History of Astrakhan
The city is situated on 11 islands of the Caspian Lowland, on top of the deltas of the Volga. The city has approximately 30 bridges. On the left bank of the Volga River is the main part of town, on the right bank of a population of approximately 20% of city residents. Both parts of the city are connected by two bridges across the Volga. The total area of 500 km ².
The city stretches along the Volga River is 22 km. For the two banks is over 45 km. The city is divided into 4 administrative districts in the future due to its large area will be divided into seven administrative districts.
Astrakhan attributed to the same time zone as Moscow, but local real-time ahead of Moscow for 42 min.
According to some historians, near modern Astrakhan was Itil, the Khazar Khanate capital in the middle of VIII-X centuries. Even assumed that the city is a direct precursor of Itil Astrakhan, but is now found traces of a large urban settlement of Khazar-time at the village Samosdelka 35 km downstream of the Volga Delta. So the story begins with the Astrakhan Tatar settlements in the XIII century.
The first reliable mention of Astrakhan, then Haji-Tarkhan, left in 1334 the Arab traveler Ibn Battuta. Haji-Tarkhan was the residence of the Khans of the autumn Golden Horde, the city was considered a major trading center on the way from Persia and India in the Russian principalities and Europe. In 1395, the lands of the Golden Horde swept the hordes of Tamerlane, the Haji-Tarkhan was ransacked and fell into disrepair. In 1456 became the capital of Astrakhan Khanate of Astrakhan, a very weak state with a predominantly nomadic Tatars.
In 1556, Ivan the Terrible annexed the Astrakhan Khanate to Russia, and in 1558 the city was moved lower on the other hand, the left bank of the Volga River, 12 km from the former place, to make it easier to defend from troubled neighbors. Administrative status of the city of Astrakhan was under Peter I. The population of Astrakhan in 1599 was 5000 people, most of the garrison.
The modern capital on the Caspian Sea
The modern Astrakhan - the largest industrial and cultural center. The most important item of cargo transshipment from rail, sea and river transport. The location of the region at the crossroads of trade routes led to the creation of a well-developed transport infrastructure. The Astrakhan region is strategically important transport hub, where cross the Caspian Sea and Volga river routes with rail and road routes in Russia. Astrakhan transport hub located on the shortest path connecting Europe through Russia to Western and Central Asia, India and Pakistan, countries in the Indian part of the Volga okeanaAstrahanskaya railroad ties Astrakhan with other regional centers of Russia and the Northern Caucasus. Of great importance in the transport infrastructure in this case are highways - Astrakhan to Moscow, Astrakhan, Elista, Astrakhan, Makhachkala and Astrakhan - Krasny Yar - Atyrau.
The advantageous geographical location, the constant development of economic, political and cultural ties determine significant external economic potential of the region.
Among the educational and cultural institutions of Astrakhan best-known State Medical Academy, State Technical University, State University of Civil Engineering Institute, a branch of the Saratov State Law Academy, a branch of the Volgograd Academy of Public Administration, a branch of the Volga Academy of Water Transport, State Conservatory, etc.
In Astrakhan, Drama theater, youth theater, puppet theater, musical theater, a philharmonic, united by historical and architectural museum-reserve (a collection of historical Khazar Golden Horde and the development of the Lower Volga Russian), Picture Gallery. Kustodiev (founded in 1918), the house-museum of Velimir Khlebnikov.
Landmarks Astrakhan Kremlin (1580-1620, the r) in the Kremlin - Cathedral of the Assumption, Holy Trinity Cathedral, Bishop's former home with a home church, guardhouse (1807g.), Cyril Chapel (17-19 centuries), hip Tower fence of Holy Transfiguration Monastery (early 18th century.) Demidov Compound (17-18 cc), Church of St. John Chrysostom (1763), house governor - general (1790 ies), Moscow Trade House (1790), the Roman Catholic Church (1762-78 years), the former building of the Azov-Don Bank (1910), Mansion Gubin (late 19th cent.), the Cathedral of St. Vladimir (1895-1904 g .), the house of Astrakhan Cossack Host (1906-1907 years).