Russian cities: Borodino

Russian cities: Borodino

The village of Borodino known since the beginning of XVII century, as the possession of the first Great Emperor of the Romanov dynasty, Mikhail Fedorovich, presented to them, "yastrebniku" (in post "Tsarev hunting") Fedor Konopleva. In Mozajskij cadastres in 1601 in the camp was listed Kolotskom "Exaltation on Sovereign's Churchyard Tsarevo land on the River War with the Church Vozdvizhenskoe churchyard was Seltso Borodino."

Prior to the construction of the Temple at Borodino Borodinskiye residents and all around were parishioners of the church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, who was on the opposite bank of the river at the confluence of Kolocha her streams and Stonets Prudki (Ognik). This church with a chapel (as in these places is called the lower church) of St. Nicholas, Bishop of Myra was destroyed in the Time of Troubles, most likely in 1609. After that, the locals were parishioners in the church of the Assumption in the village of Semenov also having a lower side-chapel of St. Nicholas. News about the church terminated in the middle of the XVII century.

In "Economic Notes" means the following 1800 description of Borodino cottages: "The village of Borodino: The number of households 25. Villages: Semenovskaya - the number of households 27 Slides - number of households 19. "

Borodino was widely known after the events of August 26, 1812 - Battle of Borodino. As he wrote Mikhail Kutuzov, it was a "battle ... bloodiest of all, which in recent times are known."

Russian army took a defensive position, guarding the road to Moscow. The main purpose of the enemy was the mastery of the New Smolensk road to Moscow, and all his actions in battle were attributed to this effect. The village of Borodino is located on this road.

After the battle of Borodino church in the village was badly damaged, everything inside was burned. Were burned and the inhabitants of the house of Borodin. In winter, Temple served as a shelter for returnees from the ashes of the forest dwellers of the village. At this time the village of Borodino owned "the Dowager Lady Elizabeth Savelova" and "girl Alexandra Davydova."

In 1814, the owners Borodinskiye included with the request of reckoning peasants Borodin, Semenov and slides to the church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin in the village Kriushino "forever." Resolution of the Moscow Ecclesiastical Consistory, it was decided to attribute the peasants of Borodino and the "other believers" to the church in Kriushino not "forever", and "to restore the church in the village of Borodino." By July 16, 1816 Sergievsky lower chapel of the Temple in the village of Borodino was rebuilt and consecrated.

In 1817, Emperor Alexander I was made an unsuccessful attempt to buy (in state ownership or possession of the emperor - unknown), sister of Denis Davydov AV Begichev "belonging to her village of Borodino to the village of Gorki and Semenov."

In June 1824 the village of Borodino, and visited the Temple of Saint Philaret Metropolitan of Moscow, during a trip to archpastoral western part of the Moscow diocese. His care of the upper church was restored and renovated the whole church to 1826.

In 1837 at Borodino field first arrived Tsarevich Alexander, the future Emperor Alexander II the Liberator. 23 July he visited the desert Semenovskaya Spassky (Saviour now Borodino Convent), then went to the "battery Rajewski," which laid the foundation stone of the main monument, which began to build. After this he returned to Crown Prince Borodino, where he spent the night before, and made a first donation to the Temple of Borodino - 500 rubles. In December 1937 appeared in the upper church iconostasis, and July 22, 1839 the upper church was consecrated by St. Philaret. After 2 days, July 24, 1839 at Red Hill in the center of the field of Borodino ("battery Rajewski") was buried the ashes of the hero Borodin General Bagration.

August 26th, 1839 at an altitude of Kurgan ("Battery Rajewski") in the presence of Emperor Nicholas I, before the formation 150,000th troops and in the presence of 200 participants battle of Borodino, was consecrated a monument in memory of the defenders of the Motherland, built by architect A. Adamini. By this time the land in the central part of the field and the village of Borodino were bought by the Emperor at the local landlords to the Tsarevich, the future Emperor Alexander II.

June 9, 1861 (the year the liberation of the peasants) and the village of Borodino temple visited by the Emperor Alexander II, together with the Empress Maria Alexandrovna. For the royal couple Borodino was expensive, not by chance their gift of the church was the Image of the Savior, once handed them Abbess Maria.

May 11, 1891 the village of Borodino, and visited the Temple of the Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich and his wife Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna. They familiarized themselves with the king's contributions and gave the temple icon of St. Sergius in precious settings. Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich treated with great attention to everything that reminded him of Borodino in a great battle, he wrote about the educational value of the Borodino field, thought it necessary remedial work on the field, especially the reconstruction of the fortifications on the position of the Russian army, a reasonable museumfication field. All further positive activity in this direction is essentially an implementation of the proposals of Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich.

In 1902 at the initiative of the chief railway station Borodino P. Bogdanovich in one room of the station was created by the "Museum of 1812."

At the beginning of the XX century architectural environment Borodin was very rich. Here was the Imperial Palace of Tsarevich, as owner of the village. In line with the palace, to the west of it were office buildings, now in their basements are two small hospital building. At the site of the palace by day August 26, 1912 was set up breakfast for the guests of Borodino celebration, attended by the Emperor Nicholas II. Opposite the temple, to the east of it, on the right side of the road to the villages and Bezzubov Loginova was a monument to Emperor Alexander II the Liberator (bust of white marble), supplied peasants Borodin and its environs. North of the Temple is the only remaining building of the old village of Borodino - the building of rural schools Specific department, which provided funds of the imperial family - now houses the local administration.

On the 100th anniversary of the Battle of Borodino in 1912 by architect B. MGO was rebuilt lodge disabled in Battery Rajewski, which opened the anniversary exhibition. At Borodino monument were erected 33 regiments, divisions, corps artillery brigades and their companies of the Russian Army who distinguished themselves in battle.

In the 30th years of XX century "blessed" by the authorities of the Borodino field monuments were destroyed by local residents. In 1929, was closed Borodino Savior Convent, which was organized by the agricultural commune, rural churches were closed, they arranged a granary and industrial workshops. In 1932 he was busted crypt containing the ashes of Bagration, destroyed a monument on the battery Rajewski.

In July 1941, construction begins Mozhaisk defense line, forefront of which passed through the field of Borodino. Along the river were built Koloch antitank and antipersonnel obstacles. The fighting in the field of Borodino turned October 13, 1941. Despite the fact that the fascist forces greatly outnumbered in manpower and technology is only emerging 5th Army, the SS Division "Reich" was pretty shabby. The delay of the German troops at Borodino allowed the Soviet command to gain time for strengthening the near approaches to Moscow.

In 1961, the eve of the 150th anniversary of the War of 1812, the decree of the Government of the RSFSR field of Borodino battle was declared a museum-reserve "to include a memorial sites, historical monuments of the Borodino field of Borodino and the State Military History Museum."