Gaz AA - lorry

GAS-410 - tipper (1936-46 gg.)GAZ-42 - gas-generator version of the truck (1939-46 year).GAZ-44 - Gas-cylinder GAZ-AA (1939).GAZ-55 - a military ambulance (1938-45 year).GAZ-03-30 - Bus (1933-41 years, 1945-50 gg).GAZ-AAA - three-axle truck (1934-43 year).PARM-A - Repair and replacement machine.In addition, based on GAZ-AA produced a number of specialized vehicles - fire, medical, police, car radio, car anti-aircraft gun (quad machine guns "Maxim" in the body), anti-aircraft searchlight, radar detection, etc. In just a few years of production of the truck was released more than 1000000 GAZ-AAThe choice of Nizhny Novgorod as a place of building a new automobile plant, a giant on the scale then, it was no accident. As an alternative, called the Moscow, Leningrad, Yaroslavl, as well as some other cities. Each of these places had certain advantages. But in the complex were concentrated only in Nizhny Novgorod: here there was a fairly well-developed metal industry and skilled personnel, forest and water resources, and you can 'was also to provide cheap transportation of semi-finished and finished products. In addition, Nizhny Novgorod, already was a major rail junction, located to the same at the confluence of two navigable rivers - the Volga and Oka.Initial conceptual design of automobile was requested to undertake Gipromez and trusts Metallstroy. However, Soviet specialists have not yet had the experience of automotive industry, especially large scale. It was therefore decided to apply to private U.S. firms, where 31 May 1929 and left a government commission.The choice fell on the company Ford. He also was not random. While in the automotive world there was no figure more familiar than Henry Ford, whose plants produced in 1922 every second car on the planet, including three of five in the U.S.. His models, starting with the famous Ford-T, won universal popularity of its simplicity, reliability and cheapness. Company Ford has committed to Soviet technical assistance and advice inorganization of production cars and trucks, is authorized and access to American factories of Soviet specialists and trainees in quantities of 50 people annually.As the basic models for the new plant have been identified passenger car, Ford-A and one and a half truck, "Ford-AA, by then already well known in different countries and have a proven. Waiting for entry into the main system of the plant did not. Ten kilometers from the bottom, in Kanavin, in a factory whistle of October "set the assembly line. Under a contract with Ford of the United States via Murmansk came here parts and assemblies. February 1, 1930 in car assembly shop mounted the first 10 trucks of Ford-AA, and in late 1931 began to produce trehosok Ford Timken. "Meanwhile, auto giant was preparing to launch. In the second half of January 1932 were mastered motor block, crankshaft, having established a strong press, stamped first 100 spars automobile frames. Because of the subcontractors had not yet received a sufficient number of sheet steel, cab manufactured from plywood. Came a solemn day on Jan. 29, 1932. The applause and shouts of "Hurray!", The factory siren sounds with rolled off the first truck of the Nizhny Novgorod Automobile NAZ-AA. By the end of the year the plant produced daily for 60 trucks and has mastered the production of cars GAZ-A. Yes, yes, have gas, but not NAE since October 1932 in Nizhniy Novgorod was renamed Gorky. Changed the name and Automobile.The first GAZ-AA were made according to specifications of the Ford Foundation. However, Soviet designers critically approached Ford's documentation. It was necessary to strengthen the clutch, steering gear, install the air filter, etc. In 1930, under Soviet drawings was designed loading platform.It should be noted that the car GAZ-AA in all its simplicity, was technically quite perfect. In those years the truck represented the car fairly progressive design. Served as the basis for a powerful spar frame, which fit the bodywork and cabin. Under the hood was placed in-line four-cylinder engine of 3.3 liters (3285 cm3), which develops 42 hp The main positive quality of this motor was that it could easily consume cheaper low-octane gasoline (A-52). Engine power system consisted of a carburetor and fuel tank. Incidentally, the GAZ-AA there was no petrol pump. The tank was located above the carburetor and fuel fed into it by gravity. As transmission used dry single plate clutch and four-stage gear box. Suspension - dependent: front-wheel drive - the transversely located poluelliptncheskoy springs with radius arms, which transmit the load to the frame, rear - on two longitudinal cantilever springs without dampers. The service brake was a mechanical drive. How to remember the drivers in those years working for the GAZ-AA, these brakes have been virtually impossible to use because of their extremely low efficiency. Basically, stopping the machine had a serial shift "down": 3-2-1. Cruising range is 215 km. Vehicle load capacity was equal to 1,5 tons (hence its nickname - lorry) under its own weight in running order 1810 kg.In the prewar period, the assembly truck GAZ-AA was performed in Moscow at the plant named Kim - the future AZLK.In 1938, the truck was set on a new engine of 50 hp. with. The new model was the same GAZ-AA but with the engine of the GAZ-M1. Undergone a change and some other sites: steering gear, fixed rear springs, for example. The rest of the truck remained the same. This machine was designated GAZ-MM and, in Gorky, was going to Rostov-on-Don of the details coming from the parent plant.In the registration file cabinets GUNS-GAI, amid numerous GAZ-AA, have not seen a single mention of the GAZ-MM until 1949, when gas-MM suddenly appear in large quantities. Perhaps GUNS-GAI cars were called Ulyanovsk assembly (1949-1950)GAZ-AA & GAZ-MM served as the basis for a whole family of vehicles for different purposes. More in Kanavin in 1932 collected 16-seat bus GAZ-03-30. In 1934 serial production of three-axle truck GAZ-AAA is largely aligned with biaxial base model. This machine, designed by a leading designer Vladimir Grachev, was produced until 1943. Total production line descended 37,373 trehoski GAZ-AAA. In 1936 began the production of car-truck GAZ-410 with metal tipping back body capacity of 1,2 tons. In 1938-1939 came from the factory floor half-track GAZ-60, gas producer GAZ-42 (for motor fuel was carbon monoxide, CO - carbon monoxide gas produced by incomplete combustion of wood in the cabin located behind a gas generator) and LPG GAZ-44. In addition to these vehicles on the chassis. GAZ-AA released benzozapravschiki, trucks, sanitation and many other special-purpose vehicles. In general, at the end of the Second Five gas is produced 68,3% of all cars manufactured in the USSR.
Ready-made trucks at the site GAZGorky's lorry fleet comprised more than half of the Red Army. By the beginning of the war it was already outdated, but their undoubted advantage was simplicity of design and simplicity to the quality of fuel. According to some information on 20.06.1941, at an army ranks were 151,100 trucks. Their main task was to transport troops. Special bodies, as in the modern army trucks, while still not there. For the transport of troops conventional cargo platform is equipped with removable cross benches. When transporting goods, they were placed on the bottom of the body. GAZ-AA put four of these benches, which housed 16 people. In bad weather the body covered by an awning. If the vehicle transporting heavy machine gun, then the number of seats reduced to two, and during transportation in a combat situation - for four. If necessary, the truck could carry, and gun: in the back of GAZ-AA housed the regimental cannon with limber and calculation.Comparing the technical level of the car park of the Red Army and the army of the enemy, we should note the extreme diversity and the diverse nature of structures of machines, available in the Wehrmacht. While the automotive industry in Germany and there was actually quite hard unification models manufactured by different firms, the effect of this measure is not given. In addition, applied by the Nazis cars made in France, Italy, Czechoslovakia and Austria were not designed to work in winter conditions, had insufficient throughput, have been very difficult to repair and
service, and a large variety of models, greatly complicated the provision of spare parts, training of personnel and repair.Cars of the Red Army had been deprived of these disadvantages. In addition, the simple design and high reliability are greatly simplifies the operation and maintenance.One of the leading companies in the automotive industry of the USSR - Gorky automobile plant - with the war was ordered to move to production of light tanks, tank engines, armored vehicles, mortars and ammunition. Along with this plant, though to a lesser extent, was to continue to produce trucks GAZ-MM and GAZ-AA, as well as trucks GAZ-410. The latter, although produced in limited quantity, were the only ones in the war years specialized vehicles to serve the building. On the chassis of the GAZ-MM produced ambulance GAZ-55, and the GAZ-AA staff bus GAZ-05-193 tankers, radar stations, hiking shops. During the war years 3850 GAZ-AA & GAZ-MM were equipped with anti-aircraft guns: guns or quad machine guns.Construction Truck GAZ-MM, as, indeed, and GAZ-AA, has been extremely simplified, which was dictated by the lack of metal and the desire to speed up production. Instead of stamping the wings of a complex configuration set welded, simple T-shaped. Front bumper and right headlight missing. Brakes were installed only on the rear wheels. In the body opened only tailgate. On the lorry, issued in 1942, instead of steel cab put a simplified, with a canvas top and flat instead of doors. Since 1943, there were mounted a wooden enclosed cabin. The front of the wall was the same as that of the metal. The base and back wall had a wooden frame and clapboard. A roof covered with tarpaulin. The doors have exterior wood siding, performed flush with the door frame and interior trim made of cardboard. Some trucks even have cloth door-roll, and later the doors were made from board-lining. Door window was sliding, but did not fall, as usual.The enemy is clearly envisioned the enormous role of gas in ensuring the Red Army's combat equipment. Therefore, in the middle of 1943, during the preparation for the offensive at the Kursk Bulge, Hitler's command tried using the bombing to withdraw the plant down. In the period from June 4 to July 5, fascist aircraft flew 25 raids on him, as a result of which the company has suffered significant damage, disrupted stream production cycle. But despite the bombing, the issue of defense products, including polutorok continues. By the recovery efforts were involved in working with other companies. Already on August 18 to work all the shops, but by 28 October the plant is fully restored.During the war GAZ produced 102.3 thousand vehicles of all types. Immediately after the war, automakers had to master the production of new models, designed in the years of war, including the truck GAZ-51 and GAZ-63. Their development occurred simultaneously with increased production of previous models. In December 1945, were collected by the first truck GAZ-51, and in June 1946 started their mass production. That's when the useful experience of the war years - because of the lack of a thin steel plate, "first flight" (GAZ-51) of the early issues had a wooden cabin and plywood wings. With the assembly line went past the lorry GAZ-MM. Their assembly was suspended on Oct. 10, 1949. A year later ended in the production of these machines and at the Ulyanovsk automobile plant producing the them since 1947. Since then, one and a half trucks but our country is no longer made: for GAZ-51, though his name out of habit and the lorry has a capacity of 2 tons.The name of the "lorry" has become so popular that now almost all incorrectly referred to three-ton lorry at the same time and the ZIS-5, which now has escaped much more. ZIS-5 was removed from the conveyor in Miass only in 1958 when the lorry has almost disappeared from our roads.
Prior to the restructuring in 1986 the Soviet people were forbidden to own trucks and even pickups (although the Central Asian republics and Kazakhstan pickups still fell into private hands), so most polutorok been deposited with the company VtORCHERMEt, as in the Soviet Union existed annual rate of delivery recycled materials at every plant and auto businesses, and the old truck did not stand on ceremony.
In the 1970-1980-ies there was fashion set has survived ZIS-5, and, rarely, GAZ-AA on a pedestal as a monument of military drivers. That saved some machines, although rain and untidy led them in many cases in poor condition. Also note that, although all pedestals inscribed during the war, almost all cars, monuments - the post-war issue.
Has survived not so many cars GAZ-AA. In good condition they can be seen in the exposition of the Polytechnical Museum in Moscow and the Museum of the plant.

Year of Manufacture 1932
Seats in the cabin 2                              
Weight, kg 1810
length, m
width, m
height, m
Height, m 0.2
Turning radius, m 7.5
Engine Carburetor
GAZ-AA, 40 hp
Gearbox 4 forward, 1 back
Fuel capacity, l 40
Cruising range, km 215
Max. speed 70 km / h
Issued, shares ~ 1000000