Kyiv - the mother of Russian cities
On a high hill that rises above the gray Dnieper stretches broad and majestic area of Bohdan Khmelnytsky. It shines straight and clean asphalt, trams and trolleybuses, but if you look around, as you immediately will waft antiquity. Not far from the square on the left side of the street of Vladimir, the remains of the Golden Gate, built in 1037 - during the reign of Prince Yaroslav the Wise. Behind them stands the famous Cathedral of St. Sophia, founded by Prince in the same year to commemorate the victory over the Pechenegs ...
Few cities in the world, around the occurrence of which would have happened so much controversy among scientists, historians, archaeologists and lovers of antiquity. And the beginning these many discussions put Nestor the Chronicler, who in "The Tale of Bygone Years" put the legend according to which the Apostle Andrew in the I century visited the Dnieper and on one of the Kyiv mountains hoisted the cross as a symbol of the future city.
"The Tale of Bygone Years" begins a consistent account of the history of Kyiv as the capital of the Ancient Russian state since 862 years. However, the chronicler himself and tried to get to the answer to the question: "Where have gone the Russian land, and who started the first in Kyiv knyazhity."
Archaeological excavations indicate that the territory of present Kyiv has been inhabited in the I century BC. Settlement arose here reached its highest development of II-III centuries, and then began their gradual extinction. From the IV century the Slavic population was living here permanently, and since that time the city began to grow and develop.
However, the problem of the origin of Kyiv, as stated above, always attracted the attention of scientists who came to the most contradictory conclusions about the founding of the city and the ethnic origin of its founders. Initial steps of the city on the Dnieper often associated not with the Slavs and other peoples - the Sarmatians, Goths, Huns, Normans, the Avars. For example, based on some Old Norse sources, identified with the city of Kyiv Danparstadom - the legendary capital of the Dnieper is ready. The "Elder Edu" includes, inter alia, "Hamdi Utterance" - one of the following stories Svanhild unhappy, married to the Gothic king who was executed and Germanariha them the most cruel manner. Hamdi and his two brothers who went on a journey to avenge the death of his sister, come to the capital of the Gothic king, where they see "the palace is ready and the slopes of the deep shores." Some researchers (eg, G. Vigfusson) in the text, "Hamdi Utterances", the word «djupat» (deep) tried to fix the «Danpar» (Dnieper), and thus unite Germanariha bet on the Dnieper and Kyiv into one.
Danparstad also mentioned in the "Song of Attila," "Hervarasage," "Song of Hlode and Angante", but here we can conclude only that in the Dnieper there was a political center is ready, but this does not mean that it was located on the territory of modern Kyiv.
Old Russian legend tells that Kyiv was founded by three brothers - Kyi, Schek and Horeb, and this legend in ancient Russia was a very famous: one way or another, it became part of the chronicles, which cover the beginning of ancient history. In the "Chronicle" in Nestor the Chronicler says:
Paul also lived species and genera volodeyuschem own, and others like to take CEE byahu clearing, and be with his zhivyahu each genus and in their places, each possessing its genus. And things were made three brothers: the single name of Kyi, Schek and another, and the third Horeb, and their sister Lybid. Sedyashe cue on the hill, where is now the abduction Borichev and Cheeks sedyashe on the hill, where is now called Schekovitsa and Horeb on the third hill from him prozvasya Horevitsa. And stvorische hail in the name of his brother's oldest, and his name narekosha Kyiv.
Similar stories exist in those codes that reflect the traditions of chronicle other than the "Chronicle." Based on a legend about three brothers in Kyiv shortly after its inception, has moved beyond Russia and spread to neighboring nations, in the first place - the Western Slavs. Over time, this tradition has removed the non-Slavic countries and in: undergoing a certain treatment, it is reflected in the "local sources" (for example, the Armenian version of the Kyiv legend is found in "The History of Taron 'Zenob Gluck).
Initially, Kyiv remained a relatively small city - a center Polanski confederacy of tribes. Over time, the Slavic union evolved into Old Russian state, with them growing up and Kyiv, gradually turned into a "capital city of power."
In the middle of the IX century in Kyiv Askold of rules - the last representative of the dynasty Kiya. In 862 Prince of Novgorod, Oleg and his men "came to the hills of Kyiv." Seeing the city, the prince so much captivated by its beauty, that, having conquered it, officially declared the capital of Kyiv Rus, and uttered his famous words: "Let there be (Kyiv. - NI) mother of Russian cities!".
However, besides the pleasantness of climate, beautiful location and wealth of the country, compared to the north, that there were other circumstances. Kyiv was where the Dnieper, taking their largest tributaries - Pripyat and Desna, turns to the east, in the desert - dwelling nomadic people. Here was to establish the main protection against them; here was probably the place and the team for the Russian boats heading for the Black Sea.
During the reign of Oleg Russia freed itself from the heavy and humiliating dependence Khazar Khanate before. Like its predecessor, Askold, Oleg, Prince made two campaigns against Constantinople (in 907 and 911 years.) And twice won the glorious victory. In the Russian-Byzantine treaty of 911 Kyiv appears as a generally recognized capital of Russia.
With Oleg's successors, Prince Igor and Princess Olga, Kyiv grew and became strong, but mostly he remained a wooden city. True, during the reign of Princess Olga of Kyiv has already started building stone.
One of the most brilliant pages in the history of ancient Russia and its capital city has entered Prince Svyatoslav. "When Svyatoslav grew and matured, he began to collect a lot of warriors brave. And he walked easily in the marches, as pardus, and fought a lot. " Indeed, the brief reign of Svyatoslav was filled with noise campaigns and battles ringing: under his leadership the brave warriors marched from the Volga to the Danube, everywhere praising the Russian arms. Fighting in distant lands, Prince Svyatoslav of Kyiv, was rarely, and this advantage Pecheneg Khans - the perennial enemies of Russia. In 968 they besieged Kyiv, in famine, there was no water. But the system of fortifications withstood the siege of Kyiv, and then came to the rescue and army commanders Preticha released Stolny Kyiv-deg.
Heroic, heroic time was the reign of Prince Vladimir the Red Sun, as it was called Russian epics. These were years of brilliant achievements the ancient Russian state, when formed and developed an original and vibrant culture of ancient peoples. Blossomed and the capital city of Kyiv.
At the Kyiv mountains shone the grace of God, when the Russian people received holy baptism and began to confess the holy faith of Christ. "As the sun between the planets, the king among the nations, then between the cities of Kyiv. High on the mountain he stands, surrounded by green gardens, crowned with golden onion-domed churches and crosses, like a holy crown "- so wrote the Ukrainian writer EP The comb.
The rapid growth of Kyiv in the X - XI century, the early years marked all foreign travelers, ambassadors, and merchants who visited it. City hit the visitors of their wealth, the press, sumptuous palaces and temples. Merzeburgsky T, Saxon chronicler of the beginning of XI century, noted that "in the large city of Kyiv, there are 400 churches, eight market place and an extraordinary accumulation of people."
In the history of Kyiv Scheluyu era of the reign of Prince Yaroslav, who firmly held the reins in his hands, it blossomed in the Russian land, for which he dubbed it in Russia, and. In other states Wise. During his reign, Kyiv has overstepped its original boundaries and expanded rapidly in all directions. And the prince dressed up better than Kyiv Constantinople, Constantinople, built a new wall in the earthen ramparts and built the Golden Gate. Some accused the prince of extravagance, saying that what this gilding, and the gate is too big - their width equal to the width of the central part of Kyiv's main cathedral.
But Prince Yaroslav knew he was doing, and to decorate the temples of God did not spare any means. A gate - a person of the city: let all - and pilgrims, and merchants, and friends, and enemies, too - just see how rich, beautiful and powerful Kyiv and new churches put Prince in Kyiv, one of St. George, another Irininsky and Home Church of the Russian land, Russian heart of the metropolis, he devoted wisdom <- Sofia.
Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kyiv was founded on the highest point - on the field victorious battle with the Pechenegs Kyiv. Because mnogokupolny Sophia Cathedral opened a traveler from anywhere, through any gate he would not entered the city. In recent years, the reign of Prince Yaroslav the Wise was laid and the Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra, the prototype of the ideal Russian monasteries.
Praise of Kyiv was closely connected with the life of Prince Yaroslav the Wise, and the death of their prince as if carried in a coffin not only happiness capital city, but also the power of Russia. Under certain successor Prince Kyiv was still adorned, it built new monasteries and churches, but some of the princes became more involved in tribal accounts and pursue personal goals. They have not spared the "mother of Russian cities", but also the interests of Russia have neglected themselves led to her enemies, and with them ravaged and country, and throned Kyiv-deg.
Had to endure the terrible devastation of Kyiv and of compatriots: for example, Prince of Suzdal, Andrei Y. storm in 1169 took Kyiv, plundered it, and then given a prey to their allies. NM Karamzin in his "History of the Russian state," he wrote: "The winners, to my shame, forgotten that they are Russians: within three days, robbing not only the people at home, but also monasteries, churches, rich church of St. Sophia and the tithes, stole precious icons, vestments , books, and bells. "
In 1204, Rurik Rostislavich, wanting to regain Kyiv, called Kipchaks and together they took the town by storm. Then he not only plundered the city, but did not spare even the lives of elders and innocent children. However, a favorable geographical position gave Kyiv to quickly recover, so revolted after each invasion, the city has long attracted the eyes and the warring Russian princes, and the neighboring nomads.
And then followed by a formidable invasion of the Tatars, who for many years plunged the city into obscurity. Mongol-Tatars led by Meng, cousin Batu Khan, close to Kyiv in 1239. According to chronicles, the enemy's military leaders as "the beauty and majesty surprised the city" that Meng did not dare storm the building of ancient capital, and tried to persuade Kyiv to surrender, to which they replied proudly refused. Came after the return with nothing, but in 1240 the combined armies of Batu Khan crossed the Dnieper and laid siege to Kyiv. Galitsky, so the chronicler wrote about the appearance near the town of countless enemy hordes:
Baty came to Kyiv with great force, with many of his men, surrounded the city, surrounded force of nomads, and was in a great city under siege ... And it was impossible to hear voices from many squeaking carts, camels and the roar of the neighing of his horses herds. The whole earth is filled with Russian soldiers!
Having destroyed Kyiv, the hordes of Batu Khan flew to the West and, like a fiery tornado swept over Galicia and Volyn principality devastated Poland and Hungary. For a long time could not recover after the invasion of Kyiv army of Batu Khan. Having mastered the city, the Mongol-Tatars destroyed part of the inhabitants, who defended him, and another part (mainly artisans) took away. Number of Kyiv residents decreased from 50 000 to two or three. By the middle of the XIII century the Tatars in Kyiv replace Lithuanians, Poles then.
In the middle of the XVII century, starting bloody wars against the domination of the Polish gentry. At the head of the Cossacks was then Zaporozhye Bogdan Khmelnitsky. After a series of glorious victories, he solemnly went to Kyiv, where he was joyfully welcomed and provided all sorts of honors. When Bogdan Khmelnitsky Ukraine expelled from the entire Polish landowners, Poles joined with the Tartars and Turks, determined to finally seize the Ukraine. And then the hetman turned to Moscow Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, asking him to take Ukraine under its wing and join Russia. Since that time a new glorious page in the history of Kyiv - a city whose share fell much all kinds of trials and vicissitudes of fate ...