Power records

Alexander Zass (Iron Samson)

This happened in 1938 in the English city of Sheffield. In the eyes of the crowd laden with coal truck moved a man sprawled on the cobbles. People screamed in horror. But the next moment there was a cry of joy: "Glory to Russian Samson." A person to whom the storm of jubilation, rising from under the wheels as if nothing had happened, bowed to the audience smiling. Several decades of circus posters, many countries do not get away the name of the Russian athlete Alexander Sasse, speaking under the name Samson. Surprising was the repertoire of his power numbers, he carried on a horse arena and piano with pianist and dancer, was situated on the top, caught a 9-pound arms core, departing from a circus cannon with eight-haul up from the floor and held in the teeth of a metal beam with sitting on the it ends assistants; demon shin of one leg in a loop of rope, fixed under the dome, held in the teeth of a platform with a piano and a pianist, laying bare back on a board studded with nails, kept on the breast of stone weighing 500 kilograms, according to which the audience wishing to beat hammers , in the famous attraction "Man-shell" caught with his hands the assistant taking off from a circus cannon, and describes the scene over a 12-meter path, broke the finger links of chains, hammered nails into the palm of unprotected 3-inch planks, and then pulled them, grabbing a hat index a finger. Speeches of Alexander Zass were triumphant. This is not only the original athletic rooms, most of which could not repeat any athlete, but also the fact that it was not like many strongmen of the time who had the massive figures and more weight. His height - 167.5 cm, weight - 80 kg, chest circumference 119 cm, biceps - to 41 centimeter. He liked to say that big biceps are not always an indicator of strength. Just like a big belly does not mean good digestion. The main thing - it's willpower, strong tendons and the ability to control their muscles. Very often, Samson had to answer the question of how he reached such a force. He replied that it was the result of purposeful work, a huge strain on all the spiritual and physical strength. If you trace the career of Alexander Sasse, one can see that he was in constant exercise and a strict regime. In one photograph, where Samson was captured sitting at the table with a samovar, is his record: "5 minutes of rest," and because he was then 74 years old, and he continued to work, though not in the power genre, and the trainer, but is often included in its performance power tricks. Thus, in the age of seventy he wore on stage at a special yoke two lions! Of course, Alexander Zass was a huge force of nature in general different than its predecessors. One day he visited his native Saransk with his father in a circus. The boy especially enjoyed the mighty Hercules, ripping chain, flexible shoe. At the end of his performances, as at that time was taken, he turned to the audience, inviting him to repeat the trick. Alas, no one could neither bend a horseshoe or a ball off the ground rod with a thick neck. Suddenly, the father of Alexander, Ivan P. Sasse, rose from his seat and walked to the arena. Alexander knew that his father was very strong. Sometimes he showed his strength in front of guests. And Hercules handed his father a horseshoe. To the surprise of the audience, a horseshoe in his hands Zass Sr. was unbend. Then Ivan Petrovich pulled from the platform and a huge bar, straightening the body, lifted it above her knees. The audience cheered like crazy. Circus strong man was confused. He beckoned to uniformitarian. He ran backstage and brought in a silver ruble. Artist raised his hand to the ruble and said, "And this is for you to exploit and to drink!". The father took the ruble, then fumbled in his pocket, pulled out a three-ruble note, and together with the ruble handed athlete, saying: "I do not drink! But you take it, but only drink tea! ". Since then, his son lived just a circus. In the backyard with the help of adults has installed two horizontal bar, hung trapeze, got hold of the economic weights, did the primitive stem, and with incredible tenacity began to train. I tried to repeat what he saw. Having mastered the "sun" (high turnover) on the bar, began to perform flights from one bar to another, do not just flip back to the floor, but on a horse. Several times pulled in one hand. But all of these studies have been inconsistent. He persuaded his father to write the book from Moscow on physical development. And soon came the famous book at the time an athlete Eugene Sandova "The Power and how to become strong." The author talked about his athletic career, the victories over well-known athletes and even against the great lion, who before the fight they put a muzzle, and huge special gloves on its paws. Leo threw himself on several occasions Sandova, but that each time dropped him off. Then came the eighteen exercises with dumbbells, that is something that was especially important to Alexander. And he began to engage the system Sandova - his idol. But soon he felt that some exercises with weights can not develop the strength they need a professional athlete. He appealed for help to a famous athlete Peter Krylov and Dmitriev Morro, which are not disregarded the request of young men, and soon Zass received guidelines from these athletes. Krylov recommended exercises with weights, and Dmitriev - with a barbell. He squeezed pound dumbbells simultaneously and alternately ("mill"), shaking them upside down, juggled. Performed with a barbell, mainly press, push press, and because of the head. At a bodyweight of 66 kg young Zass twisted (bench with a deviation of the body) with his right hand 80 kg. But most of all he was attracted by the power tricks, which he saw in the circus. And he went to the circus all the time. His sports requisites was replenished with horseshoes, chains, metal rods, nails. And then he realized that repeated attempts to perform the trick - to break the chain or bend a thick metal bar - bring tangible results in the development of physical strength. In fact, it was widely known now isometrics. Thus, empirically (based on experience) Alexander Zass came to the conclusion that we can develop athletic strength, combining the training dynamic exercises with isometric. Later he published an isometric system, and this pamphlet created a sensation. Once in a circus, Zass at one time worked as an assistant trainer of the legendary Anatoly Durova, then - the athlete, Mikhail Kuchkina, and he often spoke to his assistant: "Someday, Sasha, you become a famous strong man, I do not see anyone who would be so strong how are you having such a small size and weight. " In general, Zass about sixty years in the circus and nearly forty of them - with athletic numbers. In 1914 came the World War II. Alexander Zass called in the 180th Cavalry Regiment Vindavsky. One day something happened that affected even those who are well aware of the extraordinary power of Alexander. Back once he's from another intelligence, and suddenly, already close to the Russian position, he was noticed and opened fire. A bullet in the leg a horse. Austrian soldiers, seeing that the horse and rider fell, did not pursue the trooper and turned back. Sasse, making sure that the danger was over, did not want to leave his wounded horse. Prior to his regiment was still half a mile, but it did not bother. Shoulder horse Zass and brought it to their camp. As time passes, he will remember this episode and will include a repertoire of wearing a horse on his shoulders. In one battle Zass was seriously wounded by shrapnel in both legs. He was taken prisoner, and the Austrian surgeon began to amputation. But Zass begged not to do so. He believed in his powerful body and gymnastics, which has developed for itself. And he recovered! Soon, along with other prisoners were sent to heavy road work. He made several unsuccessful escape, after which he was severely punished. Noteworthy was the third flight. Having escaped from the camp, Alexander found himself in Kaposvár in southern Hungary, where just touring circus Schmidt, known throughout Europe. Appeared before the master of the circus, Zass frankly told him of his trouble, and the work of Russian circuses. Here also the director asked him to break the chain and to bend a thick metal rod. Of course, hungry and tired Zass was not in good shape, but the effort will fulfill the task. They took him to the circus, and soon the news spread about the amazing athlete in the city. But once the idea came to his military commander. He became interested in why such a strong young athlete does not serve in the Austrian army. The same evening revealed that Samson - Russian prisoner of war. He was taken to the basement of the fortress, in a damp, dark place. But his strength and will were not broken. He made a new flight, breaking the chain connecting the handcuffs, and break down the bars. Now he gets to Budapest, where arranged to work as a loader at the port, and then - in the circus ring. Helped him to champion, world champion of Tea Janos, whom Alexander met in Russia. This good-natured, powerful Hungarian treated with the unfortunate Sasse. Took him to the village to visit their relatives, where the forces of Alexander gradually recovered. He then served three years in the company of fighters under the leadership of Janos Tea, alternating contractions on the carpet with athletic performances. Once introduced to Russian strongman Janos with the famous Italian impresario, Signor Pasolini, who had heard a lot of athletic opportunities Zass. Italian and proposed contract. European tour starts Sasse, his fame grows. Finally, he came to England, where his performance in general was summoned fantastic interest. Famous athletes, such as Edward Aston, Thomas Inch, Pulum have to try their hand at repeating tricks Zass, but none of them do not attempt proved successful. Mr. Pulum, director of the famous weightlifting club "Kambervel" and editor of the sports magazine "Health and strength," wrote of him: "Right in the heart of England came to the person who can carry out rooms, in which common sense refuses to believe. He would have been a huge fellow, his room, perhaps, would be perceived as credible. But notice that even on a tour of the chest (the difference between inhalation and exhalation) of the short man. It is 23 centimeters, meters, that says a lot in the art. So I would argue that he has not only unprecedented physical strength, not only a great artist, but who uses his mind is not worse than their muscles. " And that's what the poster shows the famous hall "Alhambra", where he was to speak Zass Alexander: "In Manchester, during construction, Samson, suspended one foot to the crane and lifted teeth metal beams from the ground, and was moved to the top of the building crane in While the crowd open-mouthed, stood at the bottom. If the Russian opened his mouth, the crowd could never tell what she saw. " Keep pace with the posters and newspapers. "Daily Telegraph", "Mr. Sampson, of course, is the strongest man on earth. As it can be to believe, seeing as it easily binds iron bars into knots. " "Manchester Guardian": "According to the ads, he is the strongest man on earth, and after we ourselves have seen it ... this statement can be regarded as conclusive. " Magazine "Health and strength": "In the face of Samson, we have the athlete whose achievements are fully open to inspection. Indeed, his muscles are made of steel. " At the end of his life, my uncle invented the wrist dynamometer, designed and manufactured a circus cannon for an attraction, "Man-bomb." Samson died in 1962. He was buried near London, in the small town of Hockley.

Bruce Lee

In addition, he fought well, he zaborol at the hands of the U.S. champion in the heavyweight 110kg Van Williams. The result of such targeted training began forearm. Powerful, amazing strength. To the touch they were so hard like a baseball bat. Said Van Williams. As Bruce suggested that compete with it. I sat down with the idea to play along with him as a friend. At the time I was 112 kg. How could I compete with Bruce seriously! However, it turned out that I was not strong enough to overcome the resistance of his hands! Moreover, I could not move his arm and not a millimeter. In conversation with the arms of Jackson, Lee said in jest that he could become a world champion in arm wrestling. About Bruce can tell a lot, but now with a weight of 65kg, he sconces in the hands of two dumbbells in 37kg and kept them in his outstretched hands for 20 seconds.


The celebrated athlete Milo of the Hellenic city of Croton lived in the VI century BC He was invincible in the struggle and strength exercises for twenty years, six times won the crown of absolute winner at the Olympics. Phenomenal strength, the proverbial, he developed an almost modern principles of training: duration, continuity, gradual increase in load. For the first time Milo lifted on the shoulders of a bull when he was a calf, and then daily twine it around the arena stadium. Grown bull Milo grew and strength. End of attraction - for the needs of antique public. Dropping the bull to the ground, the athlete killed his fist between glaz.Milon stood on disk, greased with lard or butter, and none of the spectators could not push him on this slippery pedestal. Stone weighing 136 pounds threw six meters. Planted in six of the chariot, lifted it on his head and wore the ring. But most amazing of his tricks left for last. Milo clutching a ripe pomegranate in his hand and offered to take out his wish. That no one could. Athlete unclenched hand - grenade was completely intact and not even dented: to the extent he, straining muscles of the fingers, was able to relax the muscles at the same time his hands. During the war, the native town of Croton, Sybaris with Milo was elected commander. Like Heracles, the famous hero, dressed in a lion's skin, fighting with a huge club in his hand, replacing the whole unit. The death of strongman was tragic. Going into the forest to fetch wood for an old mother, he scored a wedge into the gap thick trunk and arms tried to break it in half. But the liberated wedges fell to the ground and the tree got caught fingers. Milo did not realize that with age, power reserves even champions. Hands free, he could not and was confined to the trunk. Helpless, hungry and exhausted, the famous athlete was torn to pieces by wild beasts. Milon of Croton since died, which was placed a marble monument and a name that was entered six times in the lists of winners of ancient Olympia. Milon of Croton written treatise "Physics" and became famous as a singer - his whole life proves it ideal harmony of body and soul. This ideal put forward a well-known to us from school, Pythagoras, the Olympic champion, a great fist-fighter. The father of medicine, the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates, had a phenomenal physical strength, the fighters stood out among the Hellenistic and riders. Holders of the highest awards for athletic prowess were the famous philosophers Plato and Socrates, poets and tragedians Sophocles and Euripides. Many of the most eminent philosophers and poets, statesmen and military leaders of Ancient Greece (remember, for example, Pindar and Alkinada) - outstanding athletes and winners of Olympic competition. A combination of grandeur and nobility of spirit forces showed the ancient Greek hero polydiene Thessalian. He rested with his friends in the cave, when an earthquake. Polydiene arch support, while his companions did not leave the cave, but he was filled with stones. About this athlete knows that he killed the lion with his bare hands, which in antiquity was considered something of a norm for the title of master of sports.

Athletes of Albion

In the Cornish farmer's son, Anthony Payne. Already in his childhood he was distinguished by unusual strength: planted on each hand and running up a peer with them on a steep hill. As a gamekeeper, he went to hurry the servant who was supposed to bring the wood on the donkey. Hoisted on the shoulders of a donkey, firewood, a servant - all brought home. As you may recall, the breakdown of power in ancient times was an exercise with a lion, and in the Middle Ages it was replaced by a harmless donkey. What a degradation! The strength was not only the privilege of tall people. At the beginning of the XVIII century in Ireland Owen Farrell toured dwarf growth 113 centimeters. He was dancing, having under his arm, two adults. And walking freely, holding myself to four people. Thomas enjoyed a great fame Tofem, who was born in London in 1710. His tricks were amazing. May 20, 1731 (this number is so shocked viewers that survived even the exact date of its execution) for presentation at Derby Tofem raised on a strap slung over the shoulders and neck, three barrels of water weighing 863 pounds. ]

Russian heroes

Strength heroes in Russia is traditionally combined with selfless courage. During the battle in 1240, when our army under the command of Alexander Nevsky triumphantly reflected the Swedes, warriors of Novgorod showed courage and uncommon strength. Distinguished themselves included in the history of Gabriel Oleksich, Sbyslav Yakunovich and Jacob Polovtsian. Superb acting battle axes and swords, cut into the thick of the enemy and struck the road for the troops. Interest to the people of outstanding growth and herculean strength was persistent. Peter I issued edicts inscribed on which the heroes searched all over Russia. This is understandable - the courageous people who were holding the gun securely in the hands of the mighty, always needed the Fatherland. At the end of the XVIII century in St. Petersburg, the famous painter lived Orlovsky, a man of huge stature and phenomenal strength. He could juggle the two-handed sword, holding it with three fingers. Going to someone back home and not finding the owner, Orlovsky as a sign of his visit left tied up poker. Here is what wrote about Captain Frigate "Raphael" Vasily Lukin, who was killed in the Battle of Athos during the war between Russia and Turkey: "His strength was amazing, but it was hard to force Lukin to apply it - only to happy hour in a circle of friends. He easily broke the horseshoe could keep half an hour in the open hands pood cannonballs, one finger nail dent in the ship's wall, he could turn into a massive silver plate flute so that it was impossible to determine what it was originally. One day, defending his sailors from drunken British sailors fly into a rage, laid Lukin spot a dozen fighters, and the rest shamefully retreated from the place of slaughter. " In the second half of the XIX century, gaining popularity struggles, pure power in nature. Gigantic force had Poddubny, Zaikin, Shemyakin, Gakkenshmidt, Kashcheev. Leading athletes know everything from small to large. Were filled with photographs of athletes pages of magazines, their portraits were exhibited in shop windows, their names advertised goods. In those years there was no structured assessment of strength, and athletes came up with a variety of rooms like poker bending, lifting stones, horses. They tore up the audience before the chain broke off with your fingers folded in a deck of cards, weaving patterns of the nails ...

As rising steel
To say who is stronger, it was difficult, until the appearance of an objective opportunity to respond - the bar. Standard shell, raised in a strictly defined rules. And now the heroes of our country have proven that they are quite worthy of his mighty ancestors: national lifters are without a doubt, the strongest in the world. The greatest number of records set in weightlifting Soviet athlete Vasily Alexeev - 80 of the world. He first picked up a total of 600 kilos of triathlon. Olympic champion Yuri Vlasov set 28 world records. Under a named appeared in the international arena and other Russian giants - A. Voronin, Kolesnikov, Y. Vardanyan, D. Riegert, L. Zhabotinsky, Yu Zaitsev, and many others. So it is reasonable to assert that our athletes are now the most powerful people on earth.

Unbeaten record

In the eyes of the assembled crowd of loaded coal truck moved through the man sprawled on the cobbles. This trick showed Alexander Zass (Samson). At a bodyweight of less than 80 kg, he wore on the shoulders of a horse weighing 400 kg. Raised iron girder with his teeth at the ends of which sat two assistants, the total weight - 265 kg. Joke, he could lift the cab and make it like a wheelbarrow, broke and tore a horseshoe chain. On a platform raised 20 people. Gregory Kascheev walked on the circus ring, shoulder 12 dvuhpudovyh weights (384 kg), and once raised sorokapudovuyu (640 kg) girder. Peter Krylov, King of weights, squeezing his left hand and bent 114.6 kg on the shoulders of the rails. He set several world records in weightlifting: wrestling press on the bridge - 134 kg bench press with your left hand pound dumbbells - 86 times, bred a direct hand in hand, holding a weight in each 41 kg. Jakub Cech demonstrated in 1913, a sensational power trick - he carried around the arena at arm's length six soldiers Guards (not less than 400 kg), for which he was awarded an honorary gold belt. This record number is still not able to repeat any athlete in the world. The world champion of French anti Vahturov Nicholas threw a weight dvuhpudovuyu via rail car, and the world champion Ivan Zaikin raised against the back 40-vedernuyu barrel of water and wore it on stage. German athlete Gerner, holding in each hand, 50 kg, ran 100 meters in 18.4 seconds. Ludwig Chaplinsky athlete jumping over a joke, dining table (height and width of 80 cm) with a sheep in his hand, and Peter Jankowski athlete in dispute squeezed in the palm of trehpudovye weight sitting on the floor. George Gakkenshmidt twice in a row raised his iron core weighing over 585 kg, severing it from the platform to 10 inches. The greatest weight ever raised by man, is 2844 pounds. He was retained on the shoulders of the American weightlifter Paul Anderson. Leonardo da Vinci, of course, familiar to every one of us. But few know that they possess great strength, he swung with one hand are the church bells, which could swing only four people at a time.

Exotic feminization
Lydia Rybakov (its weight - 68 lbs) tore from the ground rod weighing 900 kg. At age 33, March 4, 1990, budged and dragged on the asphalt bus LAZ with 48 passengers in the cabin of the total weight of 10 tons 850 pounds. 20-year-old Svetlana Gavrilin of Serpukhov in December 1991 moved the 40-ton TU-134 for more than two meters. Prior to his record of seven years, Svetlana was engaged ... the ballet. The growth of 164 cm, weight 56 ​​pounds. Now it is surely raises the belt 500 kg, and attached to the belt bar, which sit seven adult men. April 15, 1895 Josephine Blatt American (1869-1923 gg.) Retained thrown on the shoulder strap cargo in 1616 pounds. This women's weightlifting record not broken until now.

Pyramid Dikul

Valentin Dikul (born 1947) - an outstanding athlete of our time. He has served on the circus two unique security number: held on the body of metal "pyramid", weighing a ton, and on the back - the car "Volga" (the load was 1570 pounds). The uniqueness of these numbers in the fact that they served as an athlete after a serious back injury - nearly seven years, he could not move and use their own design simulator was able to restore the original shape. Now VI Dikul heads the Center for rehabilitation of patients with spinal cord injury and the effects of cerebral palsy.

Krasnoyarsk Hercules

Clement Bull was born in 1888 in Achinsk, and soon the family moved to Krasnoyarsk. In 1911, he first had the opportunity to participate in an international tournament in Greco-Roman wrestling, held in St. Petersburg. The tournament brought together the best European fighters: the great Gregory Kascheev, Dutchman Van Rill, Volga hero Nicholas Vahturov. Loud titles are not troubled Siberian, in 16 fights, he emerged victorious and became the champion. Buhl has proved to be an unsurpassed master of fighting techniques. As a heavyweight, he acted with extraordinary ease, his manner, even compared with acrobatics. Buhl met with the best masters of carpet at the time - Poddubny, Shemyakin, Zaikin, Lurihom. In the final duel match, which took place in the arena of the circus of the Kursk in October 1928, he fought by Ivan Poddubny. Within an hour, Bull was able to stand against the six-time world champion and won a deserved victory. In the future Clement Bull championships in Greco-Roman wrestling is not known defeat in the mid 30s turned to coaching. In a society "Dynamo" he produced dozens of world-class fighters, among them the European champion Konstantin Koberidze. Clement I. Bull died in 1953, a 66-year life

Masutasu Oyama

This man 1000 photo practiced 12 hours a day, 3 years lived in the mountains, had 270 fights without a single defeat, the battle with him rarely lasted more than three rounds (well, they fought with gloves), but mostly lasted less than 10 seconds . In the battle he live in one hit kill a person if the person put a block limb broke. Demonstrating the possibilities of man, without fear, Oyama went to fight with the bull and blow horns hand cut down the enraged animal. He took part in fights with the strongest wrestlers and boxers of the time, and always emerged victorious. For incredible strength and talent, admired Americans dubbed Oyama "hand of God." Then it looked like a miracle, something supernatural. Years have gone out to all of us to discover the mystery of the great masters - to this "miracle" is capable of any person engaged in Kyokushin karate. It is only necessary the desire and tenacity in achieving tseli.Za his life, he killed 52 bulls, three of them formed with a first strike. In 1957 in Mexico, at age 34, he was on the verge of death, when the bull horn proporol Oyama. Oyama managed to bring down a bull and cut off his horn. He was bedridden for 6 months, recovering from the usually fatal wound. The Humane Society of Japan protested against fighting Oyama with animals after Oyama announced his intention to fight with a tiger and a bear, although the bulls Oyama killed were destined for slaughter. Here is a list of exercises, which Oyama served each day: During a brief but fruitful asceticism in the mountains, Oyama lived strictly to develop a regime that is often featured in the biographies of the master and is frivolous sermon to his disciples, 4:00 am - rise. Meditation with closed eyes min.Beg-10 in the mountains 2 hours. 7:00 am - cooking. 8:00 am - the meal that combines breakfast and lunch. 9:00 am - start of training. Ten times to perform complex of five exercises: 1) to raise the bar 20 times shestidesyatikilogrammovuyu 2) push-ups on his fingers 20 times, and 3) push-ups in the rack at the hands of 20 times, 4) to catch up on the bar 20 times, 5) applied to 20 punches to the right and left in the makiwara. After each set of breathing exercises to do and immediately proceed to the next complex. After a ten-fold performance of this complex breaks up to 11 hours. 11:00 am - kata. 2:00 pm - weightlifting. Raise the bar shestidesyatikilogrammovuyu 20 times, then gradually increase the load. Do push-ups in 1000: 200 times on two fingers, 200 times on four fingers, 400 times in five fingers. Before each set of do a little break. Sometimes for a change to do push-ups on his fists in 1000 with a break after 500. 3:00 pm - Development of methods of sparring; exercises with makiwara, climbing rope, exercises for abdominals - 200 times, breaking stones. 5:00 pm - cooking. Dinner. 6:00 pm - meditation and going to bed. In addition to this eloquent document, note that many devotees and enthusiasts of Kempo followed a similar daily routine is not a year or two, but twenty or thirty years or for life. In 1952, Oyama went to their tour of the United States, where the furor and led the audience in utter confusion, showing superhuman nomera.V fact, it had to respond to American audiences as a visiting artist pricked, as if made of porcelain, huge boulders, bore necks of beer bottles, and bottles at the same time not falling, hitting a hammer on the knuckles, punching and kicking a thick planks (30 cm) packed in fifteen to twenty layers of shingles and lying on each other three or four bricks? Oyama traveled to the United States during the year, demonstrating his mastery of karate live and on national television. To his students developed a cascade Oyama mind-blowing tricks, embodying the highest achievements of karate at the physical level - punching suspended on two thin filaments sheet of rice paper punch and the fingers of the hand - chopping board hanging on a rope (or brick) punching, elbow, rib hand, the edge of the foot and the forefoot while standing on the ground or in the jump - split a few inch boards in the hands of two assistants, all possible punches and kicks, including a jump at a height of two meters - split floating in a barrel inch of water boards - chopping hands, feet and head up to twenty layers of shingles - chopping blow "arm-sword" or "Iron Hammer" three positions on each other bricks - chopping blow "arm-sword" of the three stacked above each other at intervals of ice slabs as thick as three inches each - punching arm and head ice chunks - boulders of massive ground cracking ribs hand - cutting off the neck of a bottle - penetration attack "hand-spear" in the tightly bound bundle of bamboo sticks - transfixion blow "hand-spear" hanging cow carcasses.