There were no bast, and walked in leather boots, paved streets here since ancient times, commoners carried on a lively correspondence, and the princes called and chased away when they wanted. You can stand on the very spot where, according to tradition, thrown into the river krovozhadnogo pagan god Perun, swim in the lake on whose shore sing his charming song Sadko the merchant, to participate in a race of modern heroes of Novgorod. Here and only here you will fully feel the connection to time and primordial atmosphere of the Russian Land.
The oldest city in Russia, the cradle of Russian democracy, medieval center of trade and crafts, the largest partner of the Hanseatic League in XII-XVII centuries., A link between medieval Europe and the Rus and the line on the border of two civilizations - all of Veliky Novgorod.
The word "Novgorod" was first heard in the Chronicle under 859. The subject of scientific debate are still exact date of Novgorod and location of the "old" city. Recently prevailing view in which the role of the old city is given Mounds, located on the right bank of the Volkhov, 2 km from the modern city. It was there, probably, was the residence of Prince Rurik, designed in the IX. to reign in Novgorod, and laid the foundation of the Rurik dynasty. In the X century. the city was moved to a new place and named Novgorodom.Posle conquest of Kyiv Prince Oleg of Novgorod, led squads and the formation of a single state Kievan Rus', Novgorod became the second most important center of the new state. At one time there reigned Vladimir the Red Sun and his son Yaroslav the Wise. But already in 1136 in Novgorod becomes the principle of freedom of princes: from now on they can decide to invite a prince, and the duration of his stay in the Novgorod table depends on whether it will have on the disposition of Novgorod. Since the end of the XIII century prince invited. During this period, Veliky Novgorod - Novgorod Veche capital of the republic. Chamber decides on war and peace, shall adopt laws and agreements with other lands, as well as elect the Lord - Archbishop of Novgorod, who in the 15th century Novgorod Veche actual head of the republic. The end of the Novgorod republic falls on 1478, when the Muscovite army was victorious over Novgorod in the battle of the River Shelon. Novgorod and all its lands became part of the centralized state Muscovite Russia, whose territory of this increased 5 times! However, until the early 18th century, Novgorod did not lose value in an international trade and crafts, helped by a favorable geographical position at the crossroads of the Baltic countries in the Mediterranean ("from the Varangians to the Greeks") and through the Volga region to the east. Trade relations of Novgorod extended from Flanders and the Hanseatic cities until the Ugra land, and from Scandinavia to Astrakhan, and Constantinople.
Over the past century, the history of Novgorod was an eventful one. Here is a brief major events of the Earth Novgorod:
859 - Novgorod was first mentioned in "The Tale of Bygone Years" in connection with the famous route "from Varangians to the Greeks."
862 - Varangian Rurik vocation to reign.
1019 - Prince Yaroslav the Wise Novgorod confers independence from Kiev and the rights of a free city.
1044 - when Prince Vladimir starts building the stone walls of the Kremlin (Detinets).
1045 - in Detinets lay the first stone temple Sophia.
1136 - Novgorod becomes a "free in princes" and becomes a republic, headed by the Chamber.
1242 - Battle on the Ice, the victory of Novgorod, led by Prince Alexander Nevsky.
1471 - Battle of the River Shelon, the defeat of Novgorod from Moscow and started annexation of Novgorod to Moscow.
1478 - end of the Novgorod Republic.
1570 - destruction of Novgorod by Ivan the Terrible.
1611-1617 years. - Occupation of Novgorod by the Swedes.
1706 - foundation of the first in Novgorod Greco-Latin School Likhud brothers.
1727 - Novgorod becomes a regional center.
1862 - Opening of the monument "Millennium of Russia".
1865 - Opening of the Museum Society of Lovers of antiquity, the first provincial museum in the Russian Empire.
1941-1944. - Occupation by fascist troops.
1951 - during the archaeological excavations found first birch-bark scroll.
1997 - Novgorod awarded an honorary banner of the European Council for his achievements in economic and social development.
1999 - returned to the historical name of Novgorod - Novgorod.
Starting in the 50s of XX century in the city and at the Rurik Settlement are regularly conducted large-scale archaeological excavations, involving local and guest scientists and students and schoolchildren. During this time, it was found more than 2,000 lead seals, a large quantity of weapons, jewelry, household items and a variety of musical instruments. However, the main pride of Novgorod historians - over 1,000 birch-bark very different content and in excellent preservation. Among them there business letters, love letters, writing recipes, comments to the Bible, commercial calculations, and even doodles students. These findings point to a universal literacy of medieval Novgorod residents, including women and commoners, and help better understand the lifestyle of our ancestors. Fine, detailed work on wood, metal, leather and glass, the richness and abundance of items and the large number of birch-bark letters can not but admire. All this tells us about the past greatness, power and importance of Novgorod the Great - political, religious, commercial and cultural center of ancient Russia.
For centuries, Novgorod the Great - the leading partner of the Hanseatic League - the trade union of German cities, who controlled important trade routes through the Baltic and North Seas. Hansa trade with Russia was carried out through Novgorod - Russia further Hanseatic merchants did not go the whole product is selling in Novgorod, where it is transported to his advantage by Russian merchants. Partnerships Novgorod and the Hanseatic League, it is advantageous to both parties, governed by special treaties and statutes Hanseatic Court - "Skra." The contracts guarantee a safe prescribed trade. The most significant article was to provide "clean way" Hanseatic merchants in the land of Novgorod and Novgorod - the Baltic. Most important medieval Russian exports are furs and wax, honey and flax - were highly valued throughout Europe. Many western European monarchs and the aristocracy wore luxurious fur coats and hats of the Novgorod precious furs - ermine, sable, marten, candle wax from a Russian flickered in the huge altar of the Gothic cathedrals. From the West were imported expensive fabric, cloth, as well as non-ferrous metals used in many crafts, which is particularly famous for the Novgorod master.
Hanseatic merchants brought Greek, French, Spanish and, of course, Rhine wine. Imported and Baltic herring, salt, and in lean years, and bread.
In Novgorod, was one of the largest in Europe, the Hanseatic offices, located in Yaroslav's Court - the site of a medieval Marketplace. It consisted of Gothic and German courts. Surrounded by a fence of thick logs, courtyards reminiscent of a fortress. Inside the courtyard is all necessary for long-stay Hanseatic merchants in Novgorod infrastructure.
In 1980, the traditions of the medieval Hanseatic League, which is rightly called the prototype of the European Union, the Hanseatic League was founded in modern times. In 1993, Novgorod became the first Russian member of the Hanseatic League of New Age and report annually to its medieval tradition at International Hanseatic Days. In 2009 the city celebrated its 1150th anniversary and became the owner of XXIX International forum "Hanseatic Days of the New Time," which was held under the theme "Expanding the boundaries ...".