Russian cities Borovsk

Russian cities Borovsk

First mentioned in a spiritual letter of Grand Duke Ivan II of 1356 (1359?). Some scientists believe existed before the invasion of Batu. Originally belonged to the governors of Chernihiv, the 14th century. holdings in the Ryazan princes. In 1382 under a contract of Grand Duke Dmitri Donskoi of Moscow with Prince Oleg of Ryazan entered the Grand Duchy of Moscow. In 1386 was given to Prince Vladimir Andreyevich Serpukhovskoy Brave and until 1453 was the center of self-specific Serpukhovsko Borowski principality.

Referred to as Borovesk later Borovsk. The name of the Old Forest "pine forest, the forest."

From the 15th century. Borovsk becoming one of the links in the defensive ring vokurg Moscow.

In 1444 was founded near Borovsk Pafnutiev Borovsky Monastery. As the total number of land, town houses in other towns and the serfs at the end of the 17th century. Borovsky Pafnutiev monastery was among the 20 largest and richest monasteries in Russia. Here is the famous icon painter 15-16 cc. Dionysius.

In a troubled time in the monastery Dmitry Pozharsky gathered troops for the protection of Smolensk and Moscow. In 1610 the governor, Prince Michael Volkonsky 10 days of the troops defending the monastery Hetman Sapieha and L. False Dmitry II, was taken because of infidelity. In combat, killing about 12 thousand people, the monastery was burned down.

In Bohr Pafnutevskom monastery twice (1666 and 1667) was imprisoned ideologue Old Believer priest Habakkuk, in Bohr's prison in 1673-75 to be detained noblewoman FP Morozova and her sister Princess EP Urusov. Both died in Borovsk, tombstones - a museum.

In the second half of the 17th century. trade and handicraft Borovsk becomes a center of Russian Old Believers. Until 1917, 70% of the population Borovsk were examined.

In 1708, assigned to the Moscow province. In 1777 Borovsk became a county town of Kaluga governorship.

In the early 19th century. Borovsk was a major industrial and commercial center, the second largest (after the Kaluga) - 6600.

During World War II in October 1812 Borovsk and the monastery were destroyed by the French (of 800 homes left 120), but rebuilt. Near the town, village Gorodnya, Napoleon decided to retreat to the devastated Smolensk road.

In carrying out in the early 20th century. Railway Moscow - Kiev through Balabanovo economic importance of the city died away. In the 1920's. Borovsk for some time lost the status of a district center, joining the Maloyaroslavets County. Since 1944 in the Kaluga region.

During the Great Patriotic War of 1941-45 was occupied by the Nazis on October 15, 1941 to January 4, 1942.
Architecture, attractions

The old town is situated on a high and flat spot on the right bank of the river Protva. Regular plan was mandated by the General Plan of 1779. On a rectangular area located shopping arcades (partly preserved), government offices (the end of the 18th century., Rebuilt) and the Annunciation Cathedral of the city (rebuilt in the 18th century., A bell tower - 1819). From the area of ​​a rectangular grid of streets diverged, in the building which became prevalent in the 18-19 stone merchants' mansions, located mainly on the streets of Moscow. Among the public buildings - two-story women's Hospice (1848).

In silhouette Borovsk played a significant role temples of the Classical period, including Church of the Transfiguration on the hill (at the western edge of the central square). The appearance of the outskirts of the city and surrounding neighborhoods defined Church of Boris and Gleb (1704), a wooden church in the village of High Protection (late 17th - early 18th cc.) Vvedenskaya church in the village of Uvarov (1702), Church of the Nativity of Our Lady's Grove Cemetery in the village (1708 .)

3 km to the south-east of Borovsk, on the left bank of the lower Protva in the village grove, located Pafnutiev Borowski (formerly Christmas) Monastery. Part of the fortress walls and the Round Tower was built in the late 16th century., To the Polish-Lithuanian invasion. Later towers were erected Entrance, St George and the Armory (the author - T. Sharutin mason), in the middle of the 17th century. - The Watchtower and Taynitskaya in the late 19th century. - "Holy Gates" - the main entrance to the monastery. Inside the fortress monumental five-domed Cathedral of the Nativity of the Virgin (1590-96, interior painting of 1644), the refectory with the adjacent Church of the Nativity (1511). The main building of the monastery was formed in 17-18 centuries. Residential and farm buildings are located along the walls: building cells, hospital wards, with the adjoining Church of Elijah (1670), rector of the church house Mitrophan (1760-63) and a hotel. In the previous podmonastyrskoy Rabushenskoy Quarter (1 km from the monastery) - Demetrios Church (1804).
Title Borovsk received by the ancient evergreen pine forest, which stretches from north of the city.

If you compare with other similar Borovsk cities, it's probably worth noting that all of its history since 1358, and remained on its streets. If you wish not difficult to imagine how this squad was held to under the leadership of Prince Dmitry of Moscow to enter into combat with hordes of Mamaia.

And it was here in 1812, Napoleon decided to turn back to the very infamous, they also devastated Smolensk road. In Vorovsk still stands the house where the French commander slept.

In the middle of the XVII century the city became the focus of the events of the church split. In Pafnutiev-Borovsky monastery was twice in prison priest Habakkuk, and Bohr prison, that on the site, were his ally - noblewoman Morozova and her sister Princess Urusov. Starvation in an earthen pit ended their lives here.

Special attention is given Bohr fortress. That it reflects all the many raids, getting to the city for all its long history. But the very ramparts look, alas, is not necessary, since it was destroyed in the 17-year forgotten the purpose of construction of streets. However, in any case, you should definitely look at all the existing churches of the city (one of them Old Believers).

But not only the tragic events connected with the history of Borovsk. Here began a teacher and founder of scientific activity space KE Tsiolkovsky. Here were born the outstanding mathematician and designer of PL Chebyshev and artist Peredvizhnik IM Pryanishnikov.

There are Vorovsk and modern attractions, attracting the city not less than its history. Pensioner Vladimir Ovchinnikov in his spare time at his own expense and draws pictures on the walls of houses. In the city there are over a hundred of these drawings on the themes connected with the history and life of Borovsk.