Gunners on the mandate
In general, it must be admitted that the vehicle has received GAZ69 index, was very successful. No accident that the report on the state tests conducted in 1951, virtually no complaints. Moreover, immediately after the completion of the test head fotokinolaboratorii NIII21 in Bronnitsy LI Burdahina was summoned to the First Division and assigned a secret mission: to show movie clips about the new ... Stalin. So, in charge of cinema apparatus bulb burns out. And not just burned, and did so with a loud bang. There is confusion. Members of the Politburo in turn became vilified "shoemaker." But Stalin remained unfazed. On his return to Burdahina Bronnitsy a fellow cameraman stupid quipped: "What, you did not shoot?".
Now let's unwind imaginary film back a bit and tell you how to create this wonderful car ... It all started with the fact that military service experience of American Humvees and our "goats" revealed a number of disadvantages of both types of machines. In the first place they were not roomy and GAZ-67B - and still madly uneconomical. And then, the Gorky plant is about preparing to stop production of prewar models, which have unified its cars and ATVs. And it meant the complete hopelessness of further production of the latter.
And April 21, 1947 issued a decree of the USSR Council of Ministers № 1118-325 and followed him - the order of the Ministry of automobile and tractor industry number 34, requiring the Gorky Automobile Plant to create a modern replacement of obsolete cross-country vehicles. June 30 primary customer - the Main Artillery Administration - issued a tactical and technical requirements for the car. The military, he was held under the letter ATR-A ("The artillery tractor wheel light"), and factory workers gave the machine code of GAZ-69. And, if to be completely accurate, the correct designation - GAZ-69-76. The second number refers to the body (such a system in Gorky took over the company Ford).
Incidentally, the film frames, which showed the Leader (a portion of it represented the beginning of the article), clearly shows that on the sidewall of the hood stamped the word "laborer." So, the son of Chief Designer Andrei Aleksandrovich Liphart GAZ, Sergei, at the time, recalled what his father called the GAZ-69 "worker" (to distinguish this word can be even on machines that have passed state tests). Outwardly, "sixty nine" looked a miniature truck GAZ-63 and GAZ62, and they have stamped on the side of "Plant named Molotov." As for the name of the "Worker", then for some reason it was not approved. And in a series of all-terrain vehicle went to the characteristic "bald" in the sidewalls. The lead designer of GAZ-69 was a pupil of the famous "four-wheel drive," the engineer Vitaly A. Grachev - Gregory Moiseevich Wasserman. It was Wasserman led the lion's share of work on the GAZ-67B. Yes, and the first sketches of "sixty-ninth", according to eyewitnesses, Gregory Moiseevich did back in 1944.
First there was the "Victory"
The principal difference between the GAZ-67B and GAZ-69 was in use at the last no slow-torque motors from the truck GAZ-MM, a motor mounted under the hood "Victory." That is a passenger motor with a relatively small torque. The choice of the power plant required to extend the power range three-stage gearbox to the values of 6.2 - 7.5 (this was done using two-stage demultiplicator in the transfer case). And "razdatku" intentionally met "pererazmerennoy" because engineers had in mind the possibility of installing the PTO (for example, to drive the screw intelligence on amphibious GAZ-69). To increase the useful capacity of the vehicle up to eight people (or 650 kg of cargo), the power unit shifted forward. In the summer of 1945 was more or less clear how the car will look like. That's why on June 19 at the Kremlin on the show GAZ M-20 "Pobeda" GAZ-51 and the chief designer of AA Lipgart, the answer to Stalin that the production is being prepared and tractor.
General layout of the car drew engineer FA Lependin, the body was designed under the leadership of BN Pankratova, a large amount of work done on the transmission, VS Solovyov (the future chief designer of AvtoVAZ), BA Dekhtyar and SG Zislin. As far as light and strong frame spars with a closed cross section, then for her design posted VF Filyukov.
Technically, the new car did their best "link" with the "Victory." In addition to the 50-strong motor on it were taken gearbox (with modified gear ratios), rudder mechanism, universal joints, wheel brakes with hydraulic shock absorbers and the rear lever. Drive axles "borrowed" from the GAZ-67. It was an improved design with tapered bearings in the hubs, fully floating axle shafts and splines instead of the cone soshponkoy (on GAZ-67 bridges are not yet implemented). Wheels, "shod" in Yaroslavl tire plant YA13. And they were clearly inadequate for off-road size 6.5 - 16. Prototypes of a GAZ-69 received a disc parking brake on a GAZ-51. The final version of the same it will replace the drum.
The first sample of the experimental series (E-I) was prepared by October 1947. Outwardly, he seems to be reminiscent of serial GAZ-69, but something in his proportions were not. A different grille, and fenders, too. Yes, and windshield more. By February 1948, released two more samples, respectively, E and E-II-III. By the end of the year and still D-IV. Factory testing of the samples led the engineer, AF Romachev. All the machines were of 12 500 km, carrying on a hook specially designed for them uniaxial trailer GAZ-704 payload 0.5 tons a legend that the trailer is set up as a blind, not to carry on public roads, 82-mm mortar and 45 - mm gun, a tractor which GAZ-69 was to serve. Well, the trailer is loaded at a rate of gun pretty well replace it.
Factory testing of prototypes GAZ-69 completed by June 1948. It was obvious that a very promising machine is born. The report on factory tests indicated following. The car had a curb weight of 1470 kg, total - 2110 kg. He had a high traction properties: 69.9% of the total weight of the trailer without and 50.7% - with a trailer. Donated dynamics: the maximum speed was only 75 km / h. Further traction reduced the extent possible terms of reference (1350 kgf on the ground). The rate for this increase. The car climbed up the hillside with a slope of 34 ° (with trailer - 23 °) and down to 30-degree slope, followed by a heavy layer of dirt road with up to 0.25 m (with chains - 0.3 m) and took the fords depth to 0 , 7 m, moving confidently in the fresh snow depth of 0.4 m and compacted to the spring to 0.3 m. These and other equally wonderful qualities of the new rover had a chance to demonstrate at the famous run of trucks GAZ63 and ZIS-151, which took place in spring 1949 year.
Letters to the photographer
We have heard wonderful letter factory photographer Nicholas Dobrovolsky, who, in fact, chronicled this path. In addition to the "credit" GAZ-63 and ZiSov it were three, as they are called by Dobrowolski, "Bobby" - forwarding Passenger ATVs GAZ67B and GAZ-69. He writes beautifully and emotionally: "... I'm dreaming of dirt. Dirt - it's my element, I love her to shoot, especially on a sunny day. " Next, Dobrowolski said the cars were from Krasnodar to Rostov welcome black grader and country roads. At the same cars ZIS-151 photographer to as "irons" are not named. It's obvious that this class ride on the road showed the GAZ-63 and above ... "Bobby." With their help Dobrowolski always had time to go to the head of the column in time to pick a winning angle to shoot. But this run is not over, and next spring GAZ-69 was sent to the already quite formal comparative tests with the GAZ-67B. And the results: fuel on the highway decreased from 13.9 to 10.9 liters per 100 km (with trailer - 12.1 liters). And this despite the fact that "sixty nine" had a large mass. However, on the roads, "old soldiers" took his own. But the military needed a sufficiently versatile machine, not the front edge of the carrier!
Meanwhile, work continued on the machine (luckily no one from the top designers in particular are not pressed). I must say it was very difficult, nervous for the whole team конструкторскоэкспериментального of time. Full swing political campaign against "rootless cosmopolitans." Meanwhile, the Gorky plant has historically been a "melting frame," where (by the way, as in Ford) worked people of many nationalities. And often, "Republican" Spaniards, Volga Germans, the Jews and the British (for sure we are aware of only one) behaved much more intelligent native naseleniya.Shtat scratch card was not great, but the amount of work (cars, trucks, buses, special) - is enormous. In such circumstances, of course, not without mistakes and omissions. So if you want to find the culprit was not a problem.
For example, in 1948 due to poor quality of the car "victory" of its production was halted. Suspended with further draw conclusions ... And what is most unpleasant, any criticism of the situation in the light line of the party took on an inevitable "cosmopolitan" in color.
Moreover, among the officers found a scratch card for someone famili Kreschuk, who wrote a letter to Beria. In this letter it was stated that the factory management in every way an obstacle to work on amphibian with an index of the GAZ-011 (created based on GAZ-67B). And although we have deliberately excluded from this material about creating gazovskih amphibians and numerous modifications based on GAZ-69 (this is a separate, full of dramatic turns of thread), do not touch that by design or stupidity Kreschuk've done, you can not. So, it is unclear whether the letter got to work on sabotaging military equipment directly to Beria, but the effects it has had a. Moreover, none of the savvy and did not want to hear arguments about what a team is working on a scratch card more modern amphibious units at GAZ-69. As a result, the factory fired (still good, do not put) a few engineers, starting with the chief designer Liphart. Thus was destroyed the foundation of what today is called the "design school Liphart."
The final touches
But back to the GAZ-69 ... In preparation for series production car seriously improved. Motor Power E-V model was adjusted to 55 hp acceptable, and torque - up to 12.7 kgm. The engine oil cooler and there shestilopastny fan, eliminating the possibility of overheating. Were selected in the optimal gear ratios in the transmission, and "pobedovskaya" gearbox replaced entirely synchronized junction of GAZ12 ZIM. Obsolete drive axles replaced the flange with a floating axle shafts. At the same time kept a pair of bevel final drive of the "Victory" (5,125:1). VS Designer Soloviev designed housings main gears of the "Split" increased rigidity. They are intended to apply in a modified "Victory", but it is not moved. The improved sample GAZ-69 was also used dvuhsatellitnaya closed-end box differ from the GAZ-12 and the steering gear from him. In addition, increased frame and set uniform control devices.
Appearance of a GAZ-69 has also undergone some changes, and as a result of cross-country vehicle has exactly the form that is familiar to us. Moreover, in May 1951, Gorky was built four-door version of GAZ-69A with a five-seater body model 77 (also known as GAZ-69-77). Advanced Settings "sixty-ninth" is also changed. At 60 kg increased weight, increased by 30 mm length, 35 mm - width and 60 mm - height. Maximum speed was acceptable now 90 km / h and fuel consumption on the highway - 10.4 liters (with trailer - 11.9 liters).
But to eliminate all the shortcomings, of course, not possible. Engine "sixty ninth 'still not enough traction. Tired of fighting, the military removed the requirement of lifting capacity up to 60-65 hp as impossible. Remained unresolved and the problem with the tires: all-terrain vehicle, not only buried in the ground, but was insufficient (220 mm) ground clearance. But be that as it may, and in July - September 1951, have successfully passed the state tests four all-terrain vehicles GAZ-69.
And then a "pause" ... It's hard to believe, but the mass production of a new car only started August 25, 1953! A negative role here was played not only the above story Kreschukom, but more immediate plans for the ministry. In the end, release "sixty-ninth," launched in a separate production building, which allowed far everyone (they have collected and some military equipment). But November 7 GAZ-69 participated in the no-yabrskom parade on Red Square in Moscow. All in all, until the end of 1953 was made in 1302 off-roader.
The new car proved to be extremely popular. GAZ69 needed and polar at the drifting stations SP-3 and JS4, and Cuban friend Fidel Castro of the USSR, and an Indian friend of Gandhi. I do not govoryupro police, health workers and kolkhoz chairmen. Needed to expand production. And in December 1954 Ulyanov Automobile Plant-relativistic collected the first six GAZ-69. Moreover, the government's decision there was translated not only the production of all-terrain vehicle, but also directed "cadre troops" led by PI Muzyukinym (co-sponsored four-wheel drive truck GAZ-63). During the change of "place of residence" the car has not changed, but the only difference between Ulyanovsk GAZ-69 was the appearance on the hood of all-terrain vehicle UAZ vyshtampovki.
P.S. During the production of GAZ-69 was constantly improved. Thus, in the 60s became the all-terrain vehicle equipped with front axle disconnect couplings wheels, bearings and differential reinforced with four satellites instead dvuh.Modifitsirovannye versions were designated 69M and 69AM. Overall, the efforts of the two plants were produced 634 285 vehicles GAZ-69 of all modifications. UAZ has built 356 624 GAZ-69, 230 185 GAZ-69A and 10 551 UAZ-69M and UAZ-69AM. Production of the legendary all-terrain vehicle was discontinued in 1973. They were replaced by a machine with an index of 469 ...