Russian cities Borovichi

Russian cities Borovichi


City Borovichi River Msta - one of the oldest cities in North-West Russia. It is located on the spurs of the Valdai Hills, with an abundance of forests, rivers and lakes. Borovichi region was populated as far back as ancient times. Traces of settlements, which are more than 5000 years. But better known Neolithic sites related to the mid-second millennium AD. Even then fashioned dishes out of clay and decorated before baking products fingerprints ridge patterns of holes, wavy lines.

During the excavations found flint arrowheads and spears, axes and scrapers. In 1974, the site of Neolithic settlements on the shores of Lake Sheregodro 44 burials of 47 archaeologists have found amber jewelry, confirming the connection between local and Baltic tribes.
Products made of flint and shards of pottery are also some in the city and its surroundings on the shores of Lake Kryukovo. The remains of ancient settlements found on the shores of large lakes. In the first millennium BC, people have learned to extract iron from bog ore. The guns of his replacing stone and bone. This is evidenced by the ancient forge Iron Lake, Big Cousineau and others who have been subject to searches of many researchers.
River Region has long served as a convenient means of communication. In the second half of the first millennium AD on the shores Msta and its tributaries began rapidly populating the Slavs, who brought a higher culture, and new crafts.
Msta of other rivers could get into the Baltic, Black and Caspian Sea. In the non-navigational areas of the rivers and lakes, boats dragged, dragged by land. There are numerous names of villages and towns with a root "portage." The lake is located between two Mezhvolochnoe portages. From the village of Portage that 18kilometrah of Borovichi, by dragging the Novgorod lake could reach the river Mologa, thence down the Volga to Tver, and across the river to get back in Tvertsa upper Msta. In the Middle Ages to the large installed Mologa yarmorki, which come even foreign merchants. It is no accident on the outskirts of Borovichi, near the village of Pleso, was a treasure of Arabic dirhems coinage VIII-IX centuries, found in 1935. These coins - evidence of trade with the East.
No small interest hills and mounds and pagan burial. Extinct over the fire, which burned the body, pour sand hill. Sometimes, it even burned the corpse, and the hill continued to grow. The height of the individual hills 10metrov reached. As shown by excavations of burial mounds, some more recently buried the pots containing the ashes of burned. With the spread of Christianity in Russia appeared the cemetery, called zhalnikami. They are installed near residential areas, and it can be seen on more recent settlements. The hills and mounds zhalniki protected as archaeological sites. Associated with them quite a few legends and tales.
Primary Chronicle for the year 947 was first mentioned river MSTA. Kiev Princess Olga dared to embark on a journey in winter on sledges to bring order to the levying of tribute to Novgorod lands, subject then to Kiev. She established the cemeteries - the administrative center of the region. Cemeteries were located at the end of mstinskih thresholds at the intersection of roads. Around the city there were at least 20 ancient graveyards. They were in different Pyatina Novgorod, separated by a river Mstoy: from the south - Derevskaya from the north - Refugee Pyatina. In the churchyard Borisoglebsky that existed in the city, from the ancient years was a customs yard for collection of fees, which was abandoned after the destruction of outposts and customs under Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich.
Another mention of Msta contained in the First Novgorod Chronicle, where, under the year 1196 reported that the exiled prince of Novgorod, Yaroslav Vladimirovich, Prince of Torzhok, exacted tribute "on the top and Mste for Volochkov."
The Mongol-Tatar invasion greatly retarded the development of the region. The population was forced to pay a heavy tribute, we refer to Novgorod to make payments to khans.
Documents of the time direct mention of Borovichi is not found, and few local legends relating to the period of the Tartar invasion. However, that existed in the Holy Spirit Monastery inscription on the James Cancer Borovichi said, that the monastery was founded in 1327godu and stone cathedral church in it (now preserved) was built 1345godu. In villages, Chuck, Portage, Osinovets, near the village of Sopin, Kushavera and in several other places the remains of more ancient monasteries than Borovichi. Around the monasteries appeared settlement, attracting people not only proximity to the saints, as to the major trade routes.
Borovichi churchyard was first mentioned in the book of quit-rent Census Derevskoy fifths around 1495. Among the settlements adjacent to it, there are now familiar names of existing villages: Poterpelitsy (Terpeltsy) - now Zarechnaya Bobovik, Sushani, and others. They were small selenitsa. In Poterpelitsah, for example, there were only three of the yard.
On entering the 1478godu Novgorod lands in the Moscow state in the north-western borders were built strong fortifications. Expanded trade and increased traffic. This led to a revival primstinskih villages. Residents built the ships, took them to the river, abounding sills, repairing broken rafts and boats. "Sudoplatets", "sudoprohodets" were common in these parts specialties.
Develops and grows Borovichsky Row, so called in cadastres 1564goda. It already appears 114 yards, 42 shops, 11 barns. Twenty-nine farms were arable lands, that is engaged in agriculture. And arable farmers have had to Borovichi srednempo2, 14chetverti the courtyard, while in nearby churchyards from 9 to 11 quarters. Residents pay no Borovichi order from the ground, as usual, but with buildings. All this points to the trading and artisan way of life. With the spread of Christianity in Russia appeared the cemetery, called zhalnikami. They are installed near residential areas, and it can be seen on more recent settlements. The hills and mounds zhalniki protected as archaeological sites. Associated with them quite a few legends and tales.
Primary Chronicle for the year 947 was first mentioned river MSTA. Kiev Princess Olga dared to embark on a journey in winter on sledges to bring order to the levying of tribute to Novgorod lands, subject then to Kiev. She established the cemeteries - the administrative center of the region. Cemeteries were located at the end of mstinskih thresholds at the intersection of roads. Around the city there were at least 20 ancient graveyards. They were in different Pyatina Novgorod, separated by a river Mstoy: from the south - Derevskaya from the north - Refugee Pyatina. In the churchyard Borisoglebsky that existed in the city, from the ancient years was a customs yard for collection of fees, which was abandoned after the destruction of outposts and customs under Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich.
Another mention of Msta contained in the First Novgorod Chronicle, where, under the year 1196 reported that the exiled prince of Novgorod, Yaroslav Vladimirovich, Prince of Torzhok, exacted tribute "on the top and Mste for Volochkov."
The Mongol-Tatar invasion greatly retarded the development of the region. The population was forced to pay a heavy tribute, we refer to Novgorod to make payments to khans.
Documents of the time direct mention of Borovichi is not found, and few local legends relating to the period of the Tartar invasion. However, that existed in the Holy Spirit Monastery inscription on the James Cancer Borovichi said, that the monastery was founded in 1327godu and stone cathedral church in it (now preserved) was built 1345godu. In villages, Chuck, Portage, Osinovets, near the village of Sopin, Kushavera and in several other places the remains of more ancient monasteries than Borovichi. Around the monasteries appeared settlement, attracting people not only proximity to the saints, as to the major trade routes.
Borovichi churchyard was first mentioned in the Census rent-paying book about 1495goda Derevskoy fifths. Among the settlements adjacent to it, there are now familiar names of existing villages: Poterpelitsy (Terpeltsy) - now Zarechnaya Bobovik, Sushani, and others. They were small selenitsa. In Poterpelitsah, for example, there were only three of the yard.
On entering the 1478godu Novgorod lands in the Moscow state in the north-western borders were built strong fortifications. Expanded trade and increased traffic. This led to a revival primstinskih villages. Residents built the ships, took them to the river, abounding sills, repairing broken rafts and boats. "Sudoplatets", "sudoprohodets" were common in these parts specialties.
At the beginning of the XVII century the Russian state was going through troubled times. The struggle of the Polish boyars and the pretenders to the throne was accompanied by looting and the targeting of the inhabitants of the suburbs. Resistance to False Dmitry II adopted nation-wide. Vysily Shumsky asked for help from Sweden, and in 1609 in Vyborg, signed a military alliance against Poland. But the Swedes were slow in providing assistance, hoping to profit at the expense of the Russian land. In 1611, the fifteen thousandth unit Swedes under the command of Jacob De la Gardie took Novgorod. In the captured Russian towns and churchyards Swedes left the garrison, by obliging the local population to support their troops.
Swedes were significant forces in the churchyard at the White Msta (village Lyubytino), Tikhvin, Staraya Russa, and in other cities of the north-west Russia. Their troops plundered the surrounding population, burned villages and hamlets. Residents were hiding in the woods.
As the Chronicle, "Churchyard Spassky Borovitskii szhen and fought, and the place is empty tserkvnoe." There were also burned Poterpelitsy, Chuck, and others. Full line of sorrow Molotkovsky Chronicle: "In the summer of 7119 (1611g.) .... harbored many dead male and female sex Teles lezhahu nepokrovenna, harbored many as in the water utonushe, and others in the fire sgoresha and be weeping and wailing, and cry a lot, and tears and groans, and mourning. "
Ordinary people came to the defense of land, "and otchich dedich." At the end of 1612 the militia, collected by Kuzma Minin and Dmitry Pozharsky, freed from the Poles to Moscow and most of the country. Then all the forces were deployed to defeat the Swedes.
In the spring of Russian troops 1613goda militia under the command of Simeon Prozorovskiy and Leontius Sonya 50 miles from Borovichi, near the village Ustreka, the source of the river I am sure that routed the Swedes. "Fast slashing evil and run ... damn Germans. and harbored many of them pobienii byzhe. "

"Peter cemetery in the Baltic States"

Lingering dream of the return of Russian access to the Baltic Sea carried Peter 1. He has repeatedly held Borovichsky thresholds and knew the dangerous work of local pilots. The king released them from all taxes, putting them on a circular responsibility for the safety of goods. According to legend, Petr1, passing the rapids, always insisted on his Poterpelitsah anisovki glass. So reach Poterpelitsky called Wine.
At the beginning of Borovichi rapids on the right bank Msta against the village Opechensky Row, was established pilotage settlement - Opechensky Posad. It housed the administrative services of the system, settled carpenters, repaired and built barges and boats. Hence, the court went on a risky voyage.
Spuschiki were boats over the rapids, avoiding dangerous places. On a command pilot, people ran heavy stern and bow oars. On large barges paddles were long and 9 yards, and each grew to 20 people. Often on the barge afloat spilling plaster. In certain places on the coast to the barge jumped "vodolivy", mostly women and children, buckets and buckets pouring water collection quickly. A "caulker" dived under the barge and stop up the gap with tow, getting a pittance for their work, which sometimes ended in tragedy.
In some years, passed over the rapids to 6500 vessels and 350 races. Maintenance of their required a lot of people. For example, only the pilot on the pier Poterpelitsy in the mid XVIII century it was up to four hundred, in Opechenskom Posada - over two hundred, and, "when the need requires," the next village could muster two hundred.
In the spring of Borovichi Row converged hundreds of workers from the province and neighboring provinces. Everybody was working. Borovichi Row at that time became a major population center with a variety of shopping and drinking establishments, and handicrafts. December 6, 1750 The Senate made a remark Salt office, because it is not established in Borovichi item on sale of salt, as the "village Borovichi revered noble." Local merchants themselves were sent to St. Petersburg to 500 ships with cargoes a year. In 1765, Borovichi merchant Ivan Kolubov for a single navigation fused to the capital of 18 000 pine logs.
In the second half of XVIII century in a row Borovichi quickly developed crafts, trade and shipping. Borovichi became a place of attraction of the population of the edge, and soon the village was one of the largest in the province. However, his administrative position prevented further growth of productive forces. Lack of local self-government solution inhibited the majority of issues, particularly related to the diversion of land and new construction.
In an effort to streamline management and operations of police, courts and apparatus for collecting various taxes, the governor of the Novgorod JE Sivers put forward in 1764, a draft of the administrative-territorial reorganization of the province and the construction of the rank of the cities a number of settlements. Sievers noted a favorable geographical position Borovichi and "prone to all kinds of crafts temper Borovichsky residents." The establishment of the city would give the same opportunity to set it management thresholds.
May 28, 1770 Catherine II signed a decree on renaming Borovichi, Valdai, the Most High Volochok and Ostashkov in the city. In April 1772 the Senate approved the plan and the emblem of the city Borovichi. Geraldmeysterskaya office has reflected in the emblem of the main occupation of the inhabitants: "The Shield on two cut perpendicular to the feature, the blue and silver, in the first image of a golden sun ... in the field of natural silver color of iron-bound steering wheel means that the art tutoshnih helmsman causes security plovuschim courts so dangerous places."

Building blocks of streets planned right along and perpendicular to the Msta.
June 24, 1772 Sievers arrived in Borovichi announce the decree and to organize a "social self". "San - Petersburg Vedomosti" wrote that in this day the city lights of illuminations. The celebrations were accompanied by bursts of artillery salute. The next day, people painted on the guilds, and elected the mayor, the mayor and Ratmanov. The provision of new urban inhabitants were called burghers, artisans invited to join the guilds, the city authorities - building schools, building stone.
The city began to grow rapidly. In 1786 the school opened water communications, preparing personnel for Vyshnevolockij water system, and the hospital. After a year, classes began in a small public schools, give knowledge of mathematics and Russian language. It trained 81 people.
Visited in 1782 Borovichi Novgorod Governor JA Bruce reported to Catherine II: «The city has a fairly industrial merchants, why a new plan and built houses 248, and stone - 7, but the buildings again taken 7 seats."
By 1785 there were already 16 stone, 317 on a stone foundation, and 373 wooden houses, 3 brick factory, mill, and various handicraft workshops for maintenance of river navigation and household needs. Twice a year, were crowded yarmorki.
But in general, life in Borovichi differed little from that of other provincial towns in the county.
A half-century the river was a nurse borovichan MSTA. Creating safer and Tikhvin Mariinsky waterway waterways with two-way traffic of ships and steam-powered opening in 1851 the railway Petersburg - Moscow nullified the value Vyshnevolockij water system. By 1857 in Borovichi disappeared profession of ship masters and pilots. Many rivermen in search of work and went to the Mariinsky Tikhvin water systems.
In 1859, the city's population 7600chelovek, there were 135 stone and 843 wooden houses. The growth of cities has slowed. Reduced trade and shipbuilding. In 1890, on the last barge was Msta. But the river has long served as an alloy of wood.
A little variety in the life of the city have made the church festivals, dances in the Officers' meeting, arranged by the General Staff Academy students, but the arrival of troops to eliminate the peasant unrest. As he wrote one of the ideologists of Populism Mikhailovsky, Borovichi at that time were known to them as "bells and deacons are huge bass voice."
History Borovichi region is closely linked with the name of the Russian general Aleksandr Vasilyevich Suvorov.
After making peace with the Swedes in 1617, part of the Russian lands remained under the rule of the Swedes, including Karel with the county. Its inhabitants - Karels, has long cast its lot with the Russian people, did not want to be under foreign state. Many of these sites were close to Borovichi, in the lands of the Palace of the order, and formed a village Konchanskoe, neighboring villages Ledinku, Sergeykovo, Durilovo and several others.
In 1763 Konchanskoe with several villages were bought nobleman Vasily Ivanovich Suvorov, after whose death the land and the serfs on the inheritance passed to his son Alexander.
At the time of arrival at his estate, AV Suvorov was already illustrious commander. Not wanting to put up with Paul I entered the Prussian drill and orders the troops, he said his resignation. Alexander came to Konchanskoe May 5, 1763 and found the estate in a bad condition. From the earliest days of Suvorov was installed secret surveillance police officers. He has received numerous lawsuits, often unfounded, but in all cases supported by the local authority was seeking to curry favor with the king. The total amount of "debt" Suvorov "plaintiffs" in 1797 reached 100 thousand rubles. Paul I knew that long to hold widely known military leader out of business impossible, and began to seek ways of reconciliation: the case ordered the closure of monetary claims, Suvorov allowed visits from family and friends, and finally brought him to St. Petersburg. But the reconciliation did not happen. Suvorov returned to Konchanskoe. ... It was in 1798. In Europe, absolutist regimes were collapsing. Against revolutionary France, formed a coalition of states, decided to crush the revolution. February 6, 1799 in Konchanskoe rushed adjutant Tolbukhin Service of St. Paul. "Now we have no time to settle, God will forgive the guilty. The Roman emperor requires you to chiefs of his army, and gives you the fate of Austria, and Italy. My job is to accept these things, and your save them. " The next day he went to St. Petersburg Suvorov. In Konchanskoe he no longer was. In 1900, the Russian people celebrated the 100th anniversary of the death of the great commander. At the insistence of the foremost representatives of the Russian army had been taken to preserve his estate. In Borovichi laid a monument to Alexander Suvorov, but the project remained unrealized. Only 22 December 1940, the day of the 150th anniversary of the capture of the fortress of Izmail, a monument to Alexander Suvorov was opened in Konchanskoe. And in less than two years after it was created and Museum Suvorov. In the museum there is an eloquent photo: going to the front of the Red Army are present at the opening of the museum. In 1958-1959, the museum building was rebuilt, re-erected on Mount Dubihe attic. On the former site of Suvorov's church in 1975 placed the diorama "Alpine march of Alexander Suvorov", made by artists studio Grekov. In May 1950, renamed the village Konchanskoe Konchanskoe-Suvorov.

"CITY OF PATRIOTS burghers and ..."

In June 1812 the troops of Napoleon of France invaded Russia. To protect our homeland rose the whole country. Patriotic impulse of Novgorod was so unanimous that even caused difficulties in the preparation of noble elections, "inasmuch as almost all the nobles thence came to serve in the militia." With them gone, and the peasants. Borovichane was 5 th brigade Novgorod militia, participated in the battles of Polotsk, on the Berezina, the siege of Pillau and Danzig. In Borovichi, as well as throughout the province, and prepared to face the enemy. It was decided in his approach to burn in Opechenskom Posada barges with grain and other supplies. ... Came in 1813. The victorious Russian army drove the enemy from outside the country. The county ran down a familiar life. "The River MSTA thawed 1 of this month - the newspaper" The Northern Post "in May - and nowhere without causing the slightest harm. Now the local industrialists of the city and county are preparing to send to St. Petersburg, barges, and boats polubarok number over one hundred ships, loading koi ¬ HN rye, wheat and oats. " In the autumn began to arrive from the army, tempered by injury to the militia. Met them in different ways: the nobles were given cash incentives, and farmers check out the landlords. Hope Warriors to an exemption from serfdom for the salvation of the homeland did not materialize, they had no choice but to seek their own freedom. The commander of the St. Petersburg Military District Vyazmitinov wrote to the Committee of Ministers: "Now is the vice-governor of Novgorod in the aforementioned order mine reported that since the dissolution of the militias is a rare day that did not reach a mutual complaints from soldiers, landowners and their stewards to the demands of the past and disobedience to first. " To frighten the governor proposed "to prosecute the landowner peasants Anichkov, the former in the militia, for their disobedience of his landlord." Dissatisfaction with the existing system and maturity of the advanced part of the nobility. The highest expression of this discontent was the Decembrist movement. Among the participants in the uprising at Senate Square, St. Petersburg December 14, 1825 and was a non-commissioned officer of the Moscow of the Life Guards regiment Alexander Lutsky, the son of a ruined nobleman Borovichi. Being in a chain fence, he received from the regimental commander Alexander Bestuzhev strict orders to anyone in the area not to miss. When to Lutsk, to find out the intention of the rebels, the military governor came graph Miloradovich and asked, "What are you, boy, are you doing?" - Named Lutsk Miloradovich a traitor, and then wounded with a bayonet drove the horse policeman. A. Lutsky was sentenced to death, commuted to twelve years of hard labor. In June 1827 shackled, he was sent from the fortress in Siberia. Demonstrations against serfdom continued. In the village of Aga-phones in February 1830 revolt peasants landowner Me-kinin. She promised to release them in a "free cultivators," but she died before fulfilling promises. The serfs refused to recognize the power of the new landowner Krekshino. She turned to Borovichi Marshal of the Nobility. Together with two battalions of soldiers and police officer zemstvo leader went to pacify the rebellious. In each household was sent to two or more soldiers for surveillance. The peasants did not give up: they were sent to St. Petersburg walkers "to seek the truth." When the walkers returned with nothing, some of the peasants recognized the power of the ladies, along with other residents of neighboring villages fled to Krestetskogo county forest. Then every village surrounded by soldiers. A month later, the fugitives surrendered to authorities, were put on a military court and sent to prison. Four years later, the estate Krekshino riot broke out again. To pacify Agafonov arrived in Novgorod governor Sukovkin with a company of soldiers Arhangelogorodskogo Infantry Regiment. He was met by a sullen and watchful crowd. When the governor read the imperial decree, which stated that the farmers must continue to obey the landowners, agafonovtsy unanimously answered that they did not believe and do not obey the decree. The farmer Eustace Fokin said: "We sent our walkers that they will bring, so be it." The governor gave orders to seize Fokine, but in the crowd shouted: "Do not give!" The soldiers took Fokine force, and then excited the men shouting, "We'll die, but we will not obey, we are deceived!" - Rushed at the soldiers. "The action rifle butts' revolt was suppressed. The most persistent was taken to jail and then Borovichsky put on trial. The sentence was severe: six drive through a gauntlet of 100 five times and give the military service, unfit for service deported to Siberia, 22 rods to punish the peasants for 50 times each. Despite the harsh measures, the excitement did not stop. In 1851, villagers Monk, Devkin, and a number of villages Semeritsy Valdai district refused to recognize its owner and the landowner Kleopinu Lopukhin. For ten years, they sought liberation from bondage. Borovichi of police and witnesses who came to the village Naumovski, were met with clubs and cudgels, beat police officer. Were caused by the troops. 56 farmers appeared in court. February 19, 1861, Alexander II signed the manifesto abolishing serfdom. The peasants received land allotment for a huge ransom. Despite the limited reforms, the liberation of the peasants contributed to the development of capitalism. In Borovichi and county in the second half of the XIX century, along with mills, brick factories and artisanal pottery having tanneries, refractory plant and other small businesses. Population has long been known quality of the local clays, widely used in pottery industries. Trading revenue was pottery article Borovichsky merchants. There are increased metal production. Built blast furnaces and steel, on which was expensive refractory brick imported from England. Production begins Russian refractories. Raw refractory clays (up to two million pounds per year) brought water to the St. Petersburg plant. It was found that clay Borovichsky superior to everything produced in the country, and obtained from them is better import bricks. But long-distance transportation of crude clays were extremely profitable. In 1855, close to the river to Borovichi dealer known capitalist Nobel built the first plant of refractory bricks. Laid in 1877 a railway line to Borovichi created to develop the production of refractory materials at the site. One after the other in the city there are plants are "Meta and K", which owned and Belostotskaya Zaitsevsky (in place of the current fifth refractories plant plant), plants big capitalist KL Wachter. In 1880, Wachter founded the great works of refractories in hamlet wait is that the five miles from Borovichi, and then another two factories in the city. In 1891, engineers built a brother on the river Kolyankovskie Belgium factory of ceramic sewer pipes. In 1897 he created the "Russian-Belgian joint-stock company terracotta products." By 1902, in Borovichi produced products from refractory clays seven plants. High tariffs on imports from abroad have contributed to more refractory rapid development of the refractory industry in Borovichi. Porter in the five years since 1888, doubled the output, which is often marked by medals and diplomas at trade shows in Russia, and in 1896 awarded the plants a gold medal and diploma of the Paris Academy of Agriculture, Manufactures and Commerce. Especially great was the demand at home and abroad on the brick stamps "Prima", "Steam," "Metal», «KB», «Boiler." England began to buy and ceramic sewer pipes. Putilov, Izhora, Obukhov plant Petersburg refused to expensive imported refractories. Before World War Borovichsky factories worked out 97 000 tons of refractory products per year, representing about 40 percent of their production. Many years later, when the first phase of the Moscow Metro, the experts again interested in Borovichi pirogranitom. All this was local writer local historian Vitaly Vsevolodovich Garnovskii described in the story "Fire granite." But not only the clay-rich soil Borovichi. Meta river, deeply cut by the hills of sedimentary rock, exposed many fossils. In the XVIII century, they are interested in academics. Visited in the province academics P. Pallas and S. Gmelin drew attention to the "earth" coal. Large geological studies conducted mountain master Ivan Knyazev. But their work has been long forgotten. In the 80 years of the XVIII century, one of the most educated people of that time scholar, poet, architect, honorary member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Nikolay Lvov specified place of occurrence of coal and even arranged for him to catch. Their findings N. Lvov explained in his book "The benefits and use of earth coal," published in 1799. About a dozen barges with coal, he accompanied to St. Petersburg. But the king's officials, who believed that Borovichsky coal "is not lit and can not replace coal English," refused the proposal of the city. They say, dumped and burned coal samovosplamenilsya in heaps for two years ... Nearly a hundred years, production is not resumed. Only in 1895 for plants Wachter was produced 60 000 tons of coal for drying clay. Industrial development of the field began during World War II. In 1916, all mines were received Borovichsky I million tons of coal 378 000, delivered in Petrograd, where it was used locomotives Coastal Railway. They used it for heating. When the Donbass was temporarily occupied by the Nazis, and then went on restoration of mines, Borovichi gave a lot of coal to Leningrad enterprises and their plant refractories. But then the mining of brown coal here, in addition, overlying fine layers, was found unprofitable and closed. The region is rich and limestone. Mehta thresholds themselves - it's ledges of limestone slabs. Limestone used here for a long time to get the lime. At barks she went to St. Petersburg. Most of the lime produced in the vicinity of Uglovka, where in Soviet times on the site of small-scale enterprises emerged big lime plant. In the middle of the XIX century, from the bottom Msta and partly on the banks of rivers Krupa, Belgium and Bystrica mined iron pyrite. In the story "Mstinskie newts" Alexander Tsekhanovich published in the annex to magazine "Niva" for 1894, were shown horrific working and living conditions "voluntary convicts," the poorest residents of the city and surrounding villages, who could not find other work. Women and even children, standing waist-deep in water, scoops out of the iron grid taken out from the bottom of the river rocks, picks out the grain of pyrites and threw the bag on the belt. And then sold for pennies prey buyers. Severe illness and death were the result of such work. In the factories of pyrite obtained sulfuric acid for the local paper mill. At the end of the century plant of Mrs. Kovanko processed in a year about 100 000 tons of pyrites. It was the pyrites and chemical plants in St. Petersburg and Moscow. In the 80s of last century, four miles from town on the river, Belgium, Furman and Shadem capitalists were built two paper mills. They employed about two hundred workers. The raw material for the manufacture of coarse paper grades were straw purchases in the farmers, and timber. Before World War I produced a high grade of paper. Now the whole country knows napkins and towels Velgiyskry factory. At Udine river was built cardboard factory (14 km from Konchanskoe), she produced cardboard and metal pads to bottle caps. Another paper mill, in the purse, was eliminated in the 20s, and paper machines transferred to other factories, in particular Belgian. Many forest plants and consume refractories, wood raft in St. Petersburg. The forests receded far from the city. In better days Borovichsky LPH annually harvested 200 thousand cubic meters of timber and forestry conducted with large reforestation. In pre-revolutionary years in the city of Sarajevo, worked iron foundry in 1915, opened a match factory "Zarya" (now there are none). At the beginning of this century, the province has spread jersey fishing. Since 1912, artisans, began to organize in trikotazhniki farm. On their basis in the Soviet period there was a cooperative society "Kustarsoyuz", then became the founder of a number of new businesses. In the handicraft workshops were made of metal, wooden and ceramic tableware, tar, glue, felt boots, felt, sheepskin, etc. In the farms of flax weaving sharpen (cloth), produced carpets, woolen fabrics. Patterned fabric and trim household received high praise. Due to the extensive development of industry and handicrafts, it was decided to be held in 1894 at the National Dog Show Borovichi samples agricultural and handicraft and industrial products. It exhibits not only exhibited in various provinces of Russia, but also from abroad. Reports published in the exhibition of Russian newspapers. A lot of famous people linked their fate to Borovichi edge. Among them, the populist writer Pavel Zasodimsky. At the invitation of member of the populist movement Sophia Alexandrovna Leshern it in October 1872 came to the village Megletsy work as a teacher. Earned the respect of farmers, helping them advice, protecting them from the tyranny of the local authorities, teaching reading and writing. All this, of course, had no taste for the local priest and the rich. In mid-December SA notified the P. Leshern Zasodimskogo that it was not approved in the rank of master. "Who will replace me? Good if it will be a man? Will he love the idea to merge with humanity, with a gentle, compassionate attitude necessary for living, impressionable child's nature, "he was worried about the future work of the school. PV Zasodimsky went to St. Petersburg. His observations of the life of the peasants gave the writer a great material for a book about "liberation" of serfdom. In Megletsah he began the novel "Chronicle of the village Smurina." Good knowledge of rural life has allowed the author to show with high confidence, the process of post-reform bundle village, the predatory activities of the kulaks, the new owners the village - and hatred of the peasants. Published a novel in the journal "Notes of the Fatherland" in 1874. Zasodimskogo name became famous and drew the "attention" of the police. For a bright political speech at the funeral of a revolutionary journalist N. Shelgunov in 1891 Zasodimskogo banished from the capital and banned from living in Moscow. He went back to their favorite place to Msta and in April 1908 he settled on the farm Zhadin, 23 km from Borovichi. Then ran the estate of the Moscow industrialist Vostrikova long knew of the writer Matthew N. Chistyakov, a follower of Tolstoy's teaching. In 1911, bought a house in Zasodimsky Opechenskom Posad, where he spent his last days. The house survived until our days, its facade a memorial plaque. May 17, 1912 PV Zasodimsky died. The Bolshevik "The Truth" wrote: "P. B. Zasodimsky ... is the last of the glorious circle of Russian novelists, where he worked together with Gleb Uspensky, Zlatovratsky and others. " He was buried in Zasodimsky Opechenskom Posada on the spot where the first church and cemetery were under three thick birch, growing from one root. Locals and tourists come here to honor his memory. The widow of the writer Alexandra Posada was in charge of the National Library. She died here in 1926. In 1962 he published a small book of local lore G. Ivanovski and LR Frumkin's PV Zasodimskom. It is true that the prototype of the heroine of the novel "The Chronicle sat down Smurina" Lizaveta Petrovna Vodyaninoy, "the good lady," is Leshern SA, and the image of teacher Vladimir Dmitrievich Verhozova embodied many of the qualities of the author of the novel. Sophia Leshern - revolutionary-populist, came from a noble family. Her ancestor was a Swedish officer, under Peter I, taken prisoner and remained in Russia. Her father, General, veteran of 1812, after retirement lived almost entirely on the estate of his wife, Megletsah.


The economic crisis in the first years of XX century, heavily influenced the position of the working class in Russia. Reducing the rate of growth of production of ferrous metals led to decrease in orders for refractories and firing workers. Growing dissatisfaction among Borovichsky refractory. In early 1902, the Chief of Gendarmerie province in its annual policy review noted that while before 1902, "receipt by an underground publication was a rare phenomenon, then in 1902 took delivery of such publications, looms large." In town for Mcte illegal Marxist literature, flyers and leaflets delivered to the St. Petersburg workers come from neighboring villages and Borovichi. Military defeats in the Far East and further deterioration of the working class will inevitably approaching revolution. At the end of 1904 in the Novgorod province only with porcelain, match factories, ceramic factories were fired up to three thousand workers, 10-15 percent reduced wages. Proximity to the St. Petersburg impacted on sentiment borovichan. In March 1905 the owner of a small pottery factory Belyaev reported to police that workers often quit their job to talk about strikes and strikes in the capital, and in general are "suspicious conversation". Workers went on strike vahterovskih plants, requiring povppeniya wages. They were set up so strongly, that the owners, fearing complications, agreed to meet their needs: daily rates were increased by 10 cents. But directed the strike of the workers Rashevsky, Ivanov and Siletsky were fired for "incitement." First World War brought Borovichi, as well as all of Russia new burdens. Crops in the county decrease Borovichi the second year of the war by 27 percent. There was a great percentage of the horseless: Thirteen out of every hundred households had no horses. Residents Borovichi, and lived before the war brought in the bread, now find themselves in a particularly difficult position. Growing resentment by the tsarist government, war. In factories instead of men who had gone to the front, many women work. Work to pay for them below. A family was getting harder and harder. But the governor of the Novgorod Vislenev believed that in the province, "everything is going well" and "no political speeches and never will." This was written in late 1916! On the night of March 2, 1917 in Borovichi became aware of the overthrow of the autocracy and the establishment of the Provisional Government and the Council of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies in Petrograd. ... Day on March 3 streets there were demonstrations, spontaneous demonstrations. Was disarmed the police, the prison released political prisoners. In the main, Catherine, in the street burning "case" of police records. Inside City Government officials gathered Zemstvo, they anxiously awaited the news. In the house a secondary school at a meeting of representatives of the enterprises of the city Council was established Workers' Deputies. The Board includes people of different political orientation. While in Borovichi has not yet been furnished of the party groups, there were some supporters of a party. Party groups are organized in April and May. At first, heavily influenced by the Socialist-Revolutionaries, since the population there were many artisans and small proprietors, tradesmen, and many workers Borovichsky businesses were recent immigrants from the peasants. Almost simultaneously with the Council, even a little earlier, in Borovichi originated organ of bourgeois power - the committee of public safety. It consisted of representatives from city government, local factory owners. The first meeting of Council held on 6 March 1917. The Council had a lot of attention paid to the workers, as owners of enterprises, and after the February Revolution oppressed workers, delayed payment of wages not paid allowances "wartime" and even used the lockout. The Council has allocated a group of agitators, issued an appeal to the workers. But the smallest group at the time of the Bolshevik deputies are not always able to achieve decision-making. In late April he was transferred to Borovichi 174th Infantry Regiment spare. Among the soldiers of the regiment had a lot of the Bolsheviks, in the regimental committee, they have played a leading role. And when a member of the Council of Borovichi included several soldiers, it is immediately strengthened the position of the Bolsheviks in the Council. And in May, has already taken shape in Borovichi county organization of the RSDLP (b) - the embryo of the future government. A few months after the overthrow of tsarism, but the Provisional Government did not want to solve the major issues - on peace, land, delayed the elections for the Constituent Assembly. Therefore, performance Bolshevik agitators were heard with more and more attention. In mid-June Public Safety Committee in conjunction with the city government organized a rally the townspeople and peasants of nearby villages to support the slogan of the Provisional Government of the war "to the bitter end." Without waiting for the arrival of the workers, the leaders tried to rally quickly to the desired resolutions. When read aloud a resolution in the square seemed columns of workers and soldiers, they carried banners reading "Down with war!" Arrived opposed the resolution in support of the Provisional Government, and took her, demanding immediate peace. There were also taken special measures - were detained chairman of SP Gromov, and one of the leaders of the county party organization SV Malyshev. They were sent to prison. Learned of this 174-soldiers of the regiment, and they were released from jail the leaders of the Bolsheviks. After the events of July in St. Petersburg period of dual power was over. The Bolsheviks, gaining strength, took the offensive. Their slogan - the armed rebellion. Impoverished people just waiting for this. Decisions of the VI Congress of the Bolshevik discussed in Borovichi in September 1917. The meeting of communists was held in the premises of the regimental staff. It appealed to the people to appeal to "intensify the struggle against the bourgeoisie and prepare for an armed seizure of power." And - nachalos.V Borovichi commander 174th Regiment, following an order of the Provisional Government to disarm the revolutionary-minded parts of secretly sending weapons launched to the station. The soldiers heard this, they seized the commander, and he cast into the river. The interim government immediately sent a large detachment of Cossacks Borovichi General Krasnov and his Krunskogo Commissioner, who promised to "restore order" in the city. The Commissioner of the Provisional Government declared the city under martial law. The Cossacks rode through the streets groups. In the hills of the Saviour of guns have been installed to keep the city under threat of bombardment. Arrests began. Council members were arrested. Escaped arrest only S. Gromov and P. Gorpinenko. They reached the station on foot and Okulovka reached Petrograd. The representative of the Provisional Government soon to release the arrested members of the Board. Once before Borovichi heard about the victory of the October Revolution, the Commissioner of the Provisional Government left the city. Borovichi Council announced the establishment of the city and county government of Soviets of Workers, Peasants 'and Soldiers' Deputies. In Borovichsky Council and included representatives of the Bolshevik Party and the Socialist-Revolutionary Party. But if the city has not used the SR special influence, in the county of their positions were still quite strong. That is why the first provincial congress of Soviets in December 1917, the Bolsheviks were a little bit. At the first congress were endless disputes, and the Bolsheviks, as well as some adjoining the Left Socialist Revolutionaries left the Congress and continued to work in a separate room on Nikitskaya Street. After signing the Brest-Litovsk in March 1918, when the Left Socialist Revolutionaries emerged from the Council of People's Commissars, and led an open struggle against the Soviet authorities, representatives of the party in Borovichi sent their agitators in townships. They did their best were anti-Bolshevik propaganda, trying to raise a rebellion in Pereluchskoy, Lzichskoy, Rivne, Dolgovskoy, Knyazevskoy in other counties. But the Bolsheviks had the city in time to send agitators to county, in some parish were sent to the armed groups. Particularly serious situation has arisen in Pereluchskoy Dolgovskoy and townships, but also there trying to raise the Socialist peasants in an armed uprising came to nothing lead. Unable to raise the Social Revolutionaries the peasants to revolt against Soviet power, and May 9 in Borovichi themselves. The Bolsheviks, members of the Council, through someone else know about this conception of the SR and quickly turned to the peasants, to the entire population of the county with the slogan: "Peasants and Workers! Borovichi Soviet of Workers and Peasants' Deputies, 25 considers it his duty to explain his comrades peasants and workers, that such statements can only hurt an already distressed economic life, for he who calls you a show, it is important to embroil the peasants and workers, set on your tips to shed fraternal blood, and they are in the muddy water they want to create something from which we are slowly going away ... "Emotional calculation Bolsheviks justified. The peasants did not support the county Social Revolutionaries. Combat squad SR was disarmed. By county until mid-summer 1918 SR group has tried to organize a separate appearances in rural districts. But it was too late ... The Bolshevik revolution in Borovichi be done and the consequences are still being felt.

Borovich SOVIET

Even during the First World War in Borovichi - a new type of industry - coal. Borovichi coal - not the best. It produces less heat than other coals. In addition, thin layers of lies, is not always beneficial to development. Coal mining in Borovichi closely linked with the name of the famous Soviet scientist, geologist, Fersman. Before World War I and during the Fersman Proshkove lived in - a few kilometers from Borovichi. Fersman a thorough study of the geological structure of the terrain. In his "Entertaining Mineralogy" he mentions Borovichi as one of the interesting places for those involved in this science. When, during the First World War the company began to experience the Petrograd in need of fuel, Fersman proposed design Borovichsky coal. Use this coal company in Petrograd and immediately after the revolution, but the need for it passed as soon began to flow from the Donetsk coal mines. Post-revolutionary power - Borovichi Council - and was engaged in urban farming. And it, in fact, it was necessary to create it anew. Was out of town or running water, no sanitation, no bridges, except for the cobblestone streets of Petrograd and St. Catherine. Electric lighting was only a few shops of large plants. Hospital with 58 beds could not serve both the city and county. Its housing stock in the new government was not. In 1918. Council requisition home breeders and merchants, and settles their needy families in the apartments of the workers, placing their institutions. Borovichi Council worked on education and culture. Real school and gymnasium were transformed into the secondary school level. The doors to remain open to all. But three or four elementary schools could not meet the needs of the city. Therefore, in selected houses organized the new school and normal school, opened in Borovichi in 1916, converted to a normal school. Teachers were required not only to educate children, but also for the elimination of illiteracy among the adult population. In 1913 Borovichi was 39 percent illiterate, and among the workers - over 70 percent! The people gradually stretched to knowledge, culture and art. At the beginning of the 18th in Borovichi opened the first club for the workers of refractory plants. The club held the first small room, but life there was in full swing. The club has worked a lot of circles. The repertoire included drama circle, mostly plays of Maxim Gorky. Members of the circle and put but Gogol, Ostrovsky, Schiller, Hauptmann. Later, the drama group and collective propaganda teams have begun working studio theater. Ended the civil war. Country overcome the devastation. The main company Borovichi - refractory plants - every year produced more goods, so the correct metallurgy. By 1925, the production of refractory products reached the prewar level. At least have the expansion and reconstruction of factories and mines. By this time, a small iron foundry belonging to the revolution of Sarajevo, has been restored. For power management built a new building. The Belgian paper mills have also reached the prewar level of output. City budget has allowed the Council to begin construction of new schools and hospitals. Then began to appear in new homes, at first small, four-and vosmikvartirnye, wooden, with stove heating. In the early twenties, first opened in the town library, a museum created. In 1932 he opened mining and ceramic school. For it was built a special building. Since 1933, working in Borovichi training courses for nurses. Later, on the basis of these courses there is a medical school that trains midwives, paramedics, pharmacists and nurses for child care. In the thirties, built the building for the school, city hospital, a club for workers refractory industry, built the city's first five-storey house - house engineering and technical workers - and the first part consists of four apartment buildings, as well as a new building for teaching school. Course of industrialization assumed priority development of heavy industry. In the first five years for the industry needed more and more fire-resistant products. If in the years 1923-1926 Borovichsky plants refractories for the renovation and expansion of production spent 2.3 million rubles (or about 500 thousand rubles a year), during the first two Five-Year Plan has been spent over 80 million rubles, or an average of 8 million a year . Major upgrades have been grinding department, they were equipped with modern equipment, significantly reduced the use of manual labor. Reconstruction of the enterprises on the basis of modern technology is impossible without electrification. In 1928, the central power station was built. She gave energy refractory plants. The station had four diesel engines and power it was gradually increased to 8000 kW. This is eight times greater than the power plants that were previously in all enterprises of the city. In 1932 the factory was built for the production of chamotte - clay baked ground, which is added in the production of refractories in wet clay mass. Prior to this, each department was preparing himself for a firestone. For transportation of clay, fire clay and fuel used by a cable car. In 1930, fire-resistant plants received 60 trucks. Cableway and trucks (their number increased each year) made it possible to abandon horse carts, which were used for transporting raw materials, fuel and manufactured products. During these years, the factories of trust "Tsentroshamot" (in 1922, all refractory plants in Borovichi were merged into the trust) is updated forging industry in forming branches to replace the manual lever presses come mechanical. A large role in creating and implementing new equipment played a factory inventors and innovators. Root borovichanin Mikhail Samarin came to the factory in nine hundredth years. Samarin know what hard manual labor, too much of it perekatal heavy wheelbarrows. After the revolution, Samarin became skilled mechanic. He was interested in cars, their organization, and he is eager to ease the labor of the worker. The very first small deals Samarin were successful, they have implemented. During the first five years the plants began to receive new equipment. At first some of the cars had to buy abroad. Were imported and installed a plastic molding press (for pressing products from raw clay). But they were cumbersome, complicated, difficult to adjustment. And then the thought of Samarin build your press. Education Samarin was small, but fellow workers, technicians, engineers have helped him make the calculations embody many times thought-out design of the new media in the drawings. Holiday for all was the day when the press samarinsky was completed and passed the test. Samarin Press was used in other fire-resistant plants of the country. Borovichi autodidact, inventing, persistently studied. He created a new design presses, siphons and other products made of refractory clay. Samarin was later head of the machine shop mill refractories and other major mechanic shops complex. In the first five years in the refractory industry was fully reconstructed kiln economy first began to ring furnace heated with coal instead of wood. Gone are the cars - they were replaced by trucks and other transport intrashop. The oldest in the country Refractories Plant in Borovichi help new plants refractory industry for its skilled workers, technicians and engineers. In Borovichi come to the practice of young workers with Semiluki, Stalinogorsk, Shchekino plants. In March 1939 the plant was awarded the Order of Red Banner of Labor. At the same time was awarded the Order of a large group of workers, engineers and technicians combine. For the first five years of change and mechanical plant. In 1932 he completed construction of its main building. The plant began to produce machines for knitted jerseys, benzinorazdatochnye speakers, assemblies and parts for cars. Later plant mastered the production of automatic machines for the production of needles for knitting machines. If in 1930 there were in the shops of the plant 50 different machines, then in five years - to 1936 - the factory was already 170 machines, all of which were modern. In 1935, construction was completed at the factory blacksmith shop in 1941 - entered into a new building stamping shop. By 1941, mechanical plant has become a major machinery manufacturer. The collective of the plant mastered the production of such machines and products that were previously produced in the country at all, they were imported from abroad. Expanded its production and Velgiyskaya paper mill. In 1937 there was built and equipped to release the wallpaper department of the paper. Much has been done on the reconstruction of internal transport. New joiner's shop and wood dryer went into operation at a woodworking factory. Underwent reconstruction of the bakery - four new furnaces made it possible to considerably increase the production of bread products. Until 1941, the city created a lot of other companies. Some emerged on the basis of small handicraft, some created from scratch. In 1924 the factory went into operation, "Spinner," and in 1929, garment factory "Red October". In Borovichi appears and factory of musical instruments "Russian balalaika" factory "Headdress" and other fine knit cooperative merging, manual labor they replaced the engine. Before the revolution Borovichi sometimes jokingly called the "big country" - not without reason. The city was largely made of wood, only on the main street of stone houses adorned wealthy. There was no running water, water, people were taken from wells or directly from the river Meta, sewer ditches replaced. Green on the streets was not. The only summer garden was small, and surrounded by very tall dusting fence, entrance to it in the evenings, when the brass band played the fire brigade had been paid. In the same garden was haywire and wooden open-air theater, which were occasionally visiting artists. May 1, 1920 workers took to the city Saturday. In the central square of city they laid then the first square. Much has changed shape over the years Borovichi the first five. Converting Borovichi facilitated by the fact that even in those times when Borovichsky Row was renamed the city, he was given a plan for further development of the streets. Particularly original plan was no different, but thanks to him, the city had a pretty clear plan. In 1931 he began the construction of water supply. First of all it ended in 1934 - paved over five miles of water pipes. Simultaneously the construction and sewage treatment plants. In the thirties, became operational hydroelectric power plant on Lake Borovenskaya Borovno, and most residents of the city parted with kerosene lamps. But this power does not satisfy the growing needs of the city. The streets began to pave Borovichi, sidewalks covered tiles of local manufacture. They gave the streets a particularly elegant look. Borovichi late thirties has little resemblance to the pre-revolutionary city. But in 1941 a peaceful life was disrupted borovichan ...

Borovich WAR

Summer-Fall 41 th. The group of Hitler's armies "North" led offensive to the general direction of the Leningrad, Army Group "Center" lunging toward Moscow. City Borovichi lying between Moscow and Leningrad, could soon become the front line of the (at the time of the administrative Borovichi were part of the Leningrad region). As well as throughout the country, in Borovichi mobilization was in the army, has been expanded network of military educational items created additional groups of nurses and sandruzhinnits. The front moved closer to the city. The population was preparing shelters, trenches, bunkers. In autumn 1941 the equipment of the main shops refractory plant were evacuated to the Urals, mechanical plant was relocated in the Vladimir region. Stopped work and other businesses, they are also preparing to evacuate. On Refractories Plant continued to operate only the central power station and the central mechanical workshops. They are repairing military equipment for the troops Volkhov Front. In mid-October 1941 by the Nazis were eager to hard capital of our country Moscow. But in the winter 1941/42, the Germans away from Moscow were discarded. At the same time were freed from the Nazis and the city of Kalinin Tikhvin. North-Western Front also slapped on compounds of the "North." The front line was pushed south-west. Threat of invasion by the Nazis in Borovichi passed. Migrant Borovichi gave the front all that was required for a successful struggle against the enemy. Borovichi bakery dried biscuits and sent to the army a lot of bread. Woodworking factory manufactured rifle boxes, butts for other types of firearms, rollers for airfields, trailer sled, caissons and pontoons. Distillery has mastered the manufacture of incendiary mixtures. At first, the mixture produced almost primitive methods. It was dangerous. But soon the factory inventors and innovators have found ways to secure production of mixtures and supplied them without a break front. The guilds of former mechanical plant number 12 and the farm "Tsvetmetsh Tampa" began the production buildings for mines and hand grenades. Workers knitting cooperative "Victory" knit sweater, underwear, balaclavas, gloves. Artel "Metalist" produces fuses for anti-personnel mines and other products necessary army. From Leningrad to Borovichi early in the war were transferred to mechanical plant management of the local industry and a small sewing factory "KIM". They also produce products for the front. Borovichane put in the work of all power and energy, overfulfilled job in two and sometimes three times. In 1943, young workers cooperative "Tsvetmetshtamp" have run workshops on all standards by 155 percent. The title of "front" was awarded in 1943 the youth brigade of the mechanical plant. This team, which was dominated by girls, engaged in assembling min. The young foreman Vinogradov ably led his comrades plan from month to month, they overfulfilled. Great weight bore on their shoulders during the war women. They not only worked in enterprises, but also on duty at the hospitals, took home hospital laundry for repairs. Many women were donors, their blood saved the lives of thousands of wounded soldiers of the Soviet Army. Only a small cooperative "Bytprom" 17 people were donors. Some of the women donated their blood for many times: M. Culina during the war has put 15 liters of blood, Elena Fedorova -13, -11 A. Galyunova liters. During the war borovichanki passed more than eight tons of blood. Eighty-three donors were rewarded with badges "Honorary Donor of the USSR." The population of the town and district have made money in the fund of national defense. Many refused to leave the money and asked them to list the defense fund. Young people raised money for a squadron of "Komsomolets". Were collected a lot of warm clothes and clothing for the army. October 25, 1942, in the difficult year of the Great Patriotic War, when half the territory of the Novgorod region has been occupied by the Nazis in the village Konchanskoe, located thirty-five kilometers northeast of Borovichi, opened the house-museum of the great Russian General Alexander Suvorov. The opening was attended by soldiers Volkhov Front. Armed with duffel bags over his shoulders, they walked away to the front. For the sake of their country, for the future of mankind people sacrificed everything. Borovichane proud of their countrymen. Hero of the Soviet Union Anatoly Kokorin - graduate medical school - was killed in the early days of the war on the northern border. Street named after him. A former pupil of the school № 4 Borovichsky Laurel Pavlov during the battle landed the plane on enemy territory to take on your vehicle commander with downed Nazi plane and return ¬ tilsya to their base. Pavlov died in the last days of the war. When a pilot Vladimir Molodchikova during air combat engine refused, he planned a convoy of enemy vehicles and opened fire with ammunition. Almost to the ground and the engine earned a pilot safely reached her. Hundreds borovichan gave their lives for the freedom of their homeland. Regimental Commissar SA Sharkov fought just 17 days - was killed by enemy bullets. He was posthumously awarded the Order of Lenin. Them - hundreds borovichan, glorified his city on the battlefields of the Great Patriotic War.


Did not the war ended, and in Borovichi - Center District, which became part formed in June 1944, the Gog Novgorod region, began a new building. The city was not destroyed like many cities so ¬ countries that were in the hands of the Nazis. But borovichane wanted to make up something that was not done for years, gone to fight the enemy. With much love, they decorated the city. Even the sidewalks on the streets of Borovichi been the subject of special attention, but some streets have covered their bright orange ceramic tiles. In 1945 - immediately after the victory-road in Borovichi created school. Sometime during the first five borovichane happy because the refractory plants received 60 trucks. Now in their hundreds, and their number was increased. Will be needed not only drivers, but auto mechanics, experts in the construction and operation of roads. College Road began to prepare specialists in these and related disciplines. College Building - one of the most beautiful in the city. By 1949, the largest enterprise in the city, Refractories Plant - reached the prewar level of production and continued to build their capacity. In the postwar years has significantly improved the technical level of production of refractories. The Mill has been implemented method of dry pressing products. This greatly accelerated the process of production and give better fuel economy. In 1957, already 70 percent of all refractories pressed not from dry clay, and from the ground into a powder. This procurement does not require drying before firing. Plant workers have created the first examples of the press dry pressing force of 400 tons. In 1952 the mill was put in place the first Soviet Short-tunnel kiln operating on gas fuel. Start this furnace laid the foundation for a radical reconstruction of the entire furnace industry. A major achievement was the plant commissioning in late 1957, the brick-Kiln plant with rotary kiln. All manufacturing processes at the plant is fully mechanized, some parts of it translated into automatic control. A lot has been added and in the mines for the extraction of refractory raw materials. Now the extracted clay to the main trunk roll back, not manually by electric, instead of a wooden mount is used so-called betonitnoe. In Ust-Brynkipe clay extraction began to open. To remove the upper layers were used walking excavators. In Borovichi were built new shops at a furniture factory and a factory "Sunrise." In 1964, 16 small factories have begun a major industrial associations: the mill building materials, furniture factory, knitwear production association "Iskra". Even during the war was evacuated to Borovichi small shop producing enamelware one of the Leningrad enterprises. The shop has grown into an independent company "Emalposuda." It is located in a working village Velgiya. Currently, the village merged with the city and turned it into hell. For hundreds of labor borovichan were awarded orders and medals. Among them - the molder of shop number 8 mill refractories Alex P. Belyaev, head of the shop number 4 of the same plant, Konstantinov Potemin, Product number 4 jersey of the production association "Iskra" Nina Semenova, driver convoys № 1301 Theodore G. Kozlov, and others. Great prospects opened before the industrial city in the '70s. It is planned to be built of silica brick plant (up to 100 million bricks per year), repair-mechanical plant, bakery and other buildings. Before the war, urban transport in Borovichi was not. Now, buses and taxis serve the population, not only within the city, but attributed most of the villages of the district, as well as with neighboring Borovichi and urban areas. Regular bus service exists between Borovichi and regional center - Great Novgorod. New asphalt streets and roads facilitated the work of transport. Asphalted road Borovichi-Valdai, it connects Borovichi Novgorod, Moscow. City, especially its business for a long time lacked the fuel and electricity. In 1962 a pipeline was summed Borovichi. The first gas company entered the refractory industry. This not only allowed the fuel issue, but affected the purity of the air: are fewer factory chimneys emitting smoke and soot. Solves the problem with electricity - the city was connected to a national grid. Multimeter TV tower ascended into the sky on the outskirts of the city. Almost every house lit up TV screens. Back in 1947, on the southern outskirts of the town was laid out park named after the 30th anniversary of the October Revolution. Now this is one of the favorite places borovichan. In order listed, and other parks, gardens and parks. Green landscape of the city is increasing every year. Borovichi can rightfully be called and the second after Novgorod, the cultural center of the field. The city regularly arrives Novgorod Academic Drama Theatre. Professional actors provide creative support people's theaters and amateur teams. Are on tour Pskov and other theaters. Constantly visited by artists Borovichi Novgorod Oblast Philharmonic. Among the guests were well-known Borovichi music and choral groups, dance troupes. At one time there were in Borovichi prominent artists of the country - N. Cherkasov, Nikolai Simonov, Dmitry Mikhailov and others have Borovichi art studios, led by local artists. The works of young painters and graphic artists are exhibited as a local show, and Mr.