"Volga" GAZ-24 - Soviet passenger car of the middle class, mass-produced at the Gorky Automobile Plant, from 1970 to 1992
The official birthday of GAZ-24 is July 15, 1970, when the new "Volga" has replaced the old assembly line and was the only passenger model, the Gorky Automobile Plant. However, the year of the beginning of its production can be considered and the 1968-th. In fact in 1967 the Soviet public have announced the imminent appearance of GAZ-24, in February 1968 showed it to the Soviet automobile industry exhibition at ENEA and by the end of the year on a bypass machine technology have collected 31. At the end of 1969, established an assembly line and made another 215, so that the GAZ-24, dated July 15, 1970 is not the first! But in 1970 marked the centenary of Lenin, and the new model had to be a gift, "beloved leader".
To work on a new modelyu.1961 th at the factory began in earnest was appointed chief designer Alexander Nevzorov (the author of the GAZ-21), artists, designers - Leonid and Nikolai Kireev Tsikolenko. Design began in a big way - as many as four engines have planned: the base V6, powerful V8 engine from the "Seagull", economical four-cylinder petrol and cheap to manufacture four-cylinder engine from the GAZ-21 taxis. Shestitsilindrovik expected to issue in versions with cast iron and aluminum cylinder block and complete standard automatic transmission, and diesel and the "Quartet" - a three-stage mechanical with the switch on the steering column and automatically connects overdrive. If these plans come true!
The appearance of GAZ-24 was born a long and difficult. In the first year of the artist-designers have tried to "flatten" the body "twenty-first" and provide him with four headlights, but it looked all still archaic. It was built to search six clay models, which differ greatly in appearance, drawn countless sketches - frankly, "rip off" the new "Volga" with a specific foreign model did not. Finally, by 1965 the machine has realistic shape - on the sketches could see her "person" as two or four circular and rectangular headlights, with horizontal or vertical slats front grille.
One of the prototypes
At the same time, gets new designation GAZ-24 followed by GAZ-23 - unknown to ordinary Soviet citizens modification "twenty-first," with 5.5 liter V8 engine from the "Seagull" GAZ-13 (195 hp..), Intended for GON and the KGB. In 1966, there were running prototypes, and the next year, "Autoexport" announced a new product. But mass production was delayed. In July of 1967 broke out, "Six-Day War" between the Arabs and Israel - USSR was helping the Arab side to the detriment of their own plans. Therefore, at the time of the "official" start of a series of novelty was not the first freshness - it was relevant to the mid-60s.
From a technical point of view of the machine represents a significant step forward compared to the previous model, although the development was not revolutionary but evolutionary.
Important innovations were fully synchronized four-on Forward transmission, gidrovakuumny amplifier (a licensed copy of the site Girling PowerStop) and divider circuits in the brake system, brakes with automatic adjustment of the wheels, forged beam front suspension, improved interior heating with blow back glass, dual-chamber carburetor, 14-inch alloy wheels, parking brake actuator to the rear wheels (the GAZ-21 was the transmission parking brake, rather unreliable), curved side glass.
Significantly reduced the number of lubrication points chassis, power elements of the body become stronger, and the body - harder due to welded (not screwed, as the GAZ-21) rear fenders for the exterior has been introduced more resistant synthetic enamel marks the MLS. Were in the car and archaic features such as pivot and front spring rear suspension, drum brakes on all wheels.
Main, the most fundamental difference from the previous model, has been box, distinguished not only design but also a common ideology, and most fully incorporated all the new things that come into the world automotive practice in the period 1955-1965 years.
The principal difference body GAZ-21 and GAZ-24 is the height. It differs quite substantially, by 13 cm (1490 mm versus 1620). Decrease Headroom was one of the major trends in automobile automotive those days, and in a not only cosmetic in nature - the height of the body largely determines the layout of the car.
Lower the car had low center of gravity, increasing stability and control, especially at high speed. Passengers in the lower car shakes less off-road. Reduced roof also provided a more rational distribution of passengers in the car, better aerodynamics by reducing the frontal area (the largest) section of the body, etc.
At the same time by lowering the seat cushions in the cabin space is almost not affected over the front seats the place became even more by using a flat panel roof. Salon itself is wider (although the width of the machine as a whole has not changed), due to the rectangular contours of the vehicle cabin width was almost the same along the entire length, unlike the GAZ-21, which has significantly narrowed in the interior front and rear. Waist line body GAZ-24 is lower than that of GAZ-21, and roof rack and door frames were thinner, thus significantly increasing the area of glazing, so - do interior lighter, better visibility, especially through the side windows. Visibility ago has been significantly improved, despite the thicker rear roof pillars, because the size (especially width) of the rear windows have been increased quite significantly.
Until 1977, the front was folding third place
For the first time in a Soviet car appeared bent in the vertical plane of the side windows. A large windshield and rear were particularly reduced in comparison with the curvature of the GAZ-21. All body panels were simple and manufacturability. But the interior "dvadtsatchetverki" was for the Soviet people unfamiliar. The central place among the devices worked like a tailor inch ribbon speedometer: crawl rate indicated from left to right in red tape. Front seats, like a sofa upholstered furniture, but was part of everyday life of Soviet people (chairs, beds), evolved into three-fold - more space was obtained Pivoted central armrest. The gear lever, as in the latest European models, protruding from the floor! Upholstery was performed combined - vinyl and cloth diaper. Standard equipment was the radio with VHF range, which could be purchased additionally shorter prefix. In general, as he said Novosel of "Office Romance", "small apartments on wheels"!
However, the layout was selected and disadvantages, and typical not only for the "Volga", but for most cars of its generation.
1. By simply lowering the roof without changing the proportions and angles of the doorway was obtained fairly low, making it difficult to fit in the car - it had quite stoop.
2. Most of the length of the zone in front of the driver neobozrevaemoy car. Neobozrevaemaya area was 0.95 m, although according to GOST maximum possible value is 0.8 m. It should be noted that while the driver from his seat he could see all four of the wing car, which facilitated the "sense of the machine," and in those days was considered a great an advantage.
3. Unsuccessful arrangement the luggage compartment. As the belt line down the car much, much decreased and the level of the trunk lid, and due to the greater length of overhang and rectangular contours of the increased depth of the trunk. As a result, the trunk and get at least theoretically, a large volume (700 liters), but a deep and low, so that access to the front wall was difficult. Unsuccessful and was the location of a spare wheel, dictated by the small height of the trunk. In this case the boot loading height was too big.
However, despite the shortcomings, the layout of the body GAZ-24 was an important step forward in comparison with the GAZ-21 and for its time, was quite successful.
The rest of the body GAZ-24 inherits all the positive features of its predecessor: the hood easy to open in the course of the car and held in a spring-loaded hinges open position, the tailgate is easily opened by a horizontal torsion and held them open. Moreover, the original design of the tailgate lock was located higher and convenient, was more reliable and easier to use (for example, locking trunk GAZ-21 with utaplivayut button easily opened using a hammer blow). On touring the two rear rows of seats easily transformed into a large amount of luggage space with a flat floor. Strength and, hence, the durability of the body has increased substantially due to more stable elements of the bearing structure, welded rear fenders, mud flaps, wings, flaps radiator, upper panel, etc., which together form a solid welded construction - monocoque.
The designers had planned to put a V-shaped "six" in volume 3.0 liters and 135 liters. with. But the place is a place under the hood of serial GAZ-24 took the upgraded 2.4-liter engine of its predecessor with two-chamber carburetor. In the embodiment under petrol AI-93, he gave 98 liters. with. (Later reduced power to 95 hp..), And for a taxi, working at the A-76, only a 85. The front suspension pivot, requiring regular extrusion, led pedigree even from GAZ-21, winter or "Victory", but on the Opel Kapitan 1936! True, the beam front axle has one-piece forged (the Opel and American cars, it was welded), and therefore less severe. Plus, this appeared telescopic shock absorbers, the number of lubrication points down.
Of prototypes, meaning running, we note
M-24 (previous model of the plant - GAZ-M-23 on GAZ-M-21) in 1966, prototypes were collected in two design options Chuck, two-and chetyrehfarnom, the series has gone, as is known, dvuhfarnaya machine. Special differences from the first production vehicle prototypes were not.
In a series of car went up with two engine options - 2.5-liter I4 and ILAC-4 or a 5.5-liter V8 and automatic transmission 3. However, in parallel with the mass production model of the plant built a few prototypes with imported six-cylinder engines, both inline and V-shaped.
Various diesel engines (mainly Peugeot-Indenor, sometimes Mercedes) were mounted on small series of cars as export by GAZ-ohm, and foreign firms - dealers of the plant, there were like four-way and six-cylinder variants.
During its release, "Volga" GAZ-24 significantly upgraded twice - in 1976-1978 and 1985-1987. By the introduced changes in the design of GAZ-24 production can be divided into three parts according to the introduced plant significant changes in appearance and design. This division is conditional and the plant was not used.
"The first series"
Distinctive features of all the cars of the "first series" - bumper without fangs, but with chrome plate sidewalls of the plate under the front bumper, rear lights of the individual reflectors on the rear body panels, instrument panel covered with black imitation leather with a top and painted body color lower, black with inserts for ivory knob on the dashboard, decorative door panels with a vertical pattern, the front seat sofa type of three parts with independent reglirovkoy and center armrest.
The car is constantly subjected to minor improvements. In particular, prior to 1975: removed from the construction of the engine cooling fan clutch automatic that have been shown the unreliability of his work, changed the shape of the external rear-view mirrors, installed a new, more convenient and reliable locking trunk, began to install new springs with parabolic profile sheets Castle Ignition unified with VAZ, speedometer original design (belt) replaced the traditional turnout, more durable, the rear roof rack installed parking lamps, lighting up at the exit of passengers, etc.
In 1972 he saw the light wagon GAZ-24-02 rear suspension, reinforced by the sixth leaf of spring. From the outset could accommodate seven, and his second and third seat rows were like folding chairs chalet. It's funny that they are in the current "Volga", touring the same! Tail lights were like a sedan (and still shape its not changed). Deflector on the roof (above the rear door) provides the correct redistribution of the air flow around the rear window that due to this less polluted. Vehicle length 4735 mm and width 1820 mm, 2800 mm base and gauge 1420/1470 mm - both the sedan and the height has increased by 20 mm (up to 1510 mm)
Export modifications were three. RHD was designated as the GAZ-24-54, and 24-76 and 24-77 - "vehicle sets" sedan and wagon for the Belgian company Scaldia-Volga, mounted on the Volga GAZ M24D, sold in Europe, diesel Peugeot Indenor (75 hp.. .)
GAZ-24 of the second series (Late registration - Eighties)
GAZ-24 on the second series of highly modernized interior.
During the 1976-78 period was followed by the first major upgrade of GAZ-24, which can be considered the launch of a second-generation or second series of GAZ-24.
In those years the car has received "fangs" on the bumpers, fog lights on the front bumper, rear lights with integrated reflectors, lounge with a modified design, in which almost all metal parts have been closed for security soft-plastic plates, decorative panel doors with a horizontal pattern, static seat belts, front and rear (which required removing the armrest of the front-seat design), new upholstery, there were other, smaller changes.
As such, the car was produced until 1985 with a minimum of upgrades.
In the mid-1980s, the car was again subjected to modernization, this time - a more substantial and radical. The result is a model of GAZ-24-10, which can be called third-generation or third series of the GAZ-24. But this model on another page.
Results prior to 1992 was released 1,481,561 copy GAZ-24 all models, it was the most numerous passenger models in the history of the plant.
GAZ-24-01, produced from 1970-1971 year to work in a taxi. Equipped deforsirovannym ZMZ-2401, a special body marks such as "shashechki" green lantern "free", imitation-leather trim, allowing the sanitizing; instead receiver - taximeter.
GAZ-24-02, mass-produced in the years 1972-1986 with a five-door wagon body type.
GAZ-24-07, produced in 1977-1985 years for the taxi was equipped with a LPG unit.
By request of the KGB in small lots to build a "catch-up" GAZ-24-24 with an engine of the "Seagull" GAZ-13 cars to spy on foreign diplomats. The maximum speed of the "Volga" was 200-220 km / h. Were taken to "catch up" high professionals: a heavy cast-iron engine had to balance plate in the trunk of a mass of 200 kg, and power steering was not - he places under the hood to do.
GAZ-24-54, right-hand drive export version (released less than 1,000 copies).
GAZ-24-76 and 24-77, the sedan and station wagon vehicle sets, respectively, for the Belgian company fit for Scaldia-Volga diesel Peugeot Indenor.
GAZ-24-95 - five copies produced four-wheel drive GAZ-24-95 in units of Oise, and the designers were able to dispense with the frame! In early 1974, released 5 pieces. All-wheel drive GAZ-24-95 served personally, "the chief hunter of the USSR" by Leonid Ilyich. It's funny that the logo with a deer on the nose of the car was not red, and green! To this day, kept two cars - "Brezhnev" and obkomovskaya.
There are also such modifications as the four-door convertibles and pick-up parade / vans. This is not a production plant GAS: convertibles made in very small quantities for military parades in the districts Bronnitsky military repair plant, vans and pickups - civil remzavody from decommissioned conventional sedans and station wagons.
Continuously improved the basic model. First, with the right front wing mirror had disappeared, while the left moved to the front windshield. In 1973, radio has changed, and in 1974 appeared on the rear rack lanterns, lights up when you open the rear doors of the same. A year later, ribbon speedometer that gave confused testimony of the strong fluctuations of the red band on the run machine, replaced the pointer.
The first major upgrade of GAZ-24, dictated by the increased security requirements, conducted in 1977-1978. Appeared on bumper fangs with rubber inserts and fog lights, side, front wings - direction indicator repeaters in the cabin - seat belts, because of which eliminated the front triple sofa bed. Incidentally, the straps are adjusted manually neinertsionnymi and every rider. The instrument panel and the top and bottom covered with a shagreen polihlorvinilom, under which was a layer of soft polyurethane foam.
In 1977, due to emerging safety belts were abolished folding front seat for a third rider
But the handle bar pogrubeli and become extremely careless with black bears the symbols - before, they were stylish, sometimes with inlays of ivory. To trim all the machines are simple to use cloth and leather, even.
And since the money in the Soviet Union became less and less, "dvadtsatchetverka" lost in passing torches to "comb" air vents and chrome lining sink changed to a plain black plastic. But its front seats gained headrests, wheels - new plastic caps, rear window instead of blowing warm air finally have electric heating, engine power increased to 5 liters. with. But all the changes made immediately.
The entire 1985 issued the so-called GAZ-24M. The letter "M" - not an official index, a popular nickname prefix of "mutant" - machines in the factory fashioned from what was at hand. For example, not all were supplied with front disc brakes on the GAZ-3102. In addition, because of external changes in the transition was available for release unless the plastic grille, and a new interior and seats were only the parking brake lever, migrated from under the steering column on the central tunnel. Just then "dvadtsatchetverka" lost the build quality. "Ministerial" became "Volga" GAZ-3102, and "Volga" 24/10 did for private traders and taxis. With sweeping in the same 90-country flow of cars GAZ-2410 lost its main feature - the lack of access and proximity to power.
GAZ-24-10 took off the assembly line in 1992, and then because of excessive wear and tear of body punches. All equipment is sold Cheboksary repair plant, and produced today for a spare part.