In order to develop the domestic engine in 1936 in the United States was purchased lot 6-cylinder engines nizhneklapannyh Dodge D5. The choice of this engine was dictated on the one hand technical novelty, but on the other - an opportunity available for a quick development in Gorky equipment. Not without problems translated from inch to metric sizes, this engine has an index of GAZ-11. Began preparations for its serial production.In February 1937, at the initiative of the chief designer of GAZ AA Liphart and then director SS Dyakonov, work began on creating a family of trucks equipped with the new engine. The base truck new family, instead of aging "lorry GAZ-MM, was to become a GAZ-11-51 (some cars GAZ at the time the engine GAZ-11 went down in history with" 11 "in its index). To work on it commissioned a designer to VM Kudryavtsev.Assessing the trend of general increase capacity, the designers settled on the estimated payload of 2 tons. As a prototype components and assemblies GAZ-11-51, considered a model Dodge trucks and Chevrolet this class of samples in 1937, but in general, as constructively, and externally, GAZ-11-51 was the original design, not to copy any foreign model. When designing the GAZ-11-51 paid much attention to increasing the strength of all units and an overall increase in reliability and serviceability of the car, as well as factors driving security and reduce the fatigue of the driver.Summer of 1938 began manufacturing units chassis, and in January 1939 were prepared two prototype GAZ-11-51, cockpit-like plumage cargo "Dodge" at that time. New steel is not only a cabin and powertrain, but the frame, wheel suspension, steering, front axle. With the GAZ-MM his relatives similar design gearbox and rear axle.6-cylinder engine GAZ-11 with a cast iron head had the power of 76 hp, and with aluminum at high compression ratio - 85 hp, thus providing a significantly improved dynamic quality of the car. Improved power supply has also increased traction on the hook and towing capabilities when using trailers.At the GAZ-11-51 has been applied a new rigid frame with a height of the rails at 150 mm and posterior cruciate crossbar, which provides a good connection between the spars in the longitudinal direction. To use the truck as the truck was equipped with the new towing device, suitable for use with a fairly heavy trailers. At the rear frame cross member, an anchor point towing devices, there were special handling bracing.Finally, abandoning the front and rear transverse cantilever springs GAZ-MM suspension GAZ-11-51 made by the classical scheme: four longitudinal semi-elliptic leaf springs with additional podressornikami at the back. Front axle, as compared with the GAZ-MM also significantly altered and redesigned, is characterized by high stiffness mount swivel arm, as well as increased size knuckle and kingpin, significantly improved the stability of the vehicle.Improving the reliability of GAS-11-51 facilitated by the introduction into the design of the new enhanced steering and the use of the now two full-scale propeller shaft between the gearbox and rear axle. Here there is an interesting point: if the GAZ already seen initially to increase the reliability and security of the installation of two propeller shafts, at the opposite trend prevailed ZiSe single propeller shaft, which led after the war to a deadlock solution - 4-foot "dangerous" cardan on ZIS- 150.Application polutsentrobezhnogo clutch pretty facilitated the driver, as required considerably less effort to pedal. The truck was equipped with a spacious and quite comfortable cabin-style American trucks late 1930's, suitable for 2 people, and had advanced to that time grille, hood and fenders faired. Many of the elements, in particular - the steering and lights, were borrowed from the GAZ-M1.GAZ-11-51 has dimensions 5500h2200h2120 mm, weight in running order with no load is 2750 kg and with a full load (2000 150 kg) - 4900 kg. Front track increased to 1600 mm, rear - up to 1650, the smallest turning radius reached 8 m. The car had a mechanical 4-speed, taken almost unchanged from GAZ-MM, a similar rear axle with 6.67 gear ratio and brake system mechanical drive. Along with a towing device, the machine has received and towing hooks were located not on the front bumper, and mounted on the frame and protruding from the wings. Original sample GAZ-11-51 came with a standard 5-window wheels and tires on the size of a GAZ-MM 6,50-20 "with the recommended pressure in them to 3,0 kg / cm ². In the course of finishing GAZ-11-51 manned by new experimental wheels (5 small round holes instead of windows) and imported tires 7,00-20 (7,50-20).100-liter fuel tank was enough for 470 km on the highway. With the power unit output of 85 hp GAZ-11-51 speeds of up to 80 km / h.From May to July 1939 GAZ-11-51 passed the first road test, then after a number of improvements and enhancements in the summer of 1940 model cars exhibited at the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition (VSHV) in Moscow, which attracted worldwide attention. By September of that year, was ready and the second sample of machines, which after the test runs the length of 32,500 km and ended in July 1941, was equipped with a gas generator and in this capacity he served in the native plant more than one year. The test results were successful, by this time was prepared batch production of GAZ-11-51, which was to begin, as other new products of the Soviet automobile, in 1942, but the outbreak of World War II broke those plans.*During the Second World War in the squares of the Gorky Automobile Plant supplied under the Lend-Lease Act sets collected American trucks, in particular, Studebaker and Chevrolet. "After the victory at Stalingrad, the leader decided that the war will end soon. On the second day after the surrender of Paulus, February 3, 1943 in Narkomsredmashe meeting was opened forty-five automotive designers and professionals to whom the task was to report on the preparation of construction vehicles for civilian purposes "- recalled the leading designer of GAZ Boris Dekhtyar. - "At a meeting held in Moscow from 3 to 8 February 1943, it became clear that a peaceful time was only willing to GAS. Its chief designer, AA Lipgart type introduced for all vehicles: cars, trucks and military. In between working on fixed-term military contracts design and experimental department Automobile (scratch card GAS) developed a design perspective cars. "All of Gorky's car IV Stalin gave the go-ahead, but ordered to increase the capacity of GAZ-51 at 500 kg.Work in transforming the car was headed, AD Prosvirnin (in 1958 he became head of Bureau of gas). Designers moved the cockpit and the engine forward and thus increased the length of the body at a demanding two feet without changing the wheelbase. This arrangement provides good maneuverability, rational use of dimensions and At the same time retain an acceptable distribution of weight on the axes, which provides a good cross-car.A prototype of the final version of a new truck with "studebekerovskim" plumage was ready by May 1944, closed its wings around the same, so familiar to later emerged only in September of that year, on a second sample. June 19, 1945 the first gas-51 "Zero" series solemn convoy drove through the Spassky Gate in the Kremlin, where they were showcased IV Stalin.The first experimental-industrial batch GAZ-51 was produced in December 1945, and their mass production was launched in June 1946 after comparative trials, where, along with the GAZ-51 were represented by its foreign counterparts with a 6-cylinder engines: Ford 2T8T ( 85 hp, load 2 t); Dodge VF32 (95 horsepower, load capacity of 3 tons), Opel Blitz (75 horsepower, load capacity 2,5 t). Prior to October 1947 with the assembly line in Gorky went along GAZ-51 and GAZ-MM, while the production of the latter is not transferred to the UAZ. In the same year for the establishment of GAZ-51 GAZ group of engineers has been awarded the USSR State Prize.GAZ-51 at that time represented a very advanced and sophisticated design. Its creators at a relatively small increase in weight in comparison with the GAZ-MM were able to increase capacity by more than half and half to two times lengthen turnaround. The machine has a considerable margin and could be operated with large overloads. The new model has embodied all the latest achievement of motor vehicles: motor with replaceable liners bearings, hydraulic brakes, polutsentrobezhnoe clutch, automatic advance ignition timing and vacuum-corrector lever hydraulic shock absorbers in the front suspension, the thermostat in the cooling system, chrome-plated top piston rings, " dry "cylinder liners.GAZ-51 is equipped with 6-cylinder carburetor engine liquid-cooled model GAZ-51, represents a further development of the engine GAZ-11, and allow you to move along the highway with a maximum speed of 46 km / h. The engine belonged to nizhneklapannym srednelitrazhnym units with cylinder capacity of 3.285 liters, 6.2 compression ratio, the lowest specific fuel consumption 367 g / kWh (270 g / hp. Ah) and good reliability. The fuel used and inexpensive nedefitsitny A-66 gasoline with an octane number of 66. Start the engine is done with the help of an electric starter or the starter handle. He had a relatively small weight without equipment - 235 kg.Transmission of the mechanical type consisted of a single-disk clutch polutsentrobezhnogo dry friction (steel on the friction lining), 4-speed gearbox with straight teeth (no synchromesh), driveline with needle bearings, single-stage main gear with a pair of bevel gears with spiral teeth and the four satellites and two semi-axes fully floating type.The suspension was dependent, consisting of four longitudinal semi-elliptic leaf springs arranged with two hydraulic shock absorbers double action lever on the front axle and extra springs - in the background. Machine were equipped with pneumatic "lend-lease" tire size 7,50-20 "to tread" Ground-grip "and the internal air pressure in them 0,3 MPa (3 kgf / cm ²).Ladder-type frame consisted of two spars channel iron cross and the five traverses, which were attached units and units of machines and buffers. At the rear cross member installed towing device with spring damper.Steering without steering with a steering mechanism of the "worm globoidalny with dvuhgrebnevym roller with a ratio of 20.5.Foot brake (working) - shoe on all wheels with a hydraulic drive. Handbrake (parking) - shoe on the propeller shaft-driven.Electrical equipment was carried on a single-circuit-board network with a voltage of 6 V to the positive terminal clamps sources and consumers of electricity in the building. Sources of electrical energy were constant current generator r21 power 225 W and two 6-volt starter batteries 3ST70 connected in parallel. Ignition system battery engine.GAZ-51 early post-war years were lining the doors and cab roof of wood, upholstered plywood and tarpaulins, the outer tank, alloy wheels with two windows, transmission brake disc, rectangular instrument cluster. Front glass consisted of two halves with a vacuum lift wiper, located just to the left. In the early samples, no aprons wooden footboards and heater, but the engine (before 1950) placed a special pump to pump the tires.Platform with a loading height 1200 mm - wood with folding tailgate, which was equipped with chains and a tilted position could serve as a continuation of the platform floor. Loading platform with internal dimensions of 2940 × 1990 × 540 mm and a surface area of 5,85 m ² was attached to the chassis frame ladders. For the carriage of goods lekgovesnyh board could build with available slots for them to racks.After recovery in 1949 production at the Zaporozhye metallurgical plant "Zaporizhstal, which before the war, supplying cold rolled thin steel sheet, GAZ-51 was stamped-metal cab for a while equipped with wooden doors. Since 1951, out of body fuel tank was removed and placed him in a cabin under the seat (with its capacity reduced from 105 to 90 liters). The instrument cluster has round dials. In the production car for the first time in the Soviet Union was established automatic welding line wheels, which became shestiokonnymi. Since mid-1953 rim wheels supplied by only one lock ring instead of two. At the end of 1953, the steering mechanism was reinforced rollers and bearings.In 1955, the car has undergone modernization and since that time under the brand name of GAZ-51A. The machines were installed a new body with three folding sides and the parking brake drum. Booth equipped with a heater and the blowing of the windshield. The summer of 1957 on the hood side panels have lost the reference name fell out of favor, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Molotov.The design of the car was so successful that its production for the Soviet technical documentation deployed in Poland called "Lublin-51 and China -" Yuetszin-134. Since 1958, the firstborn of the North Korean automotive industry in Tokchhon produced a copy of the GAZ-51A - "Synri-58" ("Victory-58"). Later, the DPRK had developed a version of "Synri-58KA with new bonnet and front wings, which was manufactured from 1979 to mid-90's.Issue GAZ-51 lasted until April 2, 1975. This machine was the most popular car in the country: over the years have been been built 3481033 trucks and chassis, including 11,418 at the Irkutsk car assembly plant (in 1950-52, respectively). This car was such a practical, reliable and durable that even now is still present on our roads.GAZ-93. Dump truck GAZ-93, designed at the Ural Automobile Plant was originally going to release at the Novosibirsk Automobile Plant (NAE), but after his conversion, production truck in 1948 was organized at the Odessa car assembly plant (ODAZ).
Dump truck chassis manufactured by GAZ-51 with a short (320 mm) frame. Metal box-shaped body (volume 1,65 m ³) was hinged tailgate. For the carriage of goods lekgovesnyh in the side walls had holes and brackets for mounting racks increased the boards. The hoisting mechanism - hydraulic controlled from the cabin, combined with oil pump, with a horizontal cylinder, the efforts of which were passed on to the platform via two intermediate rods. Horizontal arrangement of hydraulic cylinders made it possible to bring the pump to the gear box and do a drive roller. Maximum pressure in the hydraulic system is the same as that of ZIS-585 and was 15 kg / cm ².For transportation of agricultural goods was established modification of the GAZ-93D with a wood-metal plate (volume of 3.16 m ³), sealed with the lens cover. Experienced GAZ-93S had a trough-shaped body and intended for the carriage of bulk cargoes.From 1955 to replace the GAZ-93 and GAZ-93D came modernized trucks GAZ-93A and GAZ-93B, respectively. In 1958 their production was transferred to the Saransk Plant dump (SAZ) and ODAZ began to specialize in production of trailers. For Sayanogorsk smelter GAZ was delivering a special chassis with a shorter frame-51D GAS, GAS-51DU (for the export version of the truck - GAZ-93AE) and GAS-51DYU (for the export version of a tropical version - GAZ-93V). Release of all modifications trucks lasted until 1966.GAZ-51B. Since 1949, GAZ produced Gas-cylinder truck GAZ-51B. Its engine was designed to run on compressed gas. Gas-cylinders setup consisted of: five steel cylinders for natural gas beneath the platform; gas heater that uses exhaust heat engine, gas regulator and the carburetor-mixer. The cabin was equipped with two 200-gauge and 8 kg / cm ² for the determination of gas reserves and control of gas appliances. GAZ-51B retains the ability to run on gasoline, which has been preserved benzosistema. This car was produced in small batches throughout the registration GAZ-51/GAZ-51A. It is noteworthy that the index of the GAZ-51B has not changed even after the release of the GAZ-51A.GAZ-51ZH. In 1950, the laboratory gas-cylinder cars we have completed work on a gas-cylinder car on GAZ-51. Its engine, unlike mass-produced gas-cylinder engines GAZ-51B and ZIS-156, adapted to use both petrol and gas fuel was intended only for use on gas. This gave the car experienced a number of advantages. He was a dynamic and fast, and its power plant had more liter capacity, and efficiency, resulting in not only reduces fuel consumption, and increased autonomy. Moreover, this truck is surpassed by many indicators, and its serial counterpart - GAZ-51, running on traditional fuel - gasoline. For example, we can say that compared with its gasoline engine power unit prototype car, used as fuel, liquefied gas, was a 6 hp powerful, and the rate of LPG truck in comparison to its petrol version was longer (84 km / h to 70 km / h). True, it should be noted that the serial GAZ-51 was equipped with a speed limiter crankshaft. Since 1954, the Gorky Automobile Plant started the production of Gas-cylinder truck GAZ-51ZH and its export analogue GAZ-51ZHU. Installation of gas-cylinders weighing 145 kg consisted of a single cylinder, installed under the platform, the gearbox and the carburetor-mixer.GAZ-51P. Tractor truck GAZ-51P manufactured GAZ from 1956 to 1975 based on cargo GAZ-51A. At the GAZ-51P, unlike the basic model was modified final drive axle, in addition to the fifth wheel coupling devices were installed: an additional fuel tank capacity of 105 liters; gidrovakuumny power in the drive brakes (first time in the domestic automotive industry), a special output for the trailer brakes ; bracket for the spare wheel behind the cab.Besides the listed options were issued truck: cargo and passenger taxi GAZ-51R and its export version of GAZ-51RU; cargo taxi GAZ-51T; chassis for a tanker GAZ-51m; car for agriculture with an additional fuel tank GAZ-51S (later GAZ-51AS), and his version of a shielded electrical GAZ-51SE; export version of GAZ-51U (GAZ-51AU) and GAZ-51YU (for areas with tropical climates), a car with an optional 105-liter fuel tank and slatted body with folding benches along the side boards of Gaz -63 - GAZ-51H and the export version of GAZ-51NU.Experienced half-track vehicle GAZ-41.In the 50's 60's at GAZ conduct experimental work on forkamerno-torch ignition. Then, based on engine GAZ-51 was created by a variant of this power plant - GAZ-51F. He had a head with three valves per cylinder, driven rods, and dual carburetor. The basis of a new method of improving the economic and other indicators of a gasoline engine was the idea of a sharp increase in the power of an ignition source, which almost became a torch flame. The main objectives of which are prosecuted in this case is more complete combustion of residual gas in the combustion chamber and the need for better utilization of heat burned gases. Immediate vicinity of the combustion chamber engine of the GAZ-51F provided for a small preliminary auxiliary combustion chamber - prechamber, which communicate with the main short channels of small cross section, having a sharp outline. In the settling chamber was applied a small amount of very rich mixture, ignited a spark from a candle. During the combustion of the mixture pressure in the plenum chamber increases. And as the section of exhaust ducts were small, it was several times higher than in the main combustion chamber. Reactive products of incomplete combustion of the auxiliary mixture dumped in the middle of the combustion chamber, swirl it working mixture and formed into her special turbulent structure, causing flooding activation of combustion. The degree of compression engine GAZ-51F on petrol of mark A-66 was able to raise from 6,2 to 6,8, the power at the same time increased from 70 to 85 hp at 3000 rpm, providing a significant increase in the dynamic properties of the truck while reducing fuel consumption. An experimental batch of motors 78 hp mounted on buses and grain wagons, which in 1961 passed the performance tests in Moscow and Sochi. They were 15% more economical than cars with conventional engines, but had a number of trudnoustranimyh deficiencies in those years. In spite of this, some time produced an export variant of the truck with the engine GAZ-51F, oversized tires, 8,25-20 and increased to 3000 kg capacity - GAZ-51V. Such machines are operated successfully in Finland, GDR, Hungary.At the GAZ-51 offers many models of buses for local posts. In 1949 began the production of bus GZA-651 Gorky plant buses (GZA). A year later, GZA changed its production of special vehicles, it was called Gorky Plant special vehicles (GZSA), while bus production was transferred to Pavlovo-on-Oka, where before there is a factory of Automotive tools (ZATI), which provides automotive enterprises in the country chauffeur tool and body reinforcement. The first buses PAZ-651 came out of the gate Pawlowski atobusnogo Factory (PAZ, currently OAO Pavlovsky Bus "), August 5, 1952. Later, based on bus mastered the production of cargo and passenger versions PAZ-651G, trains for the transport of bread and bakery products in the PAZ-657 van and wagon-axle trailers PAZ-658 van to transport clothes PAZ-661. In 1958, PAZ-651 had been upgraded. Model ESD-651A produced by the groove (until 1960) and Kurgan Bus Plant (KAVZ). The first bus KAVZ-651A was made on Jan. 14, 1958. Especially for him GAZ established landing gear: GAS-51I, GAZ-51IU (for buses in the export execute) and GAZ-51IYU (for buses in the export performed for areas with tropical climates). On the basis of KAVZ-651A manufactured freight and passenger KAVZ-655, a mobile clinic-diagnostic laboratory (PKDL). In 1971, together with the technical re-equipment of the plant was held and the current modification of the model 651A. The new bus has received an index KAVZ-651B, it had a metal body, reinforced chassis components, upgraded transmission components and suspension parts. KAVZ-651B was produced until 1973.In 1952 at the 101-meter Auto Repair Plant ("Central" (TSARZ) he started in 1954, now - the Federal State Unitary Enterprise "101 TSARZ") mastered the production of specialized vehicles on chassis of a GAZ-51 and GAZ-63. The first of these was the progenitor of the first domestic vahtovok a van type body - the bus AP-3. Better known bus AP-4, has received widespread nickname "sharapovets, due to a fire in 1954 destroyed a bus workshop in the series appeared only in 1956. Interestingly, the "sharapovets" has indeed become the most popular passenger bus used in the Army in 1960. In particular, and because its production has been transferred for a few military enterprises, among which TSARZ № 778 (Bender, Moldavian SSR), where buses AP-4 were produced until 1975. Based on them were made and propaganda machine AG-5.Buses bonnet layout similar to GZA-651 in the late 40's - mid 50's were made: repair plant in Tartu (APT) under the name TA-1 (used chassis with a long and 4000 mm base), auto-repair factory in Kaunas (Karzai Kauno Autoremonto Gamykla) branded KAG-1; road management workshops in Sochi (TSARM) - Outdoor excursion buses "Ritz" and "Crimea". Buses wagon-type offering car repair plants in Borisov (Barzu) and Riga (RAF). The first of these coaches made with curved glass on the side of the roof in 1953. The second issue has organized since 1955, RAF-251 buses and vans at its base on the elongated front and rear chassis GAZ-51 with reinforced springs and the front and rear lever hydraulic shock absorbers. Alma-Ata trust repair shops collecting public buses, popularly dubbed the "sandals". Creation of car-repair plant in Tosno, Kiev and other cities - "Chernihiv", "Kuban", "Celina," etc. - Also based on the chassis of the GAZ-51. Another of beskapotnyh projects in 1962, became a bus Combined Arms destination AB-8 with a wagon-type body on the chassis of the GAZ-51A. During the year, 101-bus design of TSARZ has successfully passed the departmental test, but serial production was not adopted because of the high cost of construction, so it was made only about 10 copies. In addition to the AV-8 in the period from 1959 to 1963 a single specimen collected on TsARZe bus type WEF and AVM-1.Based on GAZ-51 was built a number of specialized vehicles: sanitary PAZ-653 (in 1950), in the back of which was provided for four stretchers, or 13 seats (not counting the driver and sanitation); crane K-2 ,2-1E; Truck -brushing machine PU-8; gritter IP-4M; air sweeper PU-4 MS4 garbage, sewage AFM 2; Sweeping IP-20; station fuel filtration PSG-65; insulated vans KI-51 and P -378; vans wagon-TA-9 and its modifications; fire SGP-6 and AC-20 (51) 36 (SGP-36), tank for transportation of milk AC-18-51A and agricultural tanker OZ-1664 Grabovsky plant fire protection equipment (later Grabowski factory special vehicles, OAO GrAZ "); fire-pump SGP-5, PMG-12 PMG-21, ALG-17 fire motor ladder, pump Cars AH-20 (51) 21, AN-25, STA (51A), tank ATSU-20. Since 1949, the Mogilev Automobile Plant named after SM Kirov produced airfield maslozapravschik MH-51 (later, based on GAZ-51A - MZ-51m) for heating and refueling aircraft and mechanized filtered hot oil. Heating oil was carried out using an oil injector, located in front of the tank and coils. Since 1951, the Gorky plant sales engineering (GZTM) released a van to transport grain ha-2-51 (later Kha-2-57). Later on GZTM, extending the basic chassis mastered the production of vans: GZTM-952, isothermal GZTM-953 with the plating of steel sheet and GZTM-953D with a shell of duralumin sheets, furniture GZTM-954. Since 1962, the Circassian plant refrigeration machinery produced car-refrizhirator 1ACH. Bowser ATZ-2 ,2-51A was manufactured in 1966 Posevninskim plant "Avtozapchast and Odessa factory of automobile fuel assemblies."