Russian cities: Veliky Ustyug
Great Ustyug - a district center, located 460 km northeast of Vologda on the left bank of the river. Sukhona, opposite the confluence of the river south of it, one of the most interesting cities in the Russian North. Over the past few years, almost entirely lost its charm a little provincial town as a result of extensive advertising in the media. Nevertheless, the abundance and diversity of cultural values more than justifies a visit to our city.
Great Ustyug is located in one of the most remote corners of the Vologda region at the junction of its border with Arkhangelsk and Kirov regions. Has the status of the city-reserve. The city stretches along the left bank of the river just above the Sukhona its confluence with the South. The fact that two rivers as reflected in the name of the city - Ust-South, and in his arms.
The union of two rivers has been a new name - the Northern Dvina. In the place of their confluence even in IX-X centuries. there was a Finno-Ugric Gleden settlement. In the XI century in the same Dvina ground offensive began Novgorod, and the beginning of XII century, almost the entire northern region into a vast colony of Novgorod. But in the first half of XII century, with the rise of Vladimir-Suzdal principality, began also to colonization, coming from the Volga-Oka basin.
As a result of the intense struggle between powerful neighbors, the Novgorod captured the upper and middle reaches of the river Sukhona, where they founded and Vologda Totma, and all downstream was in the hands of Vladimir-Suzdal. To consolidate its position at the junction of the largest rivers in the province - Sukhona, Southern and Northern Dvina River, they built a new city Ustyug a few kilometers from the city already existed Gleden, but on the other side of the river. Capricious river Sukhona, repeatedly changed its bed was to wash away coast, on which stood Gleden, and the inhabitants moved to the opposite, left bank of the river. And here arose the modern Ustyug.
The chronicles first mention Ustyug in 1207 among cities, Vsevolod the Big Nest cast in the lot of one of his sons. But, in all likelihood, the city was founded much earlier - the chronicler, stating the grounds in 1212 Michael the Archangel monastery, indicates that the site was chosen for "cautious scree" (outside the city walls).
Life is a distant outpost of Russian colonization was not easy. In 1218 was broke Ustyug Kama Bulgars, a year ustyuzhane participated in punitive response. Simultaneously with the colonization of the edge was his Christianization. About the Monastery of Archangel Michael has been said above, the Trinity Monastery near Gledena was founded, according to some, even in the 12th century, and in 1262 there was one - John the Baptist monastery.
Ustyug was devastated by the Tatars (thanks to the swamps), but the problems in his life enough already. Pro-Moscow orientation Ustyug firmly plagued Novgorod, since they interfere with control of a major river junction. What is especially Novgorod acted on my nerves is the fact that the upper and Sukhona coast of the Northern Dvina they already controlled and lacked only Ustyug to get their hands on all Sukhona Dvina waterway. Novgorod pillaged caravans ustyuzhanami, a neighborhood devastated Ustyug Novgorod. In short, life was in full swing. In 1386 Ustyug army composed of troops of Dmitry Donskoy is under the walls of Novgorod. After 12 years, the roles change.
In the second quarter of the 15th century feudal strife Ustyug affects between Moscow Prince Vasily II and Yuri Zvenigorodsky sons Vasily and Dmitry Shemyaka skew. In 1436, Vasily Kosoy besieged Gleden and after 2 months of siege, entered the city, vowing not to harm his defense. As usual, Basil, "transgressed the oath," and executed a lot of people, headed by the governor. And after two years the town was burned and devastated vyatichi on what his story and over. The other son, George, Dmitry Shemyaka, in 1450, took Ustyug, forced the inhabitants to swear allegiance and reigned for two years. The reign ended with the appearance of the walls of the city militia Grand Prince Ivan Vasilyevich. Shemyaka fled to Novgorod, where he soon died.
Played an important role in Ustyug second half of XV century, gathering under the authority of Moscow's northern lands. Ustiuzhskii shelves made more than a dozen military campaigns against the enemy of all kinds. In 1465, the "hunt people" went to war from Ustyug Ugra land and capturing there the princes, left a tribute. In 1471 there was a march to the Dvina Novgorod colony, culminating in a victorious battle in the river Shilenge. In 1472, without the involvement of ustyuzhan, with the Moscow State was annexed Permian land, and in 1489 - the land vyatichey. Wherever they used to go removal Ustiuzhskii lads - go to Siberia to the Ob, the Dvina went out into the ocean and fought with the Swedes, and traveled to the western borders - in 1503 "was kept Ivangorod from German."
Soon, however, the main occupation of local people was not a war, and trade - in 1553 at the mouth of Northern Dvina was entered by storm British ship. Thus was opened a new trade route to the West - from Vologda by Sukhona and Northern Dvina in the White Sea. Ustyug is on the way he held a key position. And in 1565, Ivan the Terrible includes a number of Ustyug oprichnina cities (only 19 pieces). In official documents as the second half of the XVI century to the name of the city begin to attach the epithet "the Great".
In the XVII century Great Ustyug became one of the richest cities in Russia, favored by the fact that he escaped the devastation of the war with the Poles in the Time of Troubles. It is also important that in Ustyug trade route to the West (on the Northern Dvina) to converge to an ancient way Pechora (on Vychegda in north-western Siberia). So great was the main Ustyug fur market of the country.
The rapid development of industry and commerce was accompanied, as usual, the process of class stratification. In 1632 and 1648 in the county's natural wave of popular uprisings. And here, at the end of the XVII century acquires a massive passive form of protest against the oppressors of the working masses, such as care in Siberia. In addition, the tsarist government, being interested in the speedy development of the rich lands of Siberia, gave settlers certain benefits. Thus was formed the Russian population of Siberia, a substantial portion of which were former residents of Ustyug.
But earlier in Siberia from Ustyug headed industrialists. Enterprising ustyuzhane before others went along and across the whole of Siberia from the Urals to the Pacific Ocean, and that gave rise to the top of the great geographical discoveries of Russian explorers in East Siberia and more. These discoveries began in 1648 campaign Semyon Ivanovich Dezhnev resident Ustyug. Going on a trip in small boats - "kochah" Dezhnev the world's first proved the existence of a strait between Asia and America, gave a detailed description of Chukotka and Anadyr founded and returned to Moscow, where he received what he deserved. Strait would later become known as the Bering Sea, but opened his Dezhnev 80 years earlier.
In 1649, another Ustyuzhanin Erofei P. Khabarov found the shortest route from Yakutsk to the Amur river, swam to the last to the sea, was seen by a description of land and "drawing the Amur River." Now named after him the city of Khabarovsk.
But this remarkable expedition ustyuzhan not over. In 1697, Vladimir Atlases discovered and described the Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands, opening a period of intensive study of the shores and islands of the Pacific Ocean. That the reports on Kamchatka Atlasov interest of Peter I, and he ordered an expedition to the "unknown lands". Was appointed chief of Vitus Bering. The expedition did not produce the desired results, but the second attempt was successful and made history as the Great Northern. Members of the expedition not only described the northern and eastern coast of Russia, but also paved the way to America along the Aleutian Islands. Interestingly, the last expedition Bering had as its starting point Vologda, and participants at two-thirds consisted of its inhabitants.
With the opening of a new trade route to Western Europe via the Baltic Sea, which was shorter and more comfortable, and the Northern Sea Route, Sukhona Dvina waterway lost its former importance. Because of the Russian North have been away from the new trade routes, undermining their economy. But the fate of Great Ustyug differed from the others. The reason for the prosperity of the city served as a well-developed numerous arts and crafts (such as silver black), as well as keep in touch with the rich lands of Siberia. And now, to stop trading with the West, Ustiuzhskii merchants turned to the East.
In 1745, Michael Nevodchikov explored the Aleutian Islands, in 1748, Bach's St. Athanasius with Yakut merchant Novikov saw previously unexplored northern shores of America, in 1764, merchant Vasily Shilov drew a map of the Aleutian Islands, and took an active part in their development. For this he received a medal from Catherine II "due diligence for the recovery of Kamchatka new islands."
As a result of all these "penalties" in 1789 was organized by the North-East company, which later became known as the Russian-American. This company owned all trades, located on the northern shores of America, the Aleutian, Kurile and other islands, "the North-Eastern Ocean lying." One of the first directors of the company is Michael Buldakov Ustiuzhskii merchant, son of Gregory Shelikof (one of the founders of the company).
But soon Russia by the Russian-Turkish wars, gets access to the southern seas. What turned into a benefit for the state as a whole, for the Grand Ustyug was the beginning of the decline - Siberian goods were to follow from the Kama to the Volga and further to the south. And when in 1869 opened the Suez Canal has lost its value and Kyakhta, which led to the ruin of Gdańsk Ustyug trading company. Not surprisingly, being built in the second half of the XIX century, railroads bypassed the town side and the Great Ustyug completely lost its former economic importance and greatness.
From the XVII century. Great Ustyug became a center of arts and crafts. He has expanded iron, colorful enamel, black on silver, wood bark (caskets, tueski) binding to tin-type pictures of frost ("frost on the tin"), chasing sewing beads, manufacturer of tiles for lining furnaces.
In Ustyug preserved monuments of church architecture. This is only built the XVII and XVIII centuries. The oldest architectural monument of the Great Ustyug - Assumption Cathedral (1619-1622 gg.). It is located within the central complex Ustiuzhskii churches - on the bank of the river Sukhona, where are also the Cathedral of St. Procopius (1668), the Cathedral of St. John Ustyug (1656-1663 gg.) Alexis, Metropolitan of the church (end of XVIII century.) Epiphany or Vlas'evskii (1687-1689 gg.), etc.
One of the main architectural ensembles in Great Ustyug - located in the heart of a complex of buildings of the monastery of Archangel Michael (1653). It includes a cathedral of the Archangel, three churches, refectory, cells and other structures.
In the Great Ustyug many monuments of secular architecture. It is mainly residential buildings XVII - early XIX centuries. - Shilov merchants' mansions, Kuznetsova, Zakharov et al
In the Great Ustyug acts Historical and Architectural Museum-Reserve, which has a priceless collection of ancient art and crafts.
Of considerable interest is the complex Trinity Gleden Monastery (1659) on the opposite bank Sukhona at the confluence of the rivers in its south. On the opposite bank of the river is an ancient Sukhona Dymkovo village with churches, Demetrios (1700-1708 gg.) And Sergius of Radonezh (1739-1747 gg.).
Over its long history of an ancient, extremely attractive stately appearance, integrity of the architectural ensemble, the beauty of the landscape, a peaceful environment Great Ustyug declared Russian homeland of Santa Claus, where his patrimony. On its territory is home of Santa Claus and comfortable cottages, recreational center with sauna and swimming pool. For relaxation, there is all necessary equipment - skis, sleds, boats, fishing rods, inflatable mattresses. For physical training and sports stadium with a running track, football field, volleyball and basketball fields. Tourists have a vehicle (bus) for city tours and other activities. You can ride horses, make a New Year's gift shop in Santa Claus, the cause of dance around the tree, to take part in numerous competitions.
In the town of Veliky Ustyug can visit the city residence of the winter wizard, which includes the workshop, gift shop and Post Office Santa Claus. You can talk and be photographed with Grandpa in the throne room, send postcards and letters to family and friends with a special stamp and signature of Ded Moroz.
Labels: Russian cities