Faith - a small town approximately 100 km west of Moscow on Mozhaisk.
For the first time in Vereya best to come during the winter. It is true in summer and autumn it is also wonderfully good, but winter gives it an extraordinary charm and comfort.
There is in her winter landscapes something breygelevskoe!
Experts advise to start understanding the city with its panoramic viewing and its environs. It is from the high points of the city opened a stunner, caressing eyes traveler.
Little Vereya lost among the woods.
Today, like many centuries ago, the city is still on the porch suddenly opened vistas of forest near Moscow ...
Location Vereya typical for central Russia.
The Settlement - the historic core of the city, lies on high, in some places almost vertical sides of the river Protva.
The opposite shore is low, it floodplains, water meadows, which used the ancient Russian city for business purposes (preparation of feed for cattle, for example) and are rarely built up. The open, undeveloped floodplain was very important for the aesthetic perception of the city, our ancestors have always valued such views.
With the settlement offer beautiful views of the surrounding area (our ancestors were able to choose a place for cities!) Gave, going beyond the horizon.
It was in this landscape is almost universal feeling of space, infinity.
But Vereya unique: floodplain Protva against the city is small, is a sort of hollow, her edge a little raised, and on the border of the forest belt. View depends on this forest, it prevents it from penetrating further.
Hence the feeling that the city cut off from the world, separated from him, lost in the woods. The space around Vereya closed.
Nature here is an integral part of architectural ensembles, and the beauty of the landscape a natural background of urban perspectives.
The first undisputed documentary record of Veree refers to 1371, when the Lithuanian prince Olgierd and Prince Svyatoslav of Smolensk made a trip to Moscow. The raid ended badly, but the road had been destroyed several towns, among them, and faith. The city then was part of the Ryazan principality.
According to the agreement of Dmitry Donskoy and Prince Oleg of Ryazan in 1382 Vereya becomes part of the Duchy of Moscow.
There is speculation that mentioned in chronicles in 1159 Vereischa could be Faith. If so, then faith - as old as Moscow!
Interestingly, in the ancient city was mentioned by two names: "faith" and "Vereteya."
According to Dahl the word "spindle" Ryazan, which means "nepoemnuyu (do not fill in the flood) ridge, a sort of natural shaft, which are on flood plains, on the meadow side of the river in several rows, and with transverse breaks."
That's right: the city originally belonged to the Ryazan principality and its floodplain limit the shafts, it is even seen by the photos!
Another name - "faith" - is reflected in the description of the coat of arms.
But historians have gone further and suggested that both forms are subsequently aligned and the name of "faith" was allegorical: the city was the gateway to the Grand Duchy of Moscow, a gate, closing the road to Moscow.
In the second half of the 18th century the Russian Empire were unprecedented redevelopment of cities.
Hundreds of settlements were then new plans based on the principles of classicism. Been rescheduled almost all provincial cities and many counties.
In one of the Moscow province plans received 14 ancient cities, including and faith. Alas, Old layout and space-species system with almost completely disappeared.
The new plan was approved Vereya Catherine II in 1784 As expected from the guidance document to its original hand of the Empress had written: "So be it."
Interestingly, in the lower part of the plan, the District, there is a system trehluchaya that loved to use at the time.
Vereya located a few dozen kilometers from the Borodin and after the famous battle, the city was in the rear of the French troops.
Guerrilla war unfolded.
The French created in Veree, the former site of roads, a powerful stronghold to protect their convoys and transports.
Realizing this, Kutuzov has set a task of the army partisan units occupy the town and destroy the building.
In late September, a detachment of General Igor Dorokhov stormed Faith. The detachment consisted of about 600 people, and by Napoleon's army garrison town defended Westphalians at 700.
Russian hussars and infantry, at night, without a single shot, mastered the steep walled city, losing seven men killed and 20 wounded. Loss of the French army were far more significant - 320.
The victory Dorokhov said Chief briefly in the military: "The City Vereya, as directed by your lordship, was taken by storm on this day."
The task was performed, and although later Vereya had to leave, the operation was the first victory of the liberation of the Russian army after the capture of the French in Moscow.
Later historians would call the fight one of the best bayonet fighting the war of 1812!
In October, under Maloyaroslavets Igor Dorokhov was dangerously wounded, was seriously ill and died in 1815.
Before his death, the general turned to the residents of Vereya asking to be buried in the cathedral:
"If you've heard about General Dorokhov, who liberated your city from the enemy of our Fatherland, venerable sootchichi I expect from you for these things as a reward to give me three feet of earth for the eternal repose of my at the church, where I took the storm to strengthen the enemy, killing him utterly, for what my children will be grateful.
Vereytsy complied with the request of the hero, and the 100th anniversary of the War of 1812 in Veree was installed and a monument to martial the general.
True, the Mogilev in 1918 and destroyed the monument was broken.
After World War II, in 1957, Igor Dorokhov monument was restored.
A month after the legendary dorohovskogo raid in the city at the end of October 1812 Napoleon stayed.
Having by this time the defeat at Maloyaroslavets, he sought to retreat his army to the border of Russia. And the way they were in Vereya.
House of Dr. von Belem. Not preserved.
The Emperor spent the night in the house of Dr. von Belem (later Strepiheevoy), who was then one of the best in Veree.
The next day, Napoleon made a review of the troops and questioned the two captured Russian officers - General Vintsengerode captain and Naryshkin, promising them in anger over six weeks to be in St. Petersburg ...
But after Maloyaroslavets fate was sealed by the company already, and French emperor had to "travel" in Russia by other routes. From the way he lay Vereya only to Mozhaysk by Borodin and further to the border.
On the western outskirts of Vereya, at the end of the street is a modern hospital hill, where, on the assumption of historians, Napoleon saw the release of its troops from the city. Thus began the retreat of the "great army" of the old, ruined the Smolensk road ...
The architecture of this temple is barely discern some features of the Ukrainian baroque, but the church was rebuilt in 1803.
Very typical of ancient urban landscape system, when in the gaps between buildings (Prozorov) overlooking the temple, city or neighborhood of the city panorama. Experts say the transparency of development of ancient cities.
Vereya was rebuilt in the classical era, but some features of the medieval system of the species left in it.
In this picture, not the rural development as one might think at first.
Rustic home has never been through the streets, but always in the middle of the plot.
But in classicism, in which the principles and rebuilt Vereya home to be printed out and make it a red line.
The truth is not seen the famous "single fronts", all the houses are separate, both houses, but in city, on the street.
So this is a typical town, just a little. Veree not need the big house.
This building already and can not see almost, it unfortunately leaves. Only on the outskirts of some provincial cities (Tula, for example) or a small county, and yet you can enjoy it.
Here, nothing has changed since the 19th century, except poles and wires show today.
Light curve of the street in the distance, above the houses on the left of the bell tower of the Nativity Cathedral, drifts instead of sidewalks.
There is a breadth of the panorama, the sky is actively included in the urban landscape.
The street is called Red, beautiful, I mean. Remember: the red porch, fair maiden, red corner. Streets and squares are also called red.
And indeed, there is in this modest urban landscape has its own low-key beauty.
That came to an end our little tour of Veree.
We touched her past, wander through its quiet streets, met with the architectural monuments.
In Veree not bright, the world-famous masterpieces, but is only measured by their number of beauty?
Picturesque, harmony of parts, complete fusion with nature is what determines the image and soul of a small Vereya.
No one picture can not convey all the charm of this city and its spaces. There definitely need to visit.
And walk, walk and soak up the experience.
Wander, for example, by District and to pay attention to Vereiskaya trehluchie on three main radial streets of this town, that converge to the Church of Cosmas and Damian; trehluchie this is not the same as in St. Petersburg.
Climb up the steep slopes on the site and imagine how it made Russian soldiers without firing a shot, and with minimal loss of knocking out the French.
To pass the winter trails on the ice Protva or along the shore, enjoying such an unusual and a cozy river floodplain.
Finally, looking at a high steeps opening distance, enjoy the amazing spectacle of the city.