Russian cities: Alexandrov

Russian cities: Alexandrov

Alexandrov (Alexandrov suburb), city in the Russian Federation, Vladimir region. Is located in the southeastern part of the Smolensk-Moscow Upland, the Klin-Dmitrievskaya ridge, on the river. Sherna (inflow Klyazma), 120 km northwest of Vladimir, 120 km north-east of Moscow. An important junction on the Great District Railway (the line to Moscow, Yaroslavl, Orekhovo-, Kineshma). The airport. The regional center. The population of 67.2 million people (2001).

Main industries: Radio Factory (TV brand "Record"), JSC "Alex" (tanzistory and integrated circuits, artificial leather factory, the factory strochevyshityh products. Enterprises of food industry (dairy, distillery, etc.). In the Alexandrov area mechanical plant (village Balakirevo), plants "Iskra" (Spark settlement) and 'Red Flame' (Flame Red settlement). bedded deposits in the area of rubble, gravel and sand.

Historical Sketch

In the 13th century. in these places that are rich in timber, were hunting Pereyaslavl, Zvenigorod, Moscow princes later. In the mid-13th century. Great village, as it was then known, in the principality of Pereyaslavl inherited from his father, Prince Alexandrov Yaroslavich (Nevsky later). In 1302 the principality passed into the possession of the Moscow prince Daniel, youngest son of Alexandrov Nevsky. Since that time Pereyaslavskaya land forever into the hands of the Moscow princes. Halfway from the Trinity-Sergius Monastery in New Pereyaslavl (from the 15th century. Pereslavl), at the turn of Opole and Zalesie long there was a settlement, called Great village. The first mention of the settlement is found in the Great charter of his son Dmitri Donskoi, Prince Yury Dmitrievich, Stefano Mahrischenskomu monastery 1434 In the early 15th century. Great Suburb - Parish Center, where the prince lived people. In the early 16th century. called "The Great Suburb" disappears, possibly settlement was burned, along with her name and disappeared. Modern History of the village of Alexandrov documented marked the beginning of the 16th century. sworn in literacy Prince Ivan III of 1504
In 1513, as the Chronicle, came to the Alexandrov Prince of Moscow suburb
Vasily III, and the new village is "a place to chill," the prince at his summer travels to monasteries. Over time, the village has grown into a great palace, from the early 16th century. this is a major princely residence. In 1513 by order of Basil III erected a stone building - St. Basil's Cathedral (in the same 16. Pereosvyaschen the Trinity) with a separate bell tower. By 7022, the chronicler of the creation of the world said that the church is "sacred byst December 11 in the village of New Alexandrov, then the prince and a great yard vshel." Vasily III, following the example of Western European monarchs decided to build a residence and chose to do the Alexandrov settlement. Fascinated by the beauty of its nature, the wealth of hunting grounds, the proximity to the spiritual abode, the place of his baptism - the Trinity-Sergius monastery, the Grand Duke sent to the settlement of the best Russian and Italian masters, whose hands created the Moscow Kremlin. Within a short period, from 1508 to 1513, they built a luxurious "westernized" country palace, one of the farthest residences Muscovite sovereign, able to accommodate not only the grand family near her surroundings, but also a considerable number of members of the Tsar's court, ordinary court of palace servants. Vasily III was in the village in 1525, before divorcing his first wife, Solomonia Aloetic in autumn 1528 the Grand Duke took the embassy in the settlement of the Kazan Khanate, a trip to the village of Vasily III became particularly frequent from the mid 20s. 16. After the death of Grand Duke Alexandrov's settlement goes into the possession of his widow, Helen Glinsky. At the direction of the town there were erected the wooden walls of the fortress, with towers and gates. Alexandrov's settlement was for Glinsky not only loved and safe place to stay, but a special widow's allotment or Oprichnina possession. After the death of Helen Glinsky seven Ivan (later Ivan the Terrible) and his brother, Yuri, was left an orphan, fought shy and afraid of the Moscow Kremlin in the yard, and apparently preferred privacy, which is found in the mother's "Oprichnina" New Country.
Already a ruler, Ivan IV had been in the Alexandrov settlement. From the Alexandrov settlement, he sent an embassy in Nogai Horde and the Prince Temryuk Cherkassky. In the settlement in sufficient quantity stored furs, thoroughbred horses and conventional combat, armor, textiles, precious utensils, money - the Alexandrov settlement, among other functions the sovereign's residence, played the role of a branch of the Grand Treasury, keeper of valuables and treasures. But a special place in the life of Alexandrov the court settlement was occupied after the establishment of oprichnina. Ivan the Terrible cemented his place of refuge, a fortress besieged the walls of the parent "on the outside surface of logs ... brick from the ground up strelnitsa, "wrote Henry Staden. On the eve of oprichnina Ivan IV had been in the New suburb sometimes three times a year. In December 1564 extra-governmental residence became the capital of the Russian state. This was due to the departure of Ivan IV of Moscow, where he lived the king of the hated nobles. In the Alexandrov settlement elected monarch was accompanied by the boyars and nobles, clerks people sorokatysyachnoe army (cavalry), property, surrounded by four thousand sled. A month later, on arrival the king was declared oprichnina. By the autumn of 1565 to the village came together all the threads of the internal control. It functioned oprichnina orders oprichnina Boyar Duma and several other familiar institutions. According to historian NM Karamzin, Sloboda "... made the city, decorated churches, houses, shops of stone. The local church of Our Lady of glorious shone out in different colors, silver and gold, that every brick was depicted a cross. The king lived in big houses, circled by a moat and rampart, the courtiers, statesmen, military officials in special homes. The guardsmen had their streets, merchants as well. Nobody dared not enter, nor to go out without the knowledge of John: Why three miles from the settlement, called the captivity, there was usually a military guard. In the family home-entertainment menacingly surrounded by dark forests, John spent most of the time, church services, to continuously pious activities to calm down the soul. "Despite the fact that the embassy remained under orders to zemshchina, that settlement was probably the main venue for international negotiations and signing agreements. Ambassadors and embassy in England, Sweden, the Crimea and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Denmark, the Holy See, other states have taken in the New Quarter. Since 1568 it housed the royal house and the printing knigopisnaya yard, overgrown suburb streltsy and service people on the instrument suburb, settlements of foreign mercenaries trading. In early autumn 1571 in the Alexandrov settlement were brought thousands of brides from across the country: the forthcoming elections for the king's third wife (she was the Martha Sobakina) and the first for his eldest son, Ivan (Evdokia Saburova). Alexandrov departed from the settlement "vtay" oprichnina army to Novgorod, initiating a pogrom there, from which the town never recovered. It is in the Alexandrov settlement was opened Russia's first provincial circuit, where a student of Ivan Fedorov - Andronikos T. cad - released in 1577, "Sloboda Psalms." When the Czar yard work knigopisnaya workshop, where they constitute Facial chronicle. Ivan the Terrible, a man educated, had one of the richest libraries, which is based on rare books, inherited from Sophia Palaeologus. Famous collection of ancient books have not yet found. Many tend to believe that traces of the famous Liberia (library), Grozny was lost in the Alexandrov settlement. There was also founded Russia's first conservatory, where by order of the king from all over the country were brought the best singers and musicians, among them the biggest masters of choral singing - Ivan Nos and Fyodor Christian. The Emperor himself was also involved in "writing" music. Survived by his verses with the word "Creation King John."

The only known image of Alexandrov the Kremlin period of Ivan the Terrible is the engraving which is in the book of the Danish ambassador Jacob Ulfeldta called "Journey to Russia Danish envoy Ulfeldta Jacob." It contains the impressions of the Alexandrov settlement, the Russian Tsar - "cruel Pharaoh."
17 years with breaks held in the Alexandrov settlement, Ivan IV. Left the suburb in 1581. The death of son Ivan, and murdered them, caused the departure of the king. Never again, he did not return there, Suburb subsequently no longer had its former importance in the political and cultural life of the state. Alexandrov's settlement was for many years was the usual palace village.
During the Polish-Lithuanian intervention in the 1611-1613 settlement was a fortified camp of the Russian troops under the command of the commander MV Skopina-Shumsky. In the Time of Troubles, the Palace complex was substantially destroyed and looted. Mikhail shortly after his election to the throne drew attention to the residence of Alexandrov settlement: "... to be here the sovereign horomnomu structure". In the settlement of the sovereign house repaired, the royal stables, the wizard hired for restoration Church of Intercession iconography. In the mid-17th century. at this point begins the construction of the Assumption Convent, which has absorbed the former Tsar's court building. In 1649, builder of the neighboring desert Lukianovoy Elder Lucian became residents make a nun of the Alexandrov settlement. In 1651 Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich conferred on them the land settlement and the Assumption Church, which became the main church of the new monastery. The two wooden cells were then living at the temple 12 nuns. First, the monastery was poor. In 1654, Patriarch Nikon, passing through the village, blessed nuns and granted them some of their road edibles. Gradually the monastery, who was on the "devout" the road from Moscow to Rostov, made a fortune, took almost the whole territory of the settlement. In 1666 the monastery was already more than 100 nuns in 1682 - more than 200. The Assumption monastery associated with the establishment of the autocracy in Russia, visited by many representatives of the royal court, including the name of Peter I has a special place. During a riot in Moscow musketeers in 1689, Peter took refuge behind the walls of the monastery. Shortly after the suppression of the rebellion the king dealt with his political opponents. On his orders to the Crucifixion Church-belfry were added to the chamber, where they sharpened his half-sister Martha, forcibly tonsured in the monastery under the name of Margarita. Martha has lived in the monastery for nearly ten years. She was buried in Sretenskaya church next to his sister, Feodosia. The fate of Peter's daughter Elizabeth I also became closely associated with the Alexandrov settlement. She inherited it as a personal possession of Catherine I. In 1730 Elizabeth was exiled to the village. Biron's intercession prevented Anna Ivanovna imprison her in a convent. However, Elizabeth has lived here for over 10 years, before accession to the throne. In 1764 the Monastery of the Assumption was built in one class. In the early 20th century. there were four church at the monastery operated hospital, hospice, a school for girls. In the monastery of nuns lived in 264.
In 1778 Alexandrov palace settlement got the status of the city. It was an ordinary country town of Vladimir province. He shared the Grey River into two parts - Posad District. Posad - the trading part - had 93 retail stores, 4 taverns, 3 tanneries and malt plant. Townspeople stood on the streets of 165 merchants and 200
middle-class homes. In another part of town - District - rose Uspensky monastery, stood downstream of 95 stores, 5 taverns, 5 leather and malt mills, 68 merchants and middle-class homes, 43 forges. A special place in the city held a blacksmith, as reflected in the image on the emblem of the city. In addition to the blacksmith's craft, traditional for the Alexandrov County, was bumagotkatskoe production. The impetus for industrial development was the construction of the railway which was built from Moscow to the north by Alexandrov. The oldest of Trinity-Alexandrov bumagotkatskaya Manufactory was founded in 1846. Alexandrov's production of manufactures in demand at numerous fairs - Nizhniy Novgorod, Irbitskoi, in Moscow, Kharkov and other modern Alexandrov - an industrial city, a leading enterprise - Radio Works - in 1932 released its first products - the radio "Eaglet" (now known TV brands "Record") ; acts combine artificial leather, there are enterprises of light and food industries. In 1921 the former monastery of the Assumption was established historical, architectural and art museum, "Alexandrov's settlement." In 1991 the Assumption Convent was revived in its territory continues to operate the museum.
Landmarks of the Alexandrov settlement
In the center stands the palace temple ensemble royal residence - the Holy Trinity Cathedral, the most grandiose and majestic building of the Alexandrov settlement. This original name - Protection Church, was later renamed. The construction dates back to the beginning of the 16th century., The rule of Vasily III. Powerful cubic of the cathedral put on a high basement. Once a temple surrounded on three sides open gallery. The cathedral was built of red brick and white stone. Preserved in the pristine beauty of the western portal of the cathedral. The interior of the church is consistent with the events that took place here: magnificent wedding of Ivan the Terrible by Anne and Martha Vasilchikova Sobakina. The original painting of the cathedral belongs to the 16th century. Several large southern wall of stamps tell of Assumption. Such a detailed pictorial account of the earthly life of the Virgin - a rare phenomenon in the Russian monumental art. Southern portal of the cathedral close the gates of Vasilevsky - one of the masterpieces
Russian Decorative Arts 14. The unique monument, executed in the technique of fire gilding was created by craftsmen of Novgorod in 1336, commissioned by the Archbishop of Novgorod Vasily. In the Alexandrov settlement Vasilevsky gates came as war booty after Ivan the Terrible march to Novgorod in 1570. By decree of the king of the famous bronze doors of St. Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod were transported to the capital oprichnina and installed in the Cathedral of the Intercession (later renamed the Trinity). Adjusting the door to a narrower and not so high portal, Grozny completely rewire their masters, "breaking the historical order," placing biblical scenes. In the decoration of the cathedral stands another remarkable piece of ancient decorative art - Tver Gate (mid-14th century.) Covering the main, western, entrance to the temple. It is believed that the so-called. "Tver gates" are in fact also of Novgorod, of St. Sophia Cathedral, as Vasilevsky, and were brought to the Alexandrov suburb Ivan the Terrible in the same 1570 with Vasilievsky. The appearance of Tver and Novgorod in the main temple gate royal residence meets the ancient custom - to decorate his cathedral gates of the temples of the conquered cities.
Palace House. 1513, which became the date of the consecration of the temple palace of the Alexandrov settlement, was a time when, according to research Moscow architect Vladimir Kavelmahera was finished trim "the second after the Moscow Kremlin in size, beauty and richness of Sovereign courtyard of the castle from the Throne Chamber, basement, cellars, set of wooden houses, and transitions between them. " Perhaps Alexandrov Palace copied Chamber Terem Palace of the Kremlin. Wooden buildings of the palace: the house, mansion, dining chamber, Svetlitsa sovereign's bed cottage, numerous passage mentioned in the lists of digits and king wedding Tsarevich Ivan, were destroyed by fire after the departure of the Emperor to Moscow later in 1581. In the second half of the 17th century. newly created Dormition nunnery made completion of the restructuring and court houses. From west to a huge house church are attached to the lower refectory podklet, a belfry and a porch. In large rooms housed "Meal, hlebennaya and kitchen," noted Archimandrite Leonid. In the settlement preserved vast palace cellars and small house with beautiful arches and carved key-rosettes.
Crucifixion church bell tower (1560-1570) is the dominant architecture of the palace complex settlement. The mighty and tall monument architecture raises a number of outstanding works of Russian art of building. Huge, over fifty feet high, octagonal pillar, complete tent is inside a small church. Outside the tower is surrounded by powerful piers, has two tiers of galleries. The originality of the form attached to three rows of corbel arches receding under the platform of the upper ring. On this monument is connected ancient legend about slaves Nikita, who dreamed to fly on the wings of heaven "like a bird free." In 1698 a church-bell Crucifixion were added to the chamber for the disgraced Princess Martha, imprisoned in a monastery at the direction of Peter I.
Church of the Intercession - another monument to the 16th century. tent architecture in the Alexandrov settlement. The ancient core of the monument - the grand home church. The exact date of construction of the monument - 1509-13 (in the sources of the church appears for the first time in 1571, wedding discharge Tsarevich Ivan Ivanovich). Then it was called the Trinity, but at the end of construction was pereosvyaschena. Her throne was moved to the cathedral church of Intercession, and the altar of the cathedral church - the Trinity. Thus, in the 16th century. Two churches "changed" names. At Trinity Church (later the Intercession), as in the house the Kremlin Cathedral of the Annunciation in the hall in Moscow, before its reconstruction in 1680 there was built altars in its special tent for folding camping Treasury of Grand Duke, a personal treasure of the prince. Trinity Church did not have a stone porch, because it was originally built the wooden mansion. The temple has a complicated, "sacramental" form with the claim for towering, tent-like dome and at the same time. The combination of living rooms or apartments, with a temple sacred form allows you to talk about the Holy Trinity Church as a family "house chapel" of the Western type. Thus, Trinity Church is the rarest of the typological monument of Russian architecture of the palace - home church, the chapel of the Moscow Tsar. At the end of a long time after the construction of the western facade of the temple was added a new section, which consists, as
The first two, from the cellar, and the House podklet over them. (The House was demolished in 1680) believed that this section was built by order of Ivan IV as a church vestibule or refectory. It is in the village king and his guardsmen while vigorously parodied monastic rank. It could be, for example, the royal "kelarskaya," ie, a place of intimate guest meals, accompanied by readings from Scripture. The huge interest of the tent church murals, executed in a time of stay in the village of Ivan the Terrible. It is only known in Russia, marquee decorated plot 16. Images of the Russian princes and martyrs together with the Old Testament kings and righteous, they embody the idea of spiritual unity of God's chosen people and the Moscow Tsar of Russia, claimed by Ivan IV.
Assumption Church (1570s, 1663-1666) - a small volume, fine proportions, she, like Pokrovsky temple stands on a high basement, under which well-preserved large cellar. Materials of construction - brick and white stone, common to all facilities of Alexandrov the Kremlin. Southern portal of the temple has preserved the original white-stone carvings of the individual, a beautiful picture of flowers.
In the 17th century. at the main temple of the royal residence, the Trinity Cathedral (Pokrovsky initially) to meet the needs of female extension Assumption monastery there: brick walls were taken galleries from the north and south chapels extended. At the same time to the Intercession Church of the Assumption are attached and large, with beautiful interior refectory and hipped bell tower with stone porches. Special value of the monuments of the late construction of the female monastery represent cells 17., Which are decorated with white stone arches carved rosettes with key-patterns, inscriptions, depicting the cross of Calvary. These cells are part of a two-storey housing in secret, which stretches along the monastery walls. The entire ground floor of the body from the 17th century. Window and door openings are crowned kokoshniki keeled forms. The upper floor, inlaid in the 19th century. Is made in the forms of government buildings at that time. The same architecture and monastic hospital building. It is adjacent to an earlier Sretenskaya church (late 17th cent.). This is a small domed temple, under which the shrine sisters of Peter I, princesses Martha and Theodosia Alekseevny Alexeevna. The whole ensemble settlement is surrounded by high walls (1670-1680) with four corner towers and a gate church Theodore Stratilatus above the main entrance (1860). Three rows of loopholes and arkaturno-columnar zone - it's only decoration of the walls that had no defensive value, and only protected the monastery from the madding crowd.
In the museum displays the Alexandrov settlement contains some magnificent works of decorative art, books, icons and textiles. Among the icons are rare, unique samples of iconography 17-18 cc. For example, the icon "with scenes from his life Stephen Mahrischsky" (17.) - The only known now in Russian iconography hagiographical icon founder Stefano Mahrischskogo monastery, a contemporary and disciple of Sergius. Surprise and admiration, "Trehlikaya" icon (1791). Written in the sixteen finest plates attached to a wooden frame at right angles to the main plane, it has the effect of miraculous, unexpected appearance of the three images. Among the books enormous size affects the "Gospel Altar" (1689), printed on the "Alexandrian full list» (61.7 x 37.1 cm). The book was published edition of just 150 copies. Ten of them are made for the royal family. They were painted in gold and colors by hand. The museum first Russian edition of the "Ladder" (1647), performed at the Moscow printing house. The museum's collection has some wonderful manuscripts from the library of the famous royal princes Alexei Likhachev Kalashnikov, the favorite of Tsar Fedor Alekseevich. In the museum you can find beautiful products made of precious metals and rare specimens of precious fabrics Eastern and Western European production (Iran, China, Italy, Spain, France).