Russian cities: Arhipo-Osipovka

Russian cities: Arhipo-Osipovka

The settlement of this land still belongs to the Stone Age (200 thousand years ago). In the Bronze Age tribes lived here dolmen culture ser. 2.3 mil. Oe. In the vicinity of the village as guardians of mountain valleys and gorges are dolmens, burial structures, built of multi-ton stone slabs and blocks. Although the tribes did not know the alphabet, but they managed to translate their religious beliefs and rituals in these buildings. In 8.6 cc. BC in the area appears aheev tribe, probably, one of the direct ancestors of modern Adyghe-Circassians. On 4. BCE. e 4 .-- V. Oe. known for their pirate raids. At the end of 4 th century H. Oe. struggled with the king of Bosporus Eumelus. In 1. BCE. Oe. formed alliances with the king of the Bosporus and Pontus Mithridates VI Eupator. On the territory of Arhipo-Osipovka discovered the ancient settlement.

About V in. Mr.. Oe. appear on the coast tribes Zikhs, which are likely to have conquered those aheev and merged with them. Already 5-6 vv.n. Oe. significant part of the Black Sea coast was called Zihiya. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. zihi-Circassians come into close contact with the Genoese settlements. Genuezstsy knew estuary Vulan called "femtosecond Landia or Londo." On the territory of Arhipo-Osipovka and its vicinity are numerous burial mounds are scattered with various rites of burial: in krasnoglinyanyh urns with cremation burials and horses; burials in stone boxes, tombs, and without them. In the mountain valleys, on slopes, the remnants of medieval settlements. From the XVI century. the sources in the area mentioned tribes called collectively Circassian or Circassians. In 40-60s of XVII century. tribal zhaneevtsev (Janet). In the 2nd half of the eighteenth century. and in the 1st half of the XIX century. in the sources noted, and the tribes natuhaytsev Shapsugs. Visited 18 (30 new. With.) May 1833 French traveler, Frederic Dubois de Monpere wrote about the village located here Vulan and is located on the right bank of the river on the steep wooded slopes. In the eighteenth and first half of the XIX century. The Caucasus was the scene of the collision foreign policy interests of Russia, Turkey, Britain and France. In the 1828-29 war years. Turkey suffered a crushing defeat, both the European and the Caucasian theater. By the Treaty of Adrianople of 2 (14) September 1829 Russia gained the Black Sea coast from the mouth of the Kuban River to the port of St. Nicholas (south of Poti). Since 1830, begins the creation of the Black Sea coastline. A series of fortifications. In 1837, during reconnaissance of the coast from the sea on board the "Yazen," Gen. AA Velyaminov opted for the construction of fortifications in the valley of Voula. July 29 it was laid down and called "Mikhailovsky". By September 1, 1837 GV mostly built and incorporated into the Black Sea coastline, the head of which in 1839 became Lieutenant-General N. Rajewski, son of the celebrated hero of the Patriotic War of 1812, a friend of Pushkin and the Decembrists .

One of the reasons pushed the Highlanders in an attempt to capture some of the weakest defenses in the spring of 1840, was a crop failure and had developed due to hunger. Michael Garrison expected to strengthen the raid, and lived in constant anxiety, but was ready to fight till his last breath. This was witnessed by Rear Admiral Suites His Imperial Majesty, LM Serebryakov, who visited the strengthening of March 14, that is, a week before the tragic event.

Led the defense of March 22 1840. Commandant strengthening Captain N. Face - a native of Balaklava, the Greek-born nobleman. He ordered the powder magazine explosion; fulfill orders offered to private Osipov. Face himself during the attack he was wounded by two bullets and chopped his sword. According to some sources, he fell in the fort, on the other - was taken in critical condition and died in captivity. Arkhip Osipov came from a family of serfs with. Kamenka district of Lipetsk province of Kiev, the landlord belonged to Count Stratonskomu. About the time of birth of the hero is no accurate data. According to some sources, he was 38 years old, on the other 40. He was thinking in the barracks and said, "Well, if you will attack, then Russia will do a great memory." "I condemn myself to death and I will kindle gunpowder in a cellar ;..." There was a fateful night of 21 to 22 March. Guard dogs, released from the building all night barking to the mountain side, whence had come the mountaineers. She stood out particularly dark. They could hear the roaring sea. At dawn, a few thousand Highlanders (conflicting information - AG) attacked the fortification, which sprang up hard, close fight. The forces of the garrison, under the pressure of superior enemy forces quickly melted away. Burned in the fire of the barracks, warehouses, heavy rumble of guns, shooting at close range attackers have always waved the red icon the Highlanders.

Then Arkhip Osipov decided to bring his plan into execution, he shouted to his comrades: "It is time, brothers who remain alive, remember my business!", And with a burning torch ran into a powder keg. After that there was a terrible explosion shook everything, and a column of smoke from the fire, with human bodies with the stones was hoisted into the air. So died Arkhip Osipov - soldiers Tenghinka 77th Infantry Regiment (the one where the June 13 1840. Came to serve as Lieutenant Mikhail Lermontov). Feat it has not been forgotten. Carefully preserved the silver medal hero, in the regimental chapel is hung on the icon of the Holy Martyr Autonomy presented by another regiment, Alexander Suvorov.
On the site of demolished building was set openwork cast-iron cross a height of 15 (6 m) and a width of 1 (71cm) yard, erected on a pedestal of local stone. To him is a stone staircase, which has hoisted two ancient cannons.

Attached to a metal board is an inscription:
"77th Infantry Tenghinka His Imperial Highness the Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich Regiment ordinary Arkhip Osipov, who died for the glory of Russian arms March 22, 1840 in St Michael's building, which was built on the site of this monument." He was raised in 1876 (ie 36 years after these events) so as to make it visible from the ships sailing past
Such was the desire of Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolaevich, - the former commander of the Caucasian army. This feat has been written lyrics (verses veteran and historian Tenghinka Regiment Major KP Belevich):

"With the noise, crashing into the sea tends Black Vulan.
Wave after wave after rushing from the mountains is a tribute to the Caucasus.
You seen the river wonder how our Osipov Arkhip
Did the explosion, the explosion itself and the enemy was killed.
Tell me also, so that everyone knew about the fate of the hero,
Tell me about dying for Russia, for the king !..."

The name of the hero and there on the map of the country - is named in 1889 in honor of his village Arhipo-Osipovka. At the present time at the resort the sanatorium "Arhipo-Osipovka" for the treatment of patients with functional disorders of the nervous system (there is a hydropathic - sea, artificial carbon dioxide, radon baths, medical showers, swimming pool, klimatopavilon); tourist resorts and recreation centers - "Emerald" "Dawn", "Walnut grove", etc.