Cars in Russia before 1917

People's need for the need of accelerated movement on the ground led humanity to the creation of various machines and mechanisms, the most convenient and popular of which was the auto-mobile.
The word "vehicle" means "Self-propelled wagon, although the modern understanding of auto-mobiles are called only vehicles equipped with an autonomous nye engines (internal combustion, electric-Kimi, steam).
Russian motorists in 1996 marked a significant date such as the 100 th anniversary of domestic vehicles, reckoned from his birth on Sept. 11, 1896. As established by historians, namely the date was marked by the release in light of Regulation of the Minister of Communications Prince MI Khilkov on procedures and conditions of carriage of loads and passengers on the highway departments of Railways in the self-propelled carriages. "[1]
In general, the beginning of the modern automotive era decided to run from 1895, when independently by G. Daimler and Karl Benz built a horseless carriages, which had the internal combustion engine with great speed and high compression ratio. Made possible the wide dissemination of the car.
Since then, the Russian automotive industry was a nice way, but it, unfortunately, have been unjustly forgotten the names of many designers, engineers and builders of Russian cars - the founders of the Russian automotive industry. Meanwhile, the Russian inventor of the revolutionary period have made a considerable contribution to the development of automotive technology, ranging from muscle and creep Shamshurenkova Kulibina to cars Puzyreva and products, the Russian-Baltic Carriage Factory. Researchers discovered and published material of Russian designers, indicating that the domestic technical thought often offer radically new solutions in the field of wheeled vehicles [2].
The aim of this paper is to describe the first attempts of Russian inventors to create self-propelled carriage, as well as the general description of the development of automobile industry in Russia in the prerevolutionary period, ie - From the middle of the XVIII century. Until 1917 As mentioned above, assumed that the automotive industry as an industry has arisen only in the late XIX century. but in this case, it should be noted that without the development of brilliant Russian engineers earlier period can hardly form an idea of ​​the development of Russian technical thoughts in this area.
Among researchers there is no consensus as to who should be regarded as the founder of the automotive industry in Russia. Some of them are automotive pioneer of science in Russia is called Vasily Petrovich Gurieva, who in 1836 published a monograph: "On the establishment of face roads and land ships in Russia by companies." [3] The development of road transport seen it, modern language, in line with a single concept: "the car - the driver - the road - the economic effect." Guriev was not the designer of cars, but he made a considerable contribution to the development of the strategy of motoring.
Roads, by the VP Gurieva, should cover the wooden butt-end road, that his time was a very progressive idea. He also paid due attention to the safety of passengers and goods, driving training of personnel.
Of course, cars with internal combustion engines did not yet exist, and VP Sasha was guided by the steam cars, which he called "the land steamers. Intercity trains provided a wide application of freight and passenger trains. He has built map of transport links of Russia had a surprisingly accurate anticipation of further industrial development.
However, the only thing that could make Guryev of its projects, so it is to build a socket bridge in St. Petersburg on Nevsky Prospect, Palace Embankment and some other streets. [4] While noting the achievements of this outstanding scientist, in 1902 in St. Petersburg was published a book dedicated to his memory - "Vasily Petrovich Sasha and his ideas about the roads for cars." Currently, however, this few people remember.
Other researchers are among the pioneers in the domestic automotive industry is called LL Shamshurenkova and IP Kulibina, discussed below. [5] Third - Putilova and Hlobova, EA Yakovlev and P. Froese.
I. Wheeled self-propelled carriages
The talented Russian self-taught, a serf of Nizhny Novgorod province Leontius Lukyanovich Shamshurenkova (1685-1757) was a lot of mechanical inventions, but the most interesting for us is samobeglaya stroller, made of "iron Siberian soft", "became the most good," "thick iron wire" , skin, fat, glue, cloth and nails. [6]
The carriage was introduced in St. Petersburg on Nov. 1, 1752: it was a four and is propelled by muscle power of two people through a device resembling a gate. The carriage could reach speeds of up to 15 miles per hour. Passengers destined for two seats.
After exemplary demonstration samobeglaya stroller Shamshurenkova used for court entertainment, "as a very new and curious arts," [7] and then was forgotten: brilliant for its time the invention was lost on the margins of the Stables office where collected various crews.
The remarkable design of self-propelled wheeled carriage was also samokatka Russian designer, famous inventor and engineer Ivan Kulibin (1735-1818), on which he rode through the streets of St. Petersburg in 1791
First Kulibin worked on a four-carriage, and then, trying to maximize ease crew and simplify its management, has created a three-wheeled version samokatki. [8] Its crew had a self-propelled three-wheeled chassis, the front seat for two passengers and back seat for a standing person, the control foot pedals - "Shoes." The man was holding his hand, mounted in the back seat, and the force of his weight alternately pressed it on one foot, then another. Pedal through the levers and the traction acting on the ratchet (the dog with rackwheel) mounted on the vertical axis of the special flywheel, the latter was placed under the frame of the carriage, tremors leveled by a ratchet mechanism, and supported, thereby continuing the rotation axis. On the vertical axis of rotation of the flywheel passed a pair of zubchatok on the longitudinal horizontal shaft, the rear end of which is rackwheel clinging to one of three drum gear rims mounted on the rear axle of driving wheels.
Thus, the design of Russian mechanics contained almost all the main sites of the future car, many of which were first introduced - shifting gears, brakes, steering, bearings. Extremely valuable is the original application Kulibin flywheel to ensure smoother operation of transmission and the implementation of braking by spring-type mechanism.
Judging from the surviving drawings, samokatka IP Kulibina had a length of about 3,2 m, width and height - 1,6 m in diameter of the rear wheels - 1,42 m. In the wheel one revolution per second, it could reach speeds of up to 16 , 2 miles per hour. [9]
According to Alexander S. Isaev, however, the most correct solution to the problem of self-propelled carriages, driven by human force, introduced in 1801 the Urals Master Artamonov. [10] he solved the problem of maximum facilitation of weight carts by reducing its size and reducing the number of wheels to two. Thus Artamonov has created the world's first pedal scooter - transform the future of the bicycle. Monod said that his idea of ​​living in millions of modern bicycles.

II. Cars with steam engines. Paromobili
Continuing the work of their predecessors, the Russian inventors have set themselves the task of connecting the wheel truck with a power-driven, ie the creation of self-propelled trackless carriage to the road. Thus, based on the development of steam engines IIPolzunov, P. Frolov, EA and M. E. Cherepanovs in 1830, the Russian master monitor of K. Yankevich with his two fellow engineers close to creating a self-propelled wheeled carriage with a steam engine.
"Bystrokat" as it was termed an invention, had a speed of 30 miles per hour, have the ability to rapid deceleration, acceleration and deceleration of progress. A fundamental feature of bystrokata was a steam boiler, consisting of 120 tubes and used as fuel wood charcoal (on the plans inventors - pine). It was assumed that this machine can be used as the summer (wheel), and in the winter (with runners) speeds. The design bystrokata were also provided space for passengers and the driver placed in a covered wagon, heated by a system of heat pipes.
Structural feature bystrokata Yankevich was still in the original design of the relationship between body carts and its rear axle. Inventor of the departed from the usual method of arrangement under the body axis: It missed the axis directly through the body, which shifted the center of gravity wagons and significantly increased its resistance to rollovers.
Research in the development of steam engine were conducted in the later period, they were focused mainly on the use of steam boilers in the transport, for transport of goods. The book, published in St. Petersburg in 1898, "Application of cars in the transportation of passengers and loads," says that the first experiments using paromobiley for the transport of goods took place in Russia in 1872, when in Sagittarius, near St. Petersburg facing a "land boat", brought from Scotland. 16 (28) July 1872 government authorities was granted the first license Petersburg mechanics Orlovsky and Kempt to carry heavy loads through paromobiley, as evidenced by a document stored in the Central State Historical Archives. [11]
However, the work of Russian technicians to build a wheel-driven creep have shown that bulky and heavy steam installation is not possible to obtain a compact and simple machine. Still faced the task of creating a light and powerful engine, which in the late XIX century was necessary not only to wheeled vehicles, but the nascent aircraft industry.
III. Tracked vehicles
Development of applied sciences automobile.
It must be noted that the search for an able-bodied cars in the XIX century was engaged in a number of Russian technicians, to develop different directions in this area. For example, despite the already well-developed in Russia, railway transport, in the second half of XIX century. attracted the attention of many inventors, self-propelled steam, which could move without the rail - trains with steam engines for ordinary roads.
In this period the proposal engineer Majewski on the use of a "method of movement of trains and vehicles using the locomotive, on ordinary roads." His invention is a combination on crawlers. It is worth mentioning that the first mover tracked (no mechanical linkage) was proposed in 1837 by captain J. Zagryazhskaya. Its caterpillar mover built on two wheels, primary and secondary - hexagonal, located in front of the main. Wheel encircling iron chain, the length unit which is equal to the length of the sides of the hexagon, the chain tension provided by a special disposal. The inventor pointed out that the chain can be replaced by the railroad, providing the wheel is always smooth and level surface.
Thus, in the middle of the XIX century, was invented at the turn of the centuries has become increasingly used a new propulsion - the caterpillar. In 1879 Russian engineer Fyodor Abramovich Pancakes received a patent for them to set up "crawler" - crawler tractor or engine for dirt roads, "as he called him the inventor.
Designed as well for self-propelled movement on the ice (father and son, A. and P. Vradim), off-road, a variety of units (Vilbah, Yakovlev, Cherepanov), etc.
Still a lot of attention was paid to finding the optimal design of the engine, capable of ensuring the work of self-propelled wheeled vehicle that has a large reserve of enough high-speed and comfort. So, in the first half of XIX century Russian inventor proposed the original model of various heat engines. Later, the gas engines, and finally at the end of XIX century - the construction of oil, kerosene and gasoline engines, which served as the basis for a light vehicle engines.
The inventors have realized that for quite a well-designed circuit design of the chassis needed high-speed, powerful and lightweight engine transport type. Such a source of power could only be an internal combustion engine.
In developing quality working mixture for internal combustion engines Russian inventors have used to achieve local chemists - Mendeleev Kokoreva, Zelinsky. In particular, the idea of ​​using as a liquid fuel oil to its implementation owes much to the famous Russian engineer Vladimir Shukhov, who in 1891 received a patent for it created the technology of refining the method of cracking.
In the late XIX century big contribution was made by Russian chemists in the development of methods for producing automotive tires. Thus, the Russian scientist Sergey Lebedev has developed a way of industrial proizodstva synthetic rubber, and B. Byzov - a way of synthetic rubber from petroleum.
Russian engineer Shpakovsky back in 1836 first proposed and implemented the idea Pulverization preparation of liquid fuels for combustion. Later on improving the carbs worked E. Liparg, which had its own production in Moscow, Warsaw Potvorsky engineer, etc.
One of the first designers of Russian kerosene engine was also Lieutenant of the Navy EA Yakovlev, who in 1884 was found in St. Petersburg, Russia's first domestic production engine of its own design, mainly of low power. In 1891 the factory moved Yakovlev already on serial production of engines.
Meanwhile, with increasing vehicle speed, complicating travel routes, and the increased dangers associated with overloading the chassis, loss of control on slippery roads or sharp turns. The interaction of high-speed wheeled vehicles and the road required the preliminary calculations, without which completely treated earlier modes of transport.
As practice shows, one of the original design idea for creating the car was not enough. In order to solve a wide variety of automotive applications problems were required the efforts of many scientists.
Today, few remember that the founder of the Russian aerodynamics Zhukovskii conducted research not only in aviation but also in other areas of technology. In particular, many articles and development of automotive topics, such as "forces of inertia when it moves the car is running the helm, have become an indispensable tool for designers practitioners.
Works by Russian inventors in the field of automotive technology was not limited to improving the units of the automobile. They showed interest in various kinds of control and test equipment to monitor the work of a moving car.
It is interesting that the first designer of the car count was still LL Shamshurenkov, who offered to samobegloy wheelchair to make a clock for measuring the distance traveled (verstomer). At the end of the same XIX century. work on the creation of stationary control and test equipment for transport (in particular - for engines) led the head of the south-western railways AP Borodin. Later, many of his ideas laboratory study of wheeled self-propelled and used in the automotive industry.
IV. The ancestors of the trolleybus. Electric
Finding a suitable engine for automobiles is not limited to work on steam engines and internal combustion engines. Parallel studies were conducted in the field of electrical engineering and its possible application in the automotive industry. However, the real conditions for a self-propelled vehicles run on electric only appeared in the late XIX century.
In Russia, work on electrical engineering crews spent Hippolyte Vladimirovich Romanov, known for his work in the field of aerial electric roads.
The first Russian electric vehicles, practical use in transport, were created by the Romanovs as a stroller (cab) and the omnibus. For example, a double cab Romanova sample in 1899 was intended to "izvoznogo fishing", simply put - a taxi. The driver sat on the box above the battery box behind the crew and look forward over the roof. It had before it a regular steering wheel, with a drive to the rear idlers. In addition to steering the driver was under the hands of a dedicated controller, through which he could change the speed in nine gradations - from 1.6 miles per hour to a maximum of 37.4 kilometers per hour [12].
Electric Romanov had two power: each of them using a chain transfer set in motion the wheel, main of them were front. The crew also had two braking systems - mechanical and recuperative, electrodynamic.
Under the project, IV Romanova first home built electric joint stock company Pyotr Alexandrovitch Frese - one of the founders of the first Russian car with an internal combustion engine (it will go about this below). In addition, the later novels he organized a workshop for the manufacture of electric cars, which worked, and found outlets for their products for several years.
After a successful official tests in 1901, City Council authorized the Romanov open in St. Petersburg, the movement of his electric cars in ten lines. Designer anticipated within three years to release a 400 doubles and 300 four-seater, but for financial reasons he was unable to fulfill the terms of the contract. [13]
Battery electric possessed greater advantages: quiet operation, ease of management, ease of device, etc. However, they had a lot of weight, require frequent recharging and proved to be very sensitive to shocks. Therefore, wide exploitation of them was very difficult.
In 1902, VI Shubersky proposed a trolleybus at the Black Sea coast. In the same year the factory Frese has built and tested the first trolley, material tests which were used Shuberskim in his project. However, this attempt was unsuccessful.
In general, the sunset era electric car started in the 20 years of this century as a result of unsuccessful search of cheap and powerful batteries - on the one hand, and the rapid improvement of vehicles with gasoline engines - with the other.

V. The first domestic cars with internal combustion engine
The invention of the gasoline internal combustion engine is justly considered one of the most important events in the development of technology, including automotive. It will greatly facilitate the creation of a mechanical self-propelled carriage and opened the way to improve road transport.
According to some researchers, the first Russian car with an internal combustion engine running on liquid fuel, was built in 1882 by a group of Russian engineers, headed by Putilov and Hlobovym in a small town on the Volga. [14] However, sufficient documentary evidence of this yet received. [15]
Traditionally it is considered that the first domestic double car with an internal combustion engine was created in St. Petersburg in May 1896, EA Yakovlev, discussed already been discussed, and the owner of a coach workshops PA Frese. May 27, 1896 at the St. Petersburg newspaper "New Era" ad appeared, "the first Russian plant kerosene and natural gas engines, EA Yakovleva," in which it was reported that earlier this month in the vicinity of St. Petersburg was tested on a Russian vehicle.
In July, the car "quite Russian production with an engine power of 2 hp was introduced as an exhibit at the National Industrial Arts Exhibition in Nizhny Novgorod, where he performed the demonstration ride. The car was not even nominated price - 1500 rubles. [16] (For comparison, we can say that a horse in those days cost 50 rubles.) Price machine Yakovlev and Frese was half the price than those cars that are sold in Russia, the firm Benz, but nobody from domestic manufacturers, it is not interested.
After the death of EA Yakovleva his factory passed into the hands of another owner, but his case for the Russian car continued PA Frese. His company since 1890 has established an assembly of single copies of the car, using the mechanisms of transmission and the French company "De Dion Bouton. In 1902 this plant was built the first domestic car with front engine, drive line, with the motor 8 hp and pneumatic tires.
In 1899, Riga merchant Leitner tried to assemble cars in Riga. They were released only 7 cars, but due to competition of foreign companies build an end.
Thus, we can say that by the end of the XIX century. basically identified the prospects of development of domestic vehicles.
VI. The beginning of mass production of cars in Russia
Pioneer in the domestic automotive industry can be regarded as Moscow's bicycle factory "Dux" A. Meller, where an attempt was made to start manufacturing cars by Russian producer of several machines. [17] (However, we must admit that the first attempts to mass produce cars in Russia long remained the only attempts, the most successful of which was the activity of car Russo-Balt factory in Riga, discussed below.)
Meanwhile, the idea of ​​creating a national car occupied the minds of leading representatives of Russian technical intelligentsia, many of whom were educated, lived and worked abroad. One of them was a prominent Russian avtokonstruktor Boris G. Lutsky, who in the early 90-ies designed several internal combustion engines, intended for self-propelled carriages. According to his contemporaries (1899), engines Lutsk could be "put together the best benzinomotorami." [18]
Since 1897, Lutsk has to cooperate with the engineer A. Altman, who owned a factory for the production of stationary engines of Berlin. Later this company was absorbed by Daimler. As the lead designer of German firm Daimler, B. Lutsk created many models of cars and trucks, which features the most advanced engineering and design solutions.
In 1900 at the Berlin exhibition was featured car of Lutsk, has earned a very creditable estimate of German specialists. Characteristically, the gasoline engine of the car was located under the seat. In general, according to eyewitnesses, the engine and chassis of the car Lutsk surpasses the best foreign samples of the time. [19]
Next automotive design Lutsky was a truck with multi-cylinder engine that demonstrated at the World Expo 1900 in Paris, and marked the silver medal. Vehicle load capacity was about 5 m, average speed reached 11 miles per hour. Weight of these vehicles, however, was large enough for ground pavement at the time - without a load, he weighed about 4 m. Based on the properties of road surfaces Lutsk later brought the weight of their trucks up to 2 tons and a payload - to a little less than 2 m .
It should also be mentioned that B. Lutsk had an international reputation not only as an automotive engineer, but as a maker of aircraft.
At the beginning of XX century, one of the most advanced for its time, St. Petersburg enterprises "Machinery, Iron and Boiler Plant P. Lessner has concluded with the firm of Daimler contract for the construction license gasoline engines and vehicles. Lutsk was appointed consultant AO P. Lessner, where with his participation, create and issue fully committed to meet world standards, the cars.
Automobile production on "Lessner" lasted from 1905 to 1910 during this period was made a few dozen cars - cars, trucks, fire fighters, as well as buses. So it's production can be regarded as the first serial production of the domestic automotive production. In 1908, after the close of the First International Automobile Exhibition in St. Petersburg, where AO "Lessner" received a gold medal "For the establishment of automobile production in Russia," magazine "Car" wrote: "... To the credit of this plant should be attributed to a the fact that he actually builds his machine, but does not collect them from foreign parts. "[20]
The program of the plant were the original machines, designed specially for the Lutsk Lessner. One of them was the car in 1909 with all four major and steer center differential and ground clearance of 320 mm. Two-axle four-wheel drive vehicle showed a higher patency than usual - to drive only on the rear axle, but further testing did not get. In the transmission machine always something breaking down, and designers as they struggled and failed to eliminate the defect.
Its advanced design solutions among automotive pioneers in Russia stood out as Autoworks IP Puzyreva. Actually, it was not even a factory and workshop, where in 1912 he worked 98. [21] Nevertheless, from 1911 to 1914. it was produced 38 machines.
Ivan Petrovich Puzyrev he designed and built drivetrain, engine, suspension and bodywork of their cars, seeking to create a very sturdy construction for Russian roads. By car Puzyreva was placed in an internal combustion engine four-cylinder with a power of 40 hp In this case, he first placed the gear lever inside the body, whereas previously they have been taken outside. The box clutch system was first applied constant mesh gears.
At one of the cars in its manufacturing IP Puzyrev made a successful run on the route of Petersburg and Paris. According to eyewitnesses, the car Puzyreva produced a very favorable impression, and, above all, its surface finish. [22]
Enterprise IP Puzyreva concluded its existence in 1914, when a significant portion of the plant, including 8 ready-made cars were destroyed have arisen for reasons unknown fire.
Tried to assemble cars and on the periphery. Thus, 5 cars in 1909, was released in Oryol in the workshops of the inventor-enthusiast, a former landowner Mikhail Mikhailovich Khrushchev. Here, in the words of G. Alekseeva, "bloomed great ideas." [23] One of them - the creation of the domestic car simplest design with air-cooled engine. Implementation of this week took almost two years and ended in the summer of 1913 the construction of the existing machines, although less successful than similar models by Ford.
Prominent in pre-revolutionary automotive history of our country belongs to the Russian-Baltic plant in Riga, thanks to the largest - around 800 - the number of cars produced. The first attempts to release cars on it are 1907, and first used imported parts, but since 1910 - just their own. The main difficulty was the lack of the required grades are required for the manufacture of automotive parts. As a result, the plant has created its own production of steel and mastered the production of even such details as stamped frame, wheels, cast aluminum, radiators.
Car engines Russo-Balt produced in two forms - with the cylinders, made separately, or molded in one piece. Characteristically, these engines were first used pistons, cast aluminum alloy. Originally was performed in these cars brake system, consisting of two parts - the foot and hand, to act independently of each other. Brake pedal parts are located at the wheels, which for its time for a change.
Cars Russian-Baltic plant showed a high driving performance and have participated in various kinds of auto race, to compete with foreign models. So, in 1910 in the run with a load of 5 persons on a complex route Petersburg - Naples - Petersburg (more than 10 thousand miles) the car showed no problems, except for a puncture tires (one tire Russian production of "Explorer" has stood the entire route) . In the press of the time, this fact is seen as a triumph of Russian vehicles.
In addition, according to experts, cars Russo-Balt sleek appearance and completeness of finish, as clearly superior to the clumsy model of foreign origin [24].
The First World War forced the evacuation of Riga Car branch away from the front line and combine it with car assembly plants, bought the plant in Riga in 1910 with P. A. Froese. Assembly of motor vehicles at the new location continued until 1918, until the end of detail and preparation, removed from Riga.
In the same period a group IA Fryazinovskogo Russia had made a series of sports and racing cars, which brought the Russian and world-famous brand.
In general, before 1917 in Russia at different times of cars produced in these mills and factories: PA Frese and K "," EL Liedtke "," D. Skavronskaya JSC, GA Lessner, "" Iv.Breytigam "Fellowship" Polytechnic ", D. P. Yakovlev," "KA Krummel," "IP bubbles" (St. Petersburg), JSC "Luka", "BC . Bromley, The Brothers Krylova and K "," AI Evseev, "" P. Ilyin, "" Car Moscow Society (AMS) "Brothers Ryabushinskys (Moscow)," Leitner A. ", JSC" Russian -Baltic Carriage Factory (RBVZ) "(Riga); engineering workshop MM Khrushchev (Orel), AO" V. Lebedev (Yaroslavl); "Aksai (Rostov-na -Don), "Russian Renault" (Rybinsk), "Snipe" (Mytishchi), etc. At the same time there were a large number of enterprises for the production of tires, batteries, electrical equipment, automobile accessories, clothing for drivers.
It should however be said that despite the many distinctive qualities, the Russian vehicles have not been adequately spread. The main issue was mainly whether there should be at all Russian mass motorization. At the turn of the century, few people in Russia are well aware that this deafening shooting and shaky car - the car - the future belongs.

VII. Popularization of road transport in Russia in the pre-revolutionary period
At the beginning of XX century in Russia a little used car, and even then mostly in sporting or tourism purposes. In contrast to the industrialized countries - such as Germany, England, United States - Russia has traditionally been considered (and was itself in fact) a country peasant, where labor cost is cheap. The main means of transport in urban and rural areas, the main drawing force in agriculture was a horse - in their country as of 1914 there were more than 32 million - nearly one-third of all working horses planet. [25]
Cars, as already mentioned, great enthusiasm in Russia did not cause. Their distribution was as supporters and opponents: the latest scare, for example, accidents with horses, exhaust, etc. So, in 1907 St. Petersburg city administration created a special commission to address the issue of the possibility of mass car use. As a result, 100-verstnogo path has been established that the car poses no danger to the city. Outside the city the same kind of machine noise and frightened peasants' horses, so the movement of cars is forbidden.
At first, expanding the scope of the automobile in our country is reflected only in the organization in 1904, St. Petersburg taxi company, and later - in the use of postal vehicles and military departments.
In Moscow, most major automotive industry was instigated owned dairy enterprise Chichkin containing a large garage. Moscow Post Office in 1909 had 30 cars.
Nevertheless, despite certain inertia in the motorization of the country, in addition to release its own machines, Russia was the world's largest importer of cars. Total by 1914 there were 13 thousand cars 270 foreign firms. [26] The evidence of the relative activity of Russia in this regard is the fact that the first four International Motor Show (1907, 1908, 1910 and 1913.) Held in our country. Despite the fact that various industrial exhibitions and car showrooms were also conducted in other countries, Russia has a very broadly representative, splendor and excellent organization. [27] Fifth International Automobile Exhibition (1914) held in Paris, and, as experts note, for its organization was significantly influenced by the previous Russian exhibitions.
At the same time, progressive and technical intelligentsia has made strenuous efforts promoting the vehicles in Russia. So, in 1898, output of the first book on the device of the car NA Pesotsky "Self-propelled carriages with steam, petrol and electric engines, crews with the pedals," was the beginning of mass production of automotive literature.
Were published many books on organization of transport and economy of vehicles, repair and maintenance of vehicles, as well as manuals and handbooks, which have always found a timely reflection of new trends in operation of vehicles.
The first attempts of specialization in the car business refer to 1910, when a group of students at the Moscow Higher Technical School, organized a scientific and automobile club, whose goal was to promote motoring. Course of lectures on light engines for the first time in Russia began to read Professor NR Briling, specialized seminars on automobiles also led Professor IV Gribov. In 1913, Professor Lebedev started to read an optional course on automobiles in the St. Petersburg Institute of Technology.
The first magazines to motorists began to emerge in Russia at the end of the last century. Prior to 1917, were published at different times of 18 periodicals related to the car. The most influential of these was the journal of the Russian automobile company "Car", which existed from 1902 to March 1917 (24 issues per year), and reflects on its pages all the important events of domestic and foreign automotive life.
Popularization of motor vehicles contributed to numerous test runs and the race, had not only sports, but also scientific importance. They were given the opportunity to identify ways to improve the design and performance of the car, to strive to achieve the record becomes the usual indicators.
The first major auto race in Russia, which had international significance was rally Moscow - St. Petersburg (1907). The next international race from St. Petersburg to Moscow was in 1908, and in 1909 was the start of the international road test cars Petersburg - Pskov - Riga - St. Petersburg. A major international mileage on the route Petersburg - Kiev - Moscow - St. Petersburg was also organized in 1910
Winner of many races, runs and events that took place both in Russia and abroad, was an outstanding Russian race car driver, scientist, journalist and social activist Andrew Platonovich Nagel.
Significant contribution to the development of Russia's motoring made domestic trading houses. According to the testimony of investigators, automobile trading houses in Russia, there are dozens, and sales offices - in the hundreds. Possessing large and well-equipped garages, repair shops and workshops, trading houses took on the storage, maintenance, repair and overhaul of vehicles of all brands. They also engaged in spreading the advanced achievements of motoring, as research institutes road did not exist yet.
The first Russia's largest automobile trading house has been the supplier of the Imperial Court "Victory", open on Jan. 29, 1902 was considered the second largest trading house A. Fokine. " It is believed Kuprin E. and A. Hem, nowadays, in a market economy, the experience of shopping malls in many ways could be useful. [28]
Gradual expansion of Russian fleet led to the need to resolve the issue and on their repair. Output of machinery failure, usually due to failure, forced the Russian craftsmen to produce the necessary parts on their own. This led to the organization of the repair business in the garages and construction of related equipment.
Characteristic of the history of the Moscow Automobile Enterprise P. Ilyin, who first tried to set up production of new machines, but unable to compete with foreign firms moved in for repair. It is interesting to note that the company Ilyina, taking on the repair of several identical cars on their own produce for them, some car units, transmissions, front axles, etc. Thus was born an aggregate method of repair.
Enterprise Ilyin put a successful foundation for the development of domestic production workshop. For example, it maintains a full 30 cars of the Moscow Post Office, which is serviced by a special treaty-obligation.
But the facts are organized operation of vehicles in this country were still single character.
Great importance to road transport has been proved only in the First World War, 1914-1918., Which marked the beginning of active use of motor vehicles in Russia. Then, for the army from abroad were imported several thousand trucks and passenger cars for a long time constituted a large part of the Russian fleet. [29]
Finally, in 1915 at the highest political level, it was decided to create a domestic auto industry, whose base was the first time should have been up 6 of the most promising enterprises: Automobile Factory of Moscow Society (AMS), AO "V. A. Lebedev, JSC Russian Renault ", JSC" Aksai, Rostov-on-Don, Russian-Baltic Shipyard (by this time had already been transferred from Riga to Moscow) and the plant "Snipe" in Mytishchi.
In the above brief excursion into pre-revolutionary history of the Russian car, of course, have been mentioned, not all the names of local inventors who have made a contribution to the creation and formation of car production in Russia. And although the pre-revolutionary Russia had a highly developed automotive industry, Russian engineers have made several successful attempts to develop and manufacture their own designs.
We can only regret that the situation that existed in the Russian automotive industry beginning of the century, when Russian cars - despite the limited number - on their driving performance and finish quality is not inferior to imported models, has not survived to our days.