History of Odessa

History of Odessa - the historic period, referring to the north-west coast of the Black Sea and taking shape in the time frame from the 1st millennium (BC) to the present day, is an integral part of the history of the Novorossiysk Territory. Once at the site of the city there are two ancient Greek settlement, disappeared in the era of the Great Migration after coming to this land is ready. At the time of the Golden Horde, here comes the Genoese trading post Ginestra, a seller with the nomads. Since the beginning of the XIV century in the Italian charts in the area indicated by the present small village of Odessa-factor "Ginestra" in the first rebel Nogai Ulus. In 1300 the rebellious Nogai Khan was killed in the territory of Odessa - the Battle of Kuyalnik, and the area joined the Golden Horde In the second half of XIV century the Golden Horde splits. On the territory of the Odessa Gulf Coast is now located Perekopskaya horde led by Haji Beg (probably committed a pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina), called Hadji Bey, or Slavs, Kachibey. This lord was involved in the battle of cyanosis (blue water) in 1369 and was defeated by the Grand Duke of Lithuania Olgerd. "A Tale of skirts" in the number of calls Hadjibeyan "otchichey" and "Dedic," the hereditary rulers of the earth Podolsk. The rights of children to these lands Hadjibeyan labels confirmed the Crimean khans until the middle of the XV century. After joining the Northern Black Sea to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the settlement appears Vitovt (it.-Ginestra), renamed with the arrival of the Turks in Gadzhibey and inhabited by Greeks and edisanskimi Tatars. According to Jan Dlugosz, in 1413, King Wladyslaw Jagiello sent out several ships with wheat. Lithuania failed to gain a foothold in the Black Sea region - after the Battle of the Vorskla (1399) The impact of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the northern Black Sea region is gradually disappearing. In 1578 the Commonwealth envoy in the Crimean Khanate, Martin sees the ruins of Bronevsky "kachibeeva fort, as if the earth came down, washed by the broad lake, located near the sea." In 1709 Chamberlain Swedish king Charles XII, who escaped from Poltava to the Ottoman Empire, see the "despicable Tatar village near Kuyal'nitskogo Peresyp." In 1765, close to Hadjibeyan Turks built the stone fortress of Eni-Dunya (translated from the tour. New World), situated between the modern and the Potemkin Stairs Vorontsov Palace on the Promenade. During the Russian-Turkish war of 1787-1791's Castle (Castle) came into consideration the forces Alexander Suvorov, followed by Bender. The fortress was taken at dawn on September 13, 1789 the vanguard of the corps of General IV Gudovich. Detachment commanded by Count Jose de Ribas. In the team also included the Cossacks led by Ataman Holovaty (he was in Odessa, a monument in the park Starobazarnom, however, neither portrait nor in attire has nothing to do with the historical person). Odessa was founded by nominal decree of Catherine II in the west newly acquired territory of the Russian Empire - New Russia - in 1794, when the Russian empress decided that a port on the Black Sea to enhance economic relations and trade with Europe. The project of construction of the city, the port and the new fortress (on the site which was later defeated Alexander Park), it asked a Dutch military engineer Franz de Vollanu, which fully embodies the principles of Roman town planning. Well located geographically, Odessa has quickly evolved from a small settlement in the commercial, industrial and scientific center of European importance. On the 100th anniversary of its foundation (1894), Odessa occupied the 4th place in the Russian Empire in size and level of economic development after St. Petersburg, Moscow and Warsaw. Last but not least its rapid growth Odessa owes to the wise and visionary leadership of the "fathers" of the city, particularly the works of such talented administrators as de Ribas, Duc de Richelieu, Count AF Langeron, M. Vorontsov, G. D . Marazli and others. In 1803 Tsar Alexander I appointed Richelieu, Governor General of Odessa and Novorossiysk Territory. He did much for the improvement of Odessa, laid out new streets, the construction of large stone buildings, improvement of the port, etc. There are still memories of the Richelieu, characterize as not quite clear (especially in the beginning) an idea of ​​the assigned region, as well as his humanity and cultured, very rare in those days at the highest administrative positions in Russia. In 1812 the city experienced a terrible epidemic of plague, from which he died every fifth resident of the city. In September 1815, when Talleyrand resigned, Louis XVIII, on the advice of Alexander I, Richelieu proposed to form a cabinet, Richelieu refused for a long time, but finally yielded to the insistence of the emperor, and left Odessa. When the successor of Richelieu, Langeron, imperial decree in 1817 was established in Odessa a free port, carried out in 1819, when they were finished working on the city outlined with a moat and on the device and Tiraspol, Kherson Customs to skip the line for the free port of duty paid goods . Thanks to him, Odessa became a reserve base for foreign goods, circulated here, not only in Russia but, in transit, and in Austria and across the Caucasus - in Persia. At the same time, however, significantly decreased import of Russian goods. In 1818, the beginning of their actions Odessa office of state commercial bank, much to promote trade. In 1823, Count Vorontsov is appointed by the governor-general of the Novorossiysk Territory, and authorized the governor of Bessarabia. Earl puts his residence in Odessa. During the Eastern War the city as an important commercial center of Russia's Black Sea coast, has undergone a sea blockade and 10 (22) in April 1854 was attacked by the combined Anglo-French squadron. In 1866 Odessa was connected by rail with Kiev and Kharkov via Balta. During World War II Odessa was attacked from the sea - October 29, 1914 the Turkish fleet under the command of German Admiral Souchon bombarded the town and port. The revolution of February and October 1917 brought the beginning of chaos and civil war. The city survived the devastation and the frequent changes of government. January 18, 1918 in Odessa was proclaimed Soviet power. However, the Odessa Soviet Republic lasted only briefly, and March 13, 1918 was dismantled the Austro-German troops occupied Ukraine. Soviet power has returned to Odessa in the creation of the Ukrainian SSR. 73 days German troops were in the city limits. The heroic defense of Odessa began August 5, 1941 and implemented the Maritime Army soldiers, the Black Sea Fleet, the population of the city. Odessa was liberated by troops of the 3rd Ukrainian Front (commander - Army General Malinovsky) April 10, 1944 - the flag was raised over the release of the portico of the Odessa Opera House. See also the article "Odessa - Hero City"; more about Odessa during the war. On an episode of the defense of Odessa after the war (1959) on the Odessa film studio was filmed the movie "Thirst". Interested in the history of the Great Patriotic War Museum Staff may visit the Odessa Military District (now the Southern Operational Command), a memorial complex and museum, "411th Battery" and a tour of the "Belt of Glory" - a complex of memorials, located along the line of defense of Odessa. In the XX century in Odessa grown new engineering and metalworking plants, factories, chemical, food and light industries, and many other enterprises. City of Odessa has become a major industrial center. Odessa sea port - the largest on the Black Sea. Its quays stretch for many kilometers. Many industrial companies with the acquisition of Ukraine's independence were forced to close, others work only on a portion of their capacity. This stems from the rupture of economic ties with former Soviet republics of the USSR, the lack of support from the authorities. The boom is experiencing only the sphere of trade. Promrynok "7-th km" and "bring", "New" and "North", "Malinowski", "Kiev", "South" and many others.