl Marx, 8. Tel. 44-54-28.

MONUMENT Decembrists AA Bestuzhev-Marly.

Next to the museum of the history of Adler district, Bestuzhev Park, obelisk, pyramid, on one side - the bronze bas-relief of the writer-Decembrist. Exiled to the Caucasus, he was missing here in June 1837, during the landing at Cape Adler. BEACON Adler. This is one of the oldest Black Sea lighthouses. It was built in 1898 and still operates. The visibility range of -13 miles. Located near the beach resort "South Shore".

Amusement Park, Adler district.

Address: Adler Street. Daisies, 1. Tel. 44-00-95, 44-41-65.

Caucasus State Biosphere Reserve.

Located on the northern and southern slopes of the Western Caucasus and is the second largest in Europe. As part of unspoiled nature with unique flora and fauna, and in 1979 he received the status of a biosphere, and in 1999 was included in the list of World Natural Heritage by UNESCO. His area - more than 280 000 hectares. There are more than 120 lakes and the largest of them - Lake of Silence. A lot of karst caves. Only in the Highlands Lagonakskom them over 130. On the mountain tops are about 60 glaciers. Here is very diverse flora - about 3,000 species. For example, ferns - about 40 species of orchids as well - more than 30. Every fifth plant is endemic to (a limited distribution) or relic (it has an ancient history.) You can see the rhododendron, boxwood, wild grapes, yew, which reaches the age of 2, 5 thousand years. Subalpine meadows at times exceed a height of 3 m. Among the hundreds of species of fungi found subtropical and tropical species of mushrooms and flowers. 55 species of plants in the reserve are listed as endangered. The fauna is also no less varied and interesting. Only insects are about 10,000 species. Among the large animals encountered a brown bear, bison, chamois, red deer, roe deer, the West Caucasian tur, wild boar, lynx. In total, more than 70 species included in the Red Book and is under state protection. Visit Reserve unorganized tourists prohibited. On the perimeter buffer zone was created about 1 km wide and cordon system, where employees are permanent residents of the reserve. But there are routes developed an exclusive eco-tourism: small groups of tourists are conducted tours of the unique places. The cost of these trips is quite high, which hinders the flow of willing and helps preserve the protected area for children. Allocated for mass tourism and the plateau Lagonaki Fisht-Oshtenovsky array is running a moderate fee and visits to a certain mode. Another unique branch of the reserve - tisosamshitovaya grove in Khost. It is annually visited by more than 20 thousand people. Address of the Office of the reserve: Adler Street. Karl Marx, 8. Tel. 44-51-36, 69-20-03.

Ahshtyrskaya CAVE.

The ancient site of primitive man of the early Paleolithic. Cave length of 500 meters, has a few side branches. Beautiful view from a height of 120 meters of the gorge and the river Mzymta. Located along the road from Adler to Krasnaya Polyana, near the village economy forelevodcheskim Cossack Brod.

LAKE Kardyvach.

If you like adventure tourism and zapasetes patience, you can see the fabulous beautiful alpine lake in the headwaters of the river at an altitude of Mzymta 1850 meters above sea level. Even in summer the water is not heated above 12 degrees. From this stems the river Mzymta. Emerging from the lake, the river soon overturned the 15-meter waterfall Emerald. The lake is located on the reserve, and you can get here only as part of a special tour on foot or by helicopter from Krasnaya Polyana.


Living Rosary at the best rainbow Black Sea Coast. Incredible neighborhood of plants from Japan, America, the Himalayas, and Africa. The park has two ponds, mirror-like surface on which the proud swans glide. Along with Sochi, "arboretum" is an example of landscape architecture. Address: Adler, Nagorno deadlock. Tel. 44-02-92, 44-49-24.

On a visit to beekeeper.

A fascinating tale of an experienced beekeeper on a gray Caucasian bees. Tasting sweet mountain honey, bee products are able to buy at first hand. Be sure to stock up for winter with useful beekeeping, such as pollen, royal jelly, propolis, which will help you and your children during the winter to strengthen the immune system and resist many diseases.

Krasnaya Polyana.

The picturesque mountain resort in the Adler district, located 85 km from the center of Sochi, at the foot Aibga at 600 meters. Everything is there for skiers: gear, ski tows, hotels and camp sites. Snow in the village is from January to March, and after the commissioning of the fourth stage of the lift ski season extended from November to May. In the rest of the year offers dozens of hiking trails (including 3 - 5-day, when you can take with children) on the mountain Achishkho, Aibga, a mountain lake Kardyvach to mineral springs and waterfalls and lakes. As well as picnicking, fishing in a mountain river, paragliding, horseback riding, rafting on the catamaran, visiting the apiary honey tasting and most importantly - pure mountain air and communing with nature.

DEEP NR (cave and waterfall).

Located halfway between Adler to Krasnaya Polyana. Getting here is not easy. But if you get - you will see an underground river, a small lake and twenty-meter waterfall. The most difficult obstacle - the ascent and descent of the cliff near the waterfall by climbing equipment (insures the instructor).


Located 40 minutes from the center of Sochi, on the way to Krasnaya Polyana. You will see a cave, a waterfall and a blue lake.


You will be able to touch the mysterious ancient structures, peers Egyptian pyramids. For example, a large dolmen group (17 facilities) is located 7 km north-east of the village Medoveevka. This is the road to Krasnaya Polyana, in the mountains to the left of the village Chvizhepse. There are dolmens in the vicinity of Krasnaya Polyana. The road to it will indicate local turinstruktory.