Collapse of the economy in Russia

In the quagmire pseudomarket reforms [1] 

Based on their model of regulation of reproduction processes - "hunger - not my aunt," fighters "damned" past led by Gaidar argued that the less money, the faster they allegedly spinning. Like, if there is an urgent need, for example, dairy cows grow for one or two months instead of the usual number of years, the tractor to collect in minutes, even in winter wheat grown in the snow and collect several harvests a year, and so therefore, less is inflation, stood on the fighters, without explaining what kind of inflation in question - the price, the money or the cost of production, and why it should be in this fall. Therefore reformers directive tied allowable size issue ruble masses not to commodities, that is has the full acquisition of the buyers in the back, and the old way - to the foreign exchange reserves, which in 1992 was scanty. Therefore RUB exchange rate as set srednepotolochnomu produced about 10% of GDP, while the lowest 70% of the need. As a result of an artificially created shortage of money rolled up commodity production, and taxes to the state almost came. But even when the money supply increased slightly, Gaidar's followers continued to hold inscribing them vicious policy, vvergnuvshuyu country into a permanent financial crisis, and from time to time generating economic crisis. Detail all of this is considered in the article "the economic crisis in Russia - a product of her chronic money dystrophy.

How to heal a sick body? "(Section 3).
The Russian government, in the results of its financial policy is mired in debt, in 1996, the IMF promised to issue a credit, but under certain conditions. It was, in particular, the replacement of export duties on oil and gas excise tax, which caused tremendous damage to the country (see Sec. 1, "the role of the IMF in the Central Committee"). But most importantly, what was targeted credit - destroy the power of the country. Its total losses of the business "of the electrical" was to finally ditch the manufacturing sector of the economy and ultimately turn the country into a raw materials appendage of the West. Details of the preparation of this action are described in the "Trojan horse for Russia." Planned for execution in Nizhny Novgorod prepared a special troops led by Boris Nemtsov, who landed in Moscow in early 1997 Troopers several years preparing sent to Nizhny Novgorod U.S. citizen Gretchen Wilson. It is officially being an employee of one of the divisions of the World Bank, and by some accounts was an employee of the CIA. I suppose, for cover, it was purchased Balakhna Paper Mill "Volga", which she had ruined, probably in someone's best interests. I note that in the years in the interest of Western competitors ruined many domestic enterprises, including that manufactured quality paper, in particular, the Vyborg Pulp and Paper Mill (see Sec. 1 "Battle of Stalingrad, Leningrad Region"). Number of "commandos" was trained in the U.S.. Nemtsov was appointed Minister of Fuel and Energy, and one of two first deputy prime ministers, the other first deputy prime minister appointed Chubais. Some of their actions, as noted above, section 1 of the story of the book. Nemtsov, in particular, trying to bring under privatization was interested in him "Rosneft", decapitated its leadership, breaking the long effective operation of this, there was still the state, the company (see the article in Sec. 1). In June 1997, Nemtsov managed to put at the head of RAO "UES of Russia" is still one of the Nizhny Novgorod "commando" - Boris Brevnov, a man far removed from power. And soon there was a group in the Ministry of Energy of young "managers" of the United States, the envoys of the World Bank, which will have access to all documents, including secret, a few months on the money this financial organization concocted the concept of the "reform" of RAO "UES of Russia" (see . "Trojan horse for Russia"). It is this concept and subsequently guided Anatoly Chubais, the sprawling country's national grid. Brevnov did not succeed. In the months after his appointment, he has spent on its own needs considerable amount of money. The incident was published in mid-December 1997 in Section 2 of the article "Drama" Energy Day "at the Bolshoi Theater." Article was discussed at a plenary session of the State Duma and members of the Accounts Chamber of the Russian Federation requested to look into this case (for details, see the article "Why Brevnov dog could fly the presidential plane? '.).
Criminal proceedings were instituted, the money Brevnov allowed to return, after which he moved to the U.S., where its expertise applied in the infamous American company "Enron" was created in the 2005 energy disaster in the United States and Canada.
Were disappointing Brevnov replaced by Anatoly Chubais, who had remained first deputy prime minister and prepared all the conditions for the 1998 default. Chubais for 10 years managed to bring proplachenny World Bank commissioned to design the result - the collapse of the institutional and technological unity of the EEC. In the coming years we can expect major disruptions in the electricity and heat supply. How it all happened and the dangerous consequences of past events, described in detail in Section 2. In order to legitimize their actions,
Chubais managed in 2001 to achieve the adoption of the government decree on the reform of the power industry, and in 2004 - corresponding to the Law "On Electric Power Industry". This act violates a number of other federal laws, as well as many of the provisions of the Constitution of the country, as was described for the first time in detail in the article "anti-state conspiracy in RAO" UES of Russia "or Bomb for the president." The first attempt to push through a law "On Electricity" was made in 2002, which, among other things, provisions of Article 71 of the Constitution. Under this provision, the federal power are administered, ie, the management of the Russian Federation.
A law ordered to destroy the EEC power holding divided into functional parts, and fully privatized power plants, resulting in a unified energy system disappeared, and it became impossible to continue execution of the said constitutional provision. The publication was briefed President Vladimir Putin, and he created a commission to review the bill. Chairman of the committee appointed governor of Tomsk region Victor Kress, who invited me to participate in its work. But then this one prevented. Since the government decision to abolish the RAO "UES" and separate it into smaller companies also violated the property rights of shareholders, I bought 10 shares of the power and standing of its minority shareholder, filed in the Supreme Court of a lawsuit to the government. Judge, not a strong case, the claim was rejected. The second attempt to stop the "reform" I took the fall of 2004 after the adoption of the Law "On Electric Power Industry." As a shareholder of RAO "UES" I again complained of a violation of my property rights guaranteed by the Constitution, but now the Constitutional Court. However, in this case, nothing has been achieved. The court's decision was also completely unproven, although the adoption of the Act has been violated more than 10 articles of the Constitution. Third attempt to stop the collapse of the EEC I made in March 2005, published an article entitled "Reform Chubais has suffered a collapse in the U.S.. Allowed it to him after this bluff we next? '. The article was sent officially to the chairman of the Government Mikhail Fradkov, and he did not sign an executive order on issue of shares of new energy companies until his retirement in 2007, so managed to keep the elimination of RAO "UES" for almost three years. Now there is visible only while professionals collapse of power supply. After all, the reasons given in favor of Chubais reforms in the power, were of the devil. All this was discussed in detail in Section 2. The question is, why do the authorities went on about people who are not well-versed in any economy, nor in the power industry, and the business community through business organizations, which is a member of the presidium Chubais, unconditionally and to their own detriment supported these destructive intentions? One of the reasons - the reformers imposed false notion of a market economy and, in particular, about the competition. After all, the need to promote competition in electricity generation for investment substantiated section of RAO "UES of Russia" by activity - the "competitive generation" and the transmission of electricity
. Competition can only occur with a significant - 30-40% - an excess of products. However, excessive production to market is not possible, because its implementation can not exceed the effective demand. Therefore, its owners or leave, if possible, to another market, or go bankrupt. Recall how each January 1 burn unsold expensive Christmas tree. Knowing this indisputable market axiom in large and medium commercial production, is very expensive in the long their return, the manufacturers of a product, not to go out of business due to overproduction, after studying the potential demand for it. The scope of large and medium-sized businesses will inevitably doomed to be monopolized.
Competition occurs only in small business, for example, on the same markets. Indeed, in this area the production costs are relatively low and quickly recouped. Therefore, I wish to test themselves in this business is always up. If, for example, the cobbler will bake cakes and burned up, he will be replaced by new wishing to quickly make money. That explains the presence of these circumstances in a small business redundancy constant supply of goods and services and, accordingly, competition, and the fact that there are changes every year to 30-50% of participants. As for the power grid, it is an objectively existing monopoly, so-called natural. Moreover, it organizes the competition is impossible and also because of the specific construction and operation of the EEC, which is explained in detail, in particular, in the article "anti-state conspiracy in RAO" UES of Russia "or bomb for President" (Section 2). Unfortunately, the common features of the power system and its benefits, because of which it was impossible to destroy its organizational and technological unity, poorly conceived in the legislative and executive authorities, took the decision to "reform" electricity. A few experts, well-versed in issues of system construction and operation of UPS could not popular to laymans terms, explain the country's leadership to allow partition of RAO "UES of Russia" and the adoption of a very dangerous and contrary to the Constitution, the Law "On Electric Power Industry." As a result, more or less controlled by the government so-called natural monopoly is now turned into an uncontrolled monopoly, the subject of which is permitted by law, including conspiracy to fix prices. In the last 10 years, the energy holding will become a tool to extort money from consumers. Growth rates for electricity more than doubled ahead of the rise in prices for industrial products, four times - on the food, 6 times - for agricultural products and labor. In this overpayment for electricity reached an estimated half of the annual revenue of RAO "UES" (see "Left Right Chubais affairs", "Mafioso FOREM", "Obituary for the death of RAO" UES of Russia ", etc. in Section 2) . The final article of section 2 of the reader also learns that the official master plan the deployment of new power projects, the development of which ended in the "reform" of RAO "UES of Russia" is a randomly drawn card, and planned to build new power plants, the total capacity of which about half overpriced, lack of relevant business plans.
Also unknown what happened to the money received from the sale of new generation companies. So their new owners for government-approved investment programs now asking a significant budget. In 2002, a new order was implemented to further collapse of the Russian economy: a grant of U.S. government agency USAID was composed flawed concept another reform, this time - technical regulation. The concept is the basis of the new law of the same name that has been canceled mandatory national standards regulating the quality of the products, have deprived the Russian economy for decades to create the regulatory framework and thereby redress.
Details and implications of the "reforms" are discussed in section 3, in which the solutions for the conclusion of the economy out of the economic crisis. This, in particular, the publication "How to transform the country's geostrategic energy into a means to save her," "The welfare state as a national idea. And also for the oligarchs "," Taxation for the innovation economy "," Chaos in the economic legislation and its dangerous consequences. How to fix them? "Etc. Having obtained the basic guidelines for the "navigation", the fullness of which is provided by the table of contents of the book, the reader can easily start reading it, moving through the pages in any direction.

 Instead prologue 

The Soviet Union died at midnight July 26, 1993 "Business World", July 27, 1993 In 1990, three days old Soviet exchange large bills for new ones that shook the Soviet Union, was a product of the imagination chrezmernoro izvectnoro initiator of this action. He believed that our money was the object of sabotage kapitalicricheskih sharks, intending to save the Soviet large bills for further economic intervention. Result togo exchange was adequate effect mylnoro bubble. But he delivered mnozhectvo hassle and nepriyatnoctey, particularly the elderly and the sick, as well as living in villages and remote areas where no facilities Sberbank.
 However, who then thought about the people? It seems that today the whole thing repeats. However, despite repeated assurances suddenly announced retirement ctapyx notes and substantially reduce their exchange for new ones with Russian symbols of 1993, I think, is now facing more serious, perhaps even katactpoficheskimi consequences - economic, political and social. In the first place - for Russia. And here are the reasons of principle. First, the exception to the rules of the exchange of the ruble treatment ctpan CIS (exchange does not affect the population of these crpan) and the isolation of Russia monetary miogokratno increase barriers to trade between parts of the once edinoro economic basis. Therefore in the coming days because otsutcrviya many "fraternal" republics as sobcrvennoy currency and new, in 1993, money from the Russian symbolism commodity production there will rapidly phased out. Since the decline in rossiyskoro tovarnogo proizvodcrva (it serodnya cocravlyaet vsero 66.7% from the 1990 level of the year) by 60% caused by the disruption of economic cooperation between enterprises because of the collapse of the USSR, the planned action in the near future is fraught with new sharp decline of Russian goods themselves . Indeed, about half of the volume of production in the USSR was made on cooperation with other Soviet republics. It can be argued that the death did not occur Covetckogo Union Dec. 9, 1991 - collusion in Bialowieza Forest brought only his agoniyu. At midnight on 26 July. G. (1993) was cut last important artery - the ruble currency between ego chacryami than surgeons completed the conspirators started in the Bialowieza Forest. But the hands, feet, rolova, separated from the body, deprived of blood flow and a single nervous system, live samocroyatelno only fantacricheskih novels. Therefore, the CIS, which forced the Soviet Union to become pregnant - a stillborn child. Secondly, much of the population of the former Soviet republics, with no belly of its currency and the hope to maintain the ruble zone, suddenly obezdenezhit and turn into beggars. Including 20-25 million Russian speakers, who dislike the part kopennogo population may increase. As a result of these ctpanax much authority as the fall of the Russian authorities, as well as Russia, which will contribute to the realization of such ctpan byvshero "ctarshero brother" and involving them in the wrong for Russia's influence. An example is the President of Kyrgyzstan, which secretly from the Commonwealth, like Russia Pravitelcrvu coined catfish. Immediately followed by sanctions from almost all CIS countries. But catfish - not a ruble. Will fight for rubles. In the next few days should be expected massovogo inflow to Russia to exchange banknotes ctapyx new nation rich. And some make themselves at the capital, as well as in the three days that once shocked the Soviet Union. Third, the sudden unilateral cancellation covmectno used cash - is robbery partners, as forcibly npevraschaet ruble country bankrupt. These policies are unlikely to contribute pocty international authority of Russia, but that it was clear from the scare business sotrudnichectva with our country. And what is to blame for thousands torrovtsev who arrived in the same Moscow from CIS countries and sold for money ctapye Muscovites fruits and vegetables that are not available in stores? Their Saturday July 24 actually robbed, miloctivo allowing exchange only 15,000 rubles, which is only enough for the trip. And what if they manage to exchange money in one day, as prescribed by the Central Bank mockingly. It should be stressed that the cancellation of old banknotes without sharing detriment of all private activity, including with the participation of foreign capital. And not only in Russia, but throughout the former Soviet Union and beyond, because due to the poor organization of reciprocal payments in the bank Tsentralnoro many entrepreneurs are forced to operate with cash. Confiscation of their money - continued gylagovskoy policy ever memorable times. What kind of civilized market relations can thus speak? And who wants to then have business with us? Fourth, the authority of the ruble will be a crushing blow. Preserved until today its status as the single currency in the territory of the former USSR, it gradually, slowly but penetrated beyond. Ruble becomes necessary for business as an international means of payment. However, while not on the same scale as the U.S.. But the trend is discernible. This interest of the ruble - a consequence of the stabilization of its currency exchange. Confiscation of old banknotes and limitation of space ruble settlements due falsely understood immediate benefits will terminate the process. This situation may happen again. By the way, July 24 Exchange immediately reacted reduced rate - up to 1051 rubles per dollar. A number of commercial shops selling dollars to 1900 old rubles. Fifth, the events associated with the exchange of money, once again showed the Russian people, that even in a relatively simple matter, as the organization of monetary exchange, the president and the government of ignoring their concerns. This will undoubtedly lead to a sharp drop in new authority powers. I think if the displeasure of non-Russian population the government to "care less" then the mood of his people he will finally be counted in the next few days. After all, many people received regular salaries and pensions old money - they are like a mockery given before the exchange - July 26 left without means of subsistence. The majority, and it is about 80% of the population, do not pull up to the date of payment pay, pensions, scholarships. A kogda can exchange money - neizvectno. After all, it will require to stand in long lines to all, including the elderly and the sick. Morning of 26 July in the institutions of the Savings Bank of Moscow for the exchange of new money was not there, and there was nothing in the stores give change. As a result, again due to ill-considered actions and questionable morality to some purpose public figures suffer a lot of people. The question is, why in 1992 to print new banknotes to withdraw after one year? Or they were released deliberately to influence the CIS? B-sixths, replacement bill would not solve the Russian financial problems. You will want to isolate themselves from the iron curtain near abroad and move to full self-service. And the truth is: the ruble is required in all countries - the former Soviet Union because they have to share with each other their goods, because no one else in the world these products (in bulk) are not needed. For this reason, the ruble has traditionally remains a common measure of value and a single tender in the entire former Soviet Union. Despite the Ukrainian karbovanetses, Belarusian "hares", etc. money. On that ill-fated Saturday columnist radio "Liberty" reported numerous calls Muscovites bureau of radio, expressed his outrage at the angry started by shares. First people complained to the party committees. Today, they have to go to an organization funded by the U.S. Congress. Russian authorities have a lot to think about. How much can you try the patience of men? And one more stroke, further evidence of the qualitative organization of the event. The country has tens of millions of workers. Is it inappropriate to be exchanged (if it is really necessary) to organize at the enterprises and institutions in order to avoid the loss of working time standing in line at savings? It is hoped that President Yeltsin and the Supreme Soviet still suspend harmful and dangerous actions of the Central Bank and the government.

 The model of market reform: a faulty "mouse" in the maze

 Section 1 as "reformers" brought the country to default

 Trojan horse for Russia "Pravda five," August 1997 If on the Russian economy judged by its continuously deteriorating condition, then what is happening to her, slyly called reform, resembles a long siege and destruction of the once mighty fortress. And on the side of the besiegers are not only numerous U.S. advisers and curators of the International Monetary Fund, the substitute decision-making body of the country of former times - the Central Committee, they help inside and numerous members of the "fifth column." However, undertaken last 5.5 years storms did not give the desired result: the Russian economy, although it is in the money blockade still alive. So now is a new attack on the directive and the IMF is preparing the second ring of the blockade - to stifle the country's energy. First it tested, apparently to test the reaction of society, the new management of RAO "UES of Russia" and the Ministry of Energy has already spent in two areas - Kemerovo and Astrakhan: it because of debts generated cash blockade halved the power supply. So "wise" surgery artificially induced money dystrophy economy (not consumers - there is no problem of non-payment) will be the brilliant conclusion of "shock therapy", which is entrusted with the new generation of the last Yeltsin-era young and worthy successor Gaidar, among which is listed former Nizhny Novgorod governor Boris Nemtsov. What happened and what is happening in the last 15 years in our country develops in a fairly coherent system of many interrelated events, which in themselves do not happen. And all was conceived not long ago. As the Soviet Union suffered the fate of ancient Troy In the early 1980s, then a member of the Policy Planning Council of the U.S. State Department and the U.S. Secretary of State, the infamous Zbigniew Brzezinski, the U.S. administration gave its report, "The Game Plan. Geostrategic framework of the struggle between the U.S. and the USSR." This report is a practical guide to the collapse of the Soviet Union. But he was subsequently suitable for Russia. It was based on a clear strategic vision: "decentralized empire (Soviet) - means to cause it to collapse ... any significant decentralization, even only in the economic sphere, will increase the potential separatist sentiment among the citizens of the Soviet Union's non-Russian nationalities. Economic decentralization will inevitably mean political decentralization ". All this meant the intention to split a single cooperative Soviet economy to the "sovereign" of that without technological and organizational relationships will gradually disappear, and that will inevitably lead to the collapse of the political unity of the country. In fact, it was a continuation of the "cold war" to the bitter end, but in other ways and means. And the aim of this war, as stated in 1959 by the law № 86-90, adopted by the U.S. Congress, is "the dismemberment of the Soviet monster by 22 states." That is, it was not only the division of the Soviet Union, but also Russia, which is going to be separated from Siberia, the Far East, Idel-Ural Cossacks. Apparently, then forgotten about Chechnya and other autonomous regions of the Caucasus. But later corrected the intention. Everything that happened after that with the Soviet Union and now what is happening on the same scenario with Russia Brzezinski striking resemblance mythologized history of the Trojan wooden horse. According to her, after several years of failed siege of Troy, the ancient Greeks were deposited in one night, suddenly, secretly went to sea, declaring thus, as it were the end of the war. But before the walls left a huge volume wooden figure horse. Triumphant Trojans wondered about this, and some, I suppose, the local security officers tried to reason with the citizens to check the interior of the "gift." However, some otherworldly forces intervened, and the Trojans are not looking a gift horse in the mouth and pushed him to the city. A detachment was sitting inside the Greeks. At night, they opened the door, cut the guard at the gate and let the Greek army in the fortress, which secretly and quietly - there was no radar - swam at this time to Troy. Such concerted actions were made possible also thanks to some otherworldly forces. As a result, the Greeks destroyed the city of Troy, and she was gone forever. With the proclamation of the Soviet Union's "perestroika" having favorable conditions for the execution of plans for his demise. As in the story of Troy, was given the sign of the supposedly ended in the world, "Cold War" However, U.S. troops sailed from Europe. However, domestic "reformers" personally dragged into the country prearranged "wooden horse" Brzezinski. Euphoria and thoughtlessness razrushitelstva that gripped the Soviet high and the party leadership last years of the Soviet Union, heavily substituted by sermons on the restructuring led to the collapse of the state and its key pillars - the Communist Party, as well as security forces: the army, the Interior Ministry, intelligence and counterintelligence. In exchange did not create an equivalent. Voice warning about the contents of the child "Trojan horse", were ignored. He jumped out of zakordonnye fighters "invisible front" have done a great job of destabilizing the Soviet Baltic republics, the Caucasus and Central Asia, as well as to create in them the "Popular Front", demanding sovereignty and independence. In this, they actively supported numerous, somehow suddenly people of the Russian "democrats". But they are not limited only to support ambition bursting to the power of individual national and nationalist groups, which led to the famous bloody events. To speed up the collapse of the Soviet Union as they were provoked Chechen "revolution" and Russian miners strike. Actively conducted and the corresponding ideological propaganda. As you know, the history of the Trojan Soviet era ended quartering already broken USSR sentence Belovezhskaya "troika".

 Russian siege

However, "Brzezinski horse" designed for long-term strategic geopolitics of the United States, in which the Soviet Union was only the outer fortification. Therefore Making of "horse", like the space station "Mir", permanently, to work on a rotational basis with the relief crew, solving various geopolitical objectives. Current - expansion of the U.S. presence in Europe by promoting NATO to Russia's borders. Indeed, if the "Cold War", is said to have ended and the Warsaw Pact fell asleep in the Lord, then what else can you justify the existence of actually US-led NATO military alliance, which enter new countries, while the rest are willing to pre-"partners for peace"? Russian President can endlessly enjoy "special" relations with NATO, but this country will have no more than a stay of Boris in his beloved sauna. To move to the East (the new "Drang nach Osten"?) To maintain the reputation of Russia as a scarecrow. How so? By creating in her precarious situation - political, economic, social, fraught with the capture of nuclear weapons by criminal structures. Frighten Europe and a return to power of the Communists, and the likelihood of their expansion into neighboring countries. However, maintaining the reputation frightened by the destruction of the political unity of the Russian economy and solved another important task - the destruction of Russia as a potentially great, and power capable to withstand future geopolitical aspirations U.S. intent to control the world. Of course, what has happened and what is happening has been possible largely due to the connivance and incompetence of the Russian leadership, among whom were and are, perhaps because of their intelligence and involuntary, executors and accomplices planned the destruction of the country. Its political collapse began with a call for autonomous republics to take as much sovereignty as they can "eat." Therefore, some of the current president of the RF subjects can now threaten to leave Russia, if the federal government intends to use this power for good, even people. An example of this is the head of North Ossetia. And the story of Chechnya? But the main emphasis was placed on the outside of economic decentralization in Russia, that Brzezinski inevitably lead to complete its decentralization policy. This is the so-called economic reform. As its next manned basis of the "wooden horse" through the obedient Russian leaders (many "reformers" training abroad) the country was imposed vicious market model, from which long ago abandoned the world. It market absolutes: proclaimed complete freedom of market relations and non-interference in their country. That is, it was about anarchy, cunningly called "liberalism." In this case, the anarchy of market relations subordinated even such non-market areas as health, education, science, culture, the level of which depends on the existence and development of society, and, consequently, the state itself. Conductors and performers of Russia imposed a wild market model did not come out of the economic viability and social interests, and using the general confusion and disorganization of control caused by the collapse of the USSR and the lack of a civil society, guided only detrimental to Russian political and ideological goals, remarkably similar to the doctrine of Brzezinski. In this case, again in favor of contrived ideology, this time a pseudo, have been ignored the interests of the majority of the population, which is forced into begging and polunischenstvo. This could go on not only an extremely immoral people, who, I suppose, to be selected specifically, but not particularly glittering mind, unless they are employed - the "fifth column" - artists conceived. After all, when the market satisfies the aspirations of a small, but far from perfect, of society, inevitable social explosion and collapse of the state. That is why in the same United States whose advisers got out of the "horse Brzezinski" market relations strictly regulated by government regulation, in combination with an indicative (recommendation) planning. It is done like managing traffic, the vast potential chaos of competition (who quickly gets to the right place) of its members - both drivers and pedestrians, to a considerable extent prevent possible accidents and casualties. But, other than the State where the anarchy of market relations within their organizations pressured and large corporate association. By the way, the creation of such transnational associations, in particular the financial and industrial groups, we even legally Stalling formidable obstacles. How, in the framework of the "reforms", in addition to creating barriers to the production of transnational associations, realizing the economic decentralization of Russia? She was supposed to start the collapse of the Soviet Union, as in this case was disconnected once united Cooperation Soviet economy. Indeed, in the recent past, half of the production was done by Russian enterprises cooperation with subcontractors from other Soviet republics. A major measures to further alienate (decentralization) of the Russian economy were general liberalization (in Russian - anything goes), of all things, and landslide, for a pittance, uncontrolled privatization, leading to large-scale criminalization of government, business and society. The degree of criminalization of power demonstrates this fact. As recently reported radio "Freedom", according to opinion surveys conducted some time ago in St. Petersburg, law enforcement and security agencies rely only 2-3 percent of the population of this city. And the level of corruption in the government Russia lost the world championship only a few Latin American and African countries. At privatization, which was seen as an end in itself, was destroyed and cooperative process chains have between Russian companies and even within many of them. Contrary to the interests of the country and its security strategic systems such as energy and telecommunications, as well as a number of defense enterprises, partially captured by foreign companies that do not intend to develop them. But the main hope for economic decentralization Russia rested, apparently, to create the country's cash deficit, which was to dramatically reduce production and lead to the curtailment of trade between the members of the Federation, and, consequently, to the final destruction of the unity of the economic basis of Russia's political superstructure. To do this, the "reformers" proclaimed the freedom of pricing, promising that all go up no more than three times, four times. The market, they say, will regulate everything and protect. Otherwise, the president promised to be Anna Karenina. Meanwhile, the market - it is only an indicator of supply and demand, like a float in a tank of the toilet. And I have to be connected to the regulator, which acts as a man. Therefore, in countries with a civilized market economy prices are regulated by the state and corporate industry associations. For example, the European Union agreed on the cost of weekly agricultural products than the competition moved to the area to reduce production costs and improve quality. The full "freedom" of the market in the West feel some Russian enterprises: for trying giveaway metals against them instituted antidumping processes. A large Western corporations, including financial and industrial groups, producing about half of global output, sell it to them also sets a fixed price, which excludes anarchy. As you know, the gamble with price liberalization turned landslide inflation, increased from the beginning of 1992 to more than 10-12 thousand times. And it continues to grow, and at a much greater rate than his official statistics. At the same pension as compared to 1991 increased by about only 3,000 times the average salary - in 4000 again, all the savings of workers crumbled, and on the brink of poverty and below it was about 70 per cent of the population. But the salary top leaders of the state has increased over the years, about 15-20 thousand times without the privileges that accrue to them or a gift, or for a nominal fee (house, tours, etc.). And some of them for "special" services and still get fabulous advances and royalties, including the currency, written by someone else instead of them books that few people buy, or not written. Should pay attention to one of the features of "reform." It seems far from accidental. As you know, privatization began a year after price liberalization. Increased during this time inflation is "eaten" as a means of business and personal savings. So production teams could not buy the means of production, and even get them in exchange for discounted vouchers, which are also shamelessly vytsyganivali numerous investment funds, soon waved goodbye handle cheated on the whole citizens. Two "Volga" on the voucher promised Anatoly Chubais, they have not received, and taken possession of considerable stake in Russian banks and foreign firms to invest in getting to them almost free property does not want to. Moreover, the Russian banking capital is clearly not able to digest eaten: it is fragmented and in total is relatively small, being equal to the assets of Western banks, which close on the first indicator of a hundred. But the reasons for the relative scarcity of domestic banks' capital and its separation from the following industrial. When prices rose landslide, current value produced commodities, as well as the gross domestic product, with correspondingly increased (although volumes significantly decreased), the purchasing power of the ruble to fall, and the extra money in circulation to maintain the balance of commodity and money supply, T. is to be able to buy the goods produced, released less and less. "Live" money - in total cash and non - in recent years do not exceed about 13 percent of annual GDP (for comparison: in Germany, the money supply is in relation to GDP, 30 percent, and in the U.S. 120 (!) Percent). To buy it, the available money supply should result in 7-8 times a year. But money is spinning so fast, only if they speculate: to lend money for a short time at high interest rates. So basically banks and act. Because of the budget deficit is their main customer, the Russian government itself, selling short-term bonds at high interest rates. Even on these bonds is paid 35-40 per cent and above were paid to approximately 200 percent per annum. Proceeds of government lenders are very high. Just last year, the internal debt of the Government of the Russian Federation on bonds increased from 80 trillion. to 237.1 trillion. rubles, and the budget of these horrible things ... 35.3 trillion. rubles. The rest of the money went to pay off the old bonds and pay interest on it, an average of more than half the cost of the bond, that is about 120 trillion. rubles, which this year is lacking in the federal budget. So the government is continuously expanding digs a hole under the state in the form of a pyramid borrowing - internal and external debt, which exceeded for many quadrillions rubles. As for financial speculation, called "services", the percentage of GDP more than half, while commodity products account for only about 40 percent. And in the industrial sector, through which alone can grow the social wealth, and, therefore, appropriate money, money, after working capital eaten up by inflation, it turned out, damn little. Which of the banks in the presence of government bonds so attractive gingerbread and scarcity of equity capital will invest in industry and waiting at the risk of one to several years of their return? So last year through the bank accounts of Russian enterprises was only 22 per cent of the money supply, or 64 trillion. rubles. And they made the product ... by 1274000000000000. rubles, having, thus, in the back, only 5 percent of the issued "on-mountain" commodity volume. Although production compared to 1991 at constant prices fell by more than half, the artificially created shortage of money could not yet completely strangle the Russian economy. And in the vast merit "red" directors. They, and in the past do not really dispose of the money, went to barter, now make up half of the turnover. In other words, the country with the participation of the authorities at all levels created dynamically changing system of mutual trade and resource supply. However, in contrast to the former State Supply, distributes its products directly to consumers, today she gets to destination through numerous exchange. After lining up for barter multi-chain exchange of one commodity for another, often sewing type of soap ... Even the salary is almost universally issued mostly food and consumer goods, also obtained by barter. This time of primitive barter society significantly reduces the rate of commodity circulation and leads to an increase in prices by 30-40 per cent. That is a very significant factor in inflation. "Live" money paid for only 5-10 percent of production, ie within the existing cash flow businesses. And the remaining approximately 40 percent of turnover, "paid" reciprocal debts and substitute money - bills. It is also explained by these circumstances and tax arrears to the budget and not the universal concealment of income. Of course, someone is stealing, but you can not steal 90 percent of the country's production. Summing up the five and a half years of "reform" of the Russian economy, one can also argue that by wire strangulation ensure its full decentralization Brzezinski is not possible, and the exchange of goods, even half as much as in the past, but is also almost entirely kind in the country remains. However, the successes achieved by the besiegers, and considerable. Thus, due to the increase of tariffs for transportation and no money economy of the Far East was largely isolated from the rest of the country, while the economy and population of the North disappear. Changing relative prices, mainly in the transport and energy resources, coupled with extortionate taxes made the most of Russian goods uncompetitive and weak level of demand, which also contributed to the decline of trade between the regions. And significantly increased inequality in the country socio-economic status. Thus, according to the government's Working Center for Economic Reform, now 17 regions out of 89 existing produce 58 percent of GDP, with only one Moscow gives 13.1 percent, while, for example, the much-vaunted Nizhny Novgorod region of 1.7 per cent, or almost as much as Yakutia. Extremely disproportionate and tax payments to the federal budget: Moscow - 26 percent, St. Petersburg - 3.7, Moscow Region - 4.8, 2.9 Samara, Nizhny Novgorod is the same - 2.7 percent, etc. Large difference between the regions and in the subsistence minimum. To collect more taxes, some regional administrations crook restrict imports particularly liquid production from other areas, if such is local businesses. In particular this applies to vodka. Since the elimination of competitors increases production of local products and tax revenue. Summarizing, we can say that after five and a half years after the start of the "reforms" the market in the country has not been created. After all, one of its main characteristic features is the freedom of barter for freedom of circulation of money. And we have initiated due to a shortage of money commodity producer for his production of "pay" or debts, or any other goods are often not necessary. And he has to take it and look for the next "buyer." Otherwise it is necessary to curtail production. Yes, and pay taxes to the budgets of various mostly "in kind." Thus, it is not uncommon, for example, power plants for electricity supplied to charge the payment manure, fertilizers, agricultural machinery, and more, to be offset against taxes and required local governments to maintain the same agriculture. But not enough money not only to upgrade their production, but also in wages. What kind of free market economy, which many assert? However, it is not only and not so much in the failed market. After all, all specially made and that the country does not have a civilized market relations. But under cover pseudomarket reforms created the conditions for the emergence of irreversibility much. The most tragic is that in science and manufacturing industries have disappeared not only the continuity of generations of personnel, but also many highly skilled workers: who has moved in "shuttle" and commercial structures, and who ever left the country. To restore the human resources specialists, without which no development of the economy, it will take many years. The "reforms" as the country was deprived of most high-tech and even entire industries, such as radio-electronic, precision machine tools, form the basis of the technological base of the economy. Did not take place and the scale conversion voennopromyshlennogo complex, and disappeared with the abolition Minoboronprom state agency that would coordinate it. Privatization as enterprises create significant obstacles on the way of economic restructuring. The list of accomplishments for its collapse can be continued. But as the Russian economy is contrary to the intentions of homegrown "shokoterapevtov" and zakordonnyh ideologues and advisers from money dystrophy until she died, that is blitzkrieg against it is not a complete success, it was decided to adjust the siege tactics: in addition to the money, and energy to start another blockade. Directive IMF die from energy blockades Since the "reform", the government naively expect more foreign investment and to get rid of the Russian industry of their own money. However, in the cleared field of rubles Production dollar rain was not poured out a little perepalo oil and natural gas industry, whose products the West is interested. In this case, from Russia abroad of capital flows away annually, an estimated 20 times more than replenished foreign loans. The government was held hostage by his vicious credit and financial policies. And as for the money, "drought" little falls into the coffers, then it has to, as noted, all the time not only to resort to internal and external borrowing. In February last year, the Russian government signed a memorandum with the IMF, which provided a very unique "three-year plan" for the Russian economy, aimed essentially at its final destruction. In exchange for the fulfillment of the conditions of the memorandum issued by the Government of the Russian Federation IMF loan of $ 10.2 billion, but not immediately, as well as for three years portions (now quarterly) as a reward for running pre-defined decision-making by the Russian side job. The first of these was the abolition of the last year of export duties on oil and gas condensate. But as these fees as revenue were already included in last year's budget, the government has to compensate increased excise tax on oil from an average of 30 thousand to 70 thousand rubles per ton. This caused a rise in its domestic market, with an average of 320 thousand to 390 thousand rubles per ton. And thus triggered charge another round of inflation from rising price effects in all industries - from the production of fuel and electricity to mechanical engineering and transport services. In particular, electricity rates in the so-called wholesale market in August last year forced to increase by 60 percent. Naturally, the higher prices of everything and spurred growth of arrears, including the budgets of all levels, and a further curtailment of production. On 22 December last year, the head of the IMF mission in Russia Juske Horiguchi to the Government of the Russian Federation and a number of ministries, "memo", which set out priority actions for the execution of "structural reform", as well as monitoring economic indicators for 1997 In particular, the government ordered to keep the money supply relative to GDP on average for the year at 12.6 percent, which is lower than in 1996 at the same time given the task in the IV quarter of this year to bring the collection of payments for electricity and gas, including former debt to 110 percent, with at least 90 percent must be built "real" money. At the same time significantly reduce the list of prescribed can not be disabled from the electricity and gas "strategic customers", and the rest, to which is today the vast majority of non-payment deprive energy. Without dwelling on the other "priority measures in the area of ​​structural reforms" (limited indexation of pensions, sale of state shares of 550 enterprises, tariff increases passenger rail cease issuing grants the village, and more), as well as on the terms of the memorandum signed with the IMF, which are inexcusable interference in the internal affairs of the country, it is necessary to note the following. Dramatically in terms of the intended final collapse of the Russian economy is the requirement of "memorandum" to stop electricity debtor companies that the directive bounded by IMF money supply to the above ratio to GDP will inevitably lead to their death. But not only. After all, when it disappeared many products used in multistage barter chains, through which she survives and electricity. Therefore, the end will come for her. I would like to remind you that if the IMF job are not met, the Russian government stopped issuing subsequent portions of the loan. So he has nowhere to go. In fact, the addition of the monetary economics of energy and the blockade was a new tactic, which aims - to complete the economic separation of Russia. To facilitate its implementation, "horse Brzezinski" landed additional troops from Nizhny Novgorod, led by Boris Nemtsov, and sent help of new "experts" from the IMF and the World Bank. To exclude sabotage execution of directives IMF had to be according to the same memorandum mentioned loan, ostensibly to separate the competitive power of the "non-market" natural monopoly RAO "UES of Russia". All of this slyly called reform and restructuring, and in fact aimed at the destruction of the unity of the country's energy, which should exacerbate its economic decentralization. And more were needed artists conceived. Studenchenskoy with bench - in the energy ministers In April this year, the new first deputy prime minister Boris Nemtsov in the Nizhny Novgorod troops brought to Moscow from Nizhny Novgorod, president of a small bank, 29-year-old Boris Brevnov, and made him the new Senior Vice President of RAO "UES of Russia". And on May 30, by fair means or foul, secured his election by shareholders to the Board of Directors of RAO company, which appointed Brevnov Chairman, that is, in fact, an informal energy ministers. At the same time some commercial firm "AB Image" (in Moscow register it does not appear), organized by the media advertising lively new head of RAO "UES of Russia" (curiously, whose money?), Which was to show its indispensability. Since it is the power of the now largely determine the fate of the Russian economy and the country as a whole, the community, I think, is not indifferent, who is now at its helm. A competence and intentions of the current helmsman of RAO "UES of Russia" cause great doubt. Here is why. According to one of the interviews, two of Nizhny Novgorod Brevnov graduated high school. In 1992, or 1'993, he received a diploma in electrical engineering, and in 1993 or 1994 - Diploma in "socio-economic planning." That is, at the same time he studied at two institutes, and, apparently, in absentia, as early as 1992, he headed the Nizhny Novgorod bankers. Moreover, at the same time there was also Brevnov local deputies and trained (by whom?) In the U.S.. Energy experts certainly know from personal experience, how much time was taken lessons (unless, of course, to learn, not a number) only in one department of the institute. Thus, specialty electrical engineering, and it's not the same thing, that the production and transmission of electricity, which Brevnov took control throughout the country, it has not worked a single day. As for his second profession, it has little to do with power. By the way, the specificity of power is such that they are preparing a special faculty of economists, as they need to understand the technology and techniques of production, transmission and distribution of electricity, directly affects the economy of power systems. Well, Boris Brevnov work at the bank was mainly related to the relatively small speculative monetary transactions. Bank is small, not even in the list of the first by value 100 banks in Russia. But some of the larger ones with difficulty by Western standards even reach the average. More Brevnov, as the one of his interviews, oversaw financial matters of "Nizhnovenergo", a member of the Board of Directors that is. However, such supervision is questionable, since the Board is not involved in operational matters. Moreover, this activity is clearly brought dividends B. Brevnov professional reputation as Nizhny Novgorod grid losing what he told, of course, silent. Thus, none of their education or the experience and length of service, as well as the achievements of young professional Brevnov could not claim to be a manager in a strategic and vital to the country's vast and complex system. If he came to work on some power, then the diploma electrical engineering, he was appointed to, at best, a trainee foreman auxiliary electrical equipment, and for there to be admitted to the exam only after the rules for operating and safety installations. In the power system it is unlikely to have to work: not a specialty, and a huge responsibility. If he is hired to work on the second diploma, would have taken him (no pull) ordinary economist, and most likely, according to sociologist specialty. If we talk about the real banking (and not about petty usury) associated with lending to large industrial projects, B. Brevnov was far from it. In addition, he has no special education finance and credit. B. Therefore, the statement in an interview Brevnov "profile", that leadership of RAO "UES of Russia" its allegedly invited the former president and current Chairman of the Board of Directors of this company Anatoly Dyakov, passed all stages of production and management, I think, gives a big-very big cunning. First, the waste has the highest are specialists, not like Boris Brevnov, qualifications, as evidenced by a reliable energy supply, until recently, the country, and second, it requires a minimum of pre-heading cell power system of the country a regional energy company energos or a major power plant. It also requires a thorough knowledge of the technology and technique of constructing the most power grid and have a great experience in managing such a system, whose economy is fully determined not only by its basis, but also physically associated with it electricity consumers. But this is not all. Given the financial crisis in the country, non-competitiveness of many products, the need to streamline rates, etc., need to finally abandon the old industrial policy only to produce and distribute electricity and to a policy of efficient energy supply, based on economically meaningful combination of generating capacity and energy efficiency. After saving the consumer 1 kWh is 3-5 times cheaper than its produce with the creation of appropriate power (see "Truth Five" from 10/6/97 "Coming elektrobatalii regions and the center. How to Avoid Them.") However, the new "minister" of energy began by unwarranted and highly publicized declaration, called a "project" to reduce the arrears in a particular industry (see "Truth Five" from 07.09.97 "soap opera" on the stage of RAO "UES of Russia "). It is extremely surprising why the shareholders of RAO "UES of Russia", many of which were headed or running large production teams, the servile care voted at its meeting of Brevnov, which they as an intern would hardly have entrusted the management of even some in his farm shop . But the vote was secret. And more. It was also puzzled why such a "Bison" - a businessman, as Viktor Chernomyrdin made to the management of the fuel and energy sector in general and the power industry, in particular, people who do not have the relevant professional and occupational training: Radiophysics Boris Nemtsov and "lender" Boris Brevnov . Or for Chernomyrdin only "Gazprom - our house," the head of which he gave to the slaughter Boris Nemtsov? For what merits Boris Nemtsov and Boris Brevnov appointed to such an important position? Ill-considered innovations "Provincial-1" is well known and indicate the absence of professionalism. This was evident even in the low-brow transplanting officials, which in itself was clearly losing, of cars in the "Volga". Accusations of sabotage of selling auctions of government "Volvo" and other foreign vehicles that Nemtsov said in an address of those responsible - more proof of a superficial approach to the problems of "saboteurs" can not leave the government without transport, for money to buy new mass domestic cars instead of cars is not selected. However, it is little things, and not Nemtsov heads the garage. There are more important "punctures" harmful to the public interest. Recall the recent, signed under the auspices of Nemtsov and his insistence on agreement with Azerbaijan on the disputed oil field development in the Caspian Sea. The agreement was soon annulled because it causes great harm to bilateral relations of Russia. Or other fact. After a recent visit to China, Boris Nemtsov, Russian companies have not received the order, which almost agreed a $ 1 billion for the supply of turbines and other equipment for the Chinese hydropower plant under construction "Three Gorges". A sudden, very ugly dismissal of the head of the company "Rosneft", which is not only contrary to all the laws, but also inflicted tremendous damage the economic interests of both the company and the country (see "Truth Five" from 05.06.97 "And rode courier" )? Government decision on this was soon canceled. Recently, under his patronage created a project of municipal reform, built on sand. Replacing the previous management of the country's energy policy, frankly, to lay, apparently, needed for fast performance - professionals resisted - the above directives IMF. Some of them, as noted, is aimed at ensuring that the introduction of the slogans in the non-market environment of the Russian market relations deprive businesses of electricity, if they will not pay for it with money, which they have the money because of the blockade is not just in the right quantities. This process is in some places already "gone" and fraught with the ultimate collapse of industrial production and social explosions. But to give it the scale and 'civilization' and it is being implemented under the cover - a tactic is the same - "reforming" the Unified Energy System of Russia.
 Scenario suicide, or who effectively destroyed the country's power grid June 29 this year, "Nezavisimaya Gazeta" published a very strange ad. It was done in the name of a certain, unknown person authorized by the implementing reforms in the power sector. The announcement said that the Russian government approached the World Bank with a request for a loan for the project of reforms in the electricity sector, part of which will be (right) for consultants on contract. "And follow the list of issues (some of them below) which consultants were invited to tender. Thus, from the announcement clearly indicated that allegedly developed a draft of the technical, institutional and economic reconstruction of the fundamental energy supply system of the country, to realize, that implementation, which requested the loan. True, confused, why was it necessary consultants. After the implementation of (the introduction) of any project is always watching (supervise) its authors, developers, and they also need to consult with the performers. But the important thing was not the case. Huge doubts caused expediency trumped many sections of the project as listed in the said newspaper ad. This primarily relates to the "commercialization and restructuring of the electricity transmission network," including "the creation of an economically viable network." But in Russia, there is a network, and for passing on her electric charge to consumers, that is it "commercialized". In addition, the network is designed to be an integral part of the power grid, which includes power plants, so as to maintain a flow of electricity between regions located in different time zones, as the day and night. In addition to high reliability, one of the criteria for the construction of the whole system and its transmission network was to minimize fuel costs and electricity losses in the entire system, thus achieving maximum profit. So talking about the need to create in Russia economically viable network transmission may only people completely unfamiliar with the Russian power industry. But to "commercialization and restructuring of the generation companies," the essence of which is to "establish an independent and viable power generating companies from the existing RAO" UES of Russia ", has inspired a very serious concern. Indeed the" independence "of power plants, which are now largely subordinated RW just allow the energy to begin the siege of the Russian economy, which directly follows as a consequence of the above directives IMF unfulfillable now mandatory cash payment for electricity. Therefore, because of shortage of currency to the Russian government will have to choose one of two things: either refuse to allow the natural exchange of goods, while stop and the enterprise, and "independent" power or relinquish the rest of the IMF loan. This stalemate led to ask, what is the contributing authors based their decisions, and who carried out the examination of the project. And with great difficulty, despite active opposition in information inner circle of the new "boss" of RAO "UES of Russia", as well as employees of the Group of reforms in the electricity sector, published an announcement of the call consultants, and the activities of which is surrounded by an aura of secrecy, bit by bit all managed to find something. It turned out that the "implementation team", in which 15 people, is clearly than half of professionally attractive young U.S. citizens, and the other, 20-year-old boys and girls, as they say, in the wings, and even press secretary, arrived in Nizhny Novgorod - Yeltsin's call to action - with Boris Brevnov. He organized the group, on the recommendation of the World Bank, becoming its unofficial leader. A formal group - another watch "wooden horse" - directs the American, some Katherine Switz. By the way, there is no power and probably explains the intention of "experts" from the United States to create (optional) in Russia, "a viable network of transmission." No sooner had the "implementation team" to appear in Moscow, after a month, the World Bank provided a loan to the Russian government for one year in the amount of $ 5.4 million to draft a "reform", and in fact for the financing of the group. Those charged to manage money a great mystery, and it seems that they have been issued to someone's personal use. The history of this loan, I think, explains why young specialist Boris Brevnov was appointed to such a high and responsible post. The fact that the World Bank - a very bureaucratic organization and consider it tightened loan applications typically 1.5-2 years. Get the same money there for a month only in the long pull. At the presentation of the "soap opera", RAO "UES of Russia" illusion "of" reducing the non-payment of electricity - at the end of June this year Boris Brevnov warmly thanked the bank for "understanding of the situation." Obviously, this "understanding" is largely contributed Brevnov wife Mrs. Gretchen Wilson, a U.S. citizen and an employee of the International Finance Corporation - the very division of the World Bank. Wilson Brevnov, like her husband, proved to be extremely versatile professional. She spent several years in Nizhny Novgorod, participating in many commercial activities, and to win the favor of many local politicians, especially the then governor of the Nizhny Novgorod Boris Nemtsov, with which, as they say, it connects great friendship. Led, among other things, the investment project of his corporation to Balakhna Paper Mill (JSC "Volga"), who is now facing bankruptcy. Flurry of activity, Ms. Wilson and her business with the Nizhny Novgorod region did not prevent the degradation of the economy of the latter. Perhaps the best just not enough time. Now the couple "mnogostanochnikov" to reform the Russian energy industry. However, as reported conductress "of implementation," no project most of these reforms, the "realization" that notifies a newspaper ad ... does not exist. A set out in it, it turns out, only the terms of reference for the development of the project. It should be noted, hideously written and vocational essentially illiterate. The fact that it is made up terms of reference for us as a guide to action ... World Bank experts. Their work paid for by the above-mentioned loan, dedicated to the "training" of the project. TK on this bank should decide that another loan - this time on the development of the reform project in the amount of 40.1 million dollars. Why so many, not more or less - is unclear. Do not know who and how to determine this amount and the amount of the loan to the "training" of the project, and how these costs will be controlled. It is surprising and why Russian taxpayers should pay for the work of foreign, and incompetent people that quality can meet our own experts, to interrupt the day with hand to mouth. Meanwhile, as even a cursory analysis of TK, in the spirit of the directives issued by the IMF, it does not hold water. It is hardly possible such shameless and uncontrolled interference in internal affairs, for example, the same USA. And we could not prevent the neglect of their own country and not run TOR in orbit, if the new chief of the Russian energy sector, headed by First Deputy Prime Minister Boris Nemtsov at least follow the rules and passed, as expected, TK for its evaluation in a government Expert advice. After all projects funded by foreign loans received under the guarantee of the government of the Russian Federation, and here this is the case, should be compulsory examination in the government at all stages of development: TK itself, further feasibility studies of investment and the actual project as a whole. Curiously, who allowed the same Brevnov neglected the established order? As you know, before giving the tailor to sew a coat, suit or dress, the cutter is conducting a survey figures client, in order to justify the technical task executor. This is the same procedure and the development of various projects. Their initial step required is research, study and development of the TOR. However, a former banker and its "implementation team" ignored "obmerivaniem customer", demonstrating elementary ignorance of basic system design. On the complete failure of one of the sections of the job to reform the Russian power "an economically viable network transmission" - above. Equally absurd and TK section establishing independent companies - power plants. The purpose of such innovations, according to the authors TK - to ensure competition in the so-called wholesale electricity market. Who will it compete? Hydraulic power are excluded, as they are both used to control the frequency of the power system in the country, that is, apart from the production of electricity, are a means of control. Themselves apart from the competition and nuclear plants. Since the specificity of the nuclear power plant requires a continuous load them to full capacity, in preference to thermal power plants. Given that the total potential (installed) capacity of all power plant Russia, the proportion is about 11 percent, hydro - 21, and TPS - 68 percent in the past year NPP generated 36 percent of all electricity produced in the country, hydro - 19 and TPP - 45 percent. Continuing on the wholesale market with about 15 of the largest thermal power plants, which last year produced about one-third of all electricity. The majority of the TPP "work" in district heating water, while generating power for local needs, and often it is not technically on the wholesale market. The action of such electric power stations (known as CHP) depends on the time of year. During the warmer months of the boiler to them is extinguished, because it reduces the need for hot water for heating. So functional and work in the block with the boilers and steam turbine generators: hot water is generated from the waste heat passing through the steam turbine, has nowhere to go. Organize a competition in the wholesale market between said about 15 stations - called plant - just pointless: first, because of the relatively small amount of electricity produced by them, and secondly, because of the sparseness of the country, which will lead to a significant loss of electricity during transmission over long distances, and thirdly, as powerful station must be loaded on the plan and guarantee the "whole hog", as they are required in advance to ensure a large amount of fuel, and power reduction results in a rise in the cost of production per kilowatt-hour, and fourthly , there are strict schedules economically optimal power flows between regions of different time zones, the implementation of which play a considerable role in advance TPP. Today, many of TPP due to lack of fuel - no money to pay for it due to non-payment of consumers - loaded only 20-30 per cent, but because, as noted, greatly increases the cost of the cost of a kilowatt-hour. The question is: is it possible to organize a running competition between people who are crippled or missing feet? World Bank experts tell us that this is possible, and the new head of RAO "UES of Russia" blessed selecting a consultant to write the appropriate script "competition." However, as noted above, the competition is "independent" companies is only a fig leaf to cover up the collapse of the unity of the country's energy system and the organization of an energy blockade penniless enterprises, of which the vast majority. We are talking about the implementation of the plan to decentralize Brzezinski and destroy the remnants of the Russian economy. Credit and currency feeder That started a development of the "reform" of the Russian power concerned only with its collapse, shows not only ignorance and depravity said TK, consisting of randomly nadergano and invented for this problem. The fact that such large-scale projects have developed an integrated development teams, pritershihsya to each other and are compatible with each other in many respects. And there are no such groups in one day. And each project required a leader. This is supposed to gather from around the world of random people - consultants, who, according to hide "implementation team" criteria will select the lender - the World Bank. Besides, there is no future project supervisor, and no one was able to answer whether such. And he can control and coordinate the work of a random • for him and the informal community by someone selected by the formal features performers? But the most amazing thing is that the project - a comprehensive program of renovation and development of the Russian power until 2010 and as a single system - already exists. It in 1995, developed by Russian and American experts, to form a group. They did this on the instructions of Viktor Chernomyrdin and U.S. Vice President Al Gore, as co-heads of the Russian-American Commission on Economic and Technological Cooperation. The project has been widely discussed both here and overseas, the commission "Gore-Chernomyrdin" approved it, then Viktor, said knowledgeable people who asked "run" in his work. Since then, the project marks lost. We can assume that with the signing of an agreement with the IMF, "the three-year reform" of the Russian economy, providing its energy blockade, the project committee "Gore-Chernomyrdin" in exchange for a loan needed to forget. Not a word is said about it in the specification for the new project, issued by the World Bank to develop a script suicide of Russia, and also for its own money. A detailed analysis of all the negative effects of corruption and to perform the job of the World Bank to implement the directives of the IMF is beyond the scope of the article. It is hoped that this analysis will hold the competent federal authorities. At the same time, they may shed light on why for clerical and routine organizational work related to the reform of the Russian power, invited U.S. citizens who have received access to many documents. Meanwhile, for the RAO "UES of Russia" is set to the official list of strategically important information, which can meet only by authorized persons. Brevnov, "eliminate" the recent energy crisis in Primorye, somehow drove there with a U.S. citizen working in the above-mentioned "implementation team", although many objects "Primorenergo" and their characteristics are in the "closed" list. Certainly not have allowed admission to the secrets of the Russian power industry and some members of the Board of RAO "UES of Russia", working there part-time, invited Brevnov. They are representatives of a number of commercial companies, including one American - "Arthur Andersen", recently, through his messenger, before they enter waste reduction, trying to find out about the very sensitive information that Russian energy company. By the way, during the drafting committee "Gore-Chernomyrdin" some American colleagues have also shown keen interest to the private information of our electricity. But these attempts, as told to one of the project leaders, have been sensitively and openly suppressed. It should be emphasized that much of the TOR of the World Bank provides easy access for wasting his loans from Russian taxpayers. In particular, it refers to "the promotion of public relations." Under the guise of "promoting" launched a broad presentation and advertising of a new Chairman of the Board of RAO "UES of Russia" Boris Brevnov private firm. By getting our loan officers "of the implementation of" fly to their home country, because there's a certain "public" interest in the affairs in Russia and in need of specific information. Shortly after his appointment logs in the interview to "Profile", in response to a fashion question, he said, "at the bottom, I went on an official" Volvo "in Moscow -" twenty-ninth "," Volga "... But to use my foreign car in today's a position where I'm working for a company that is not always time to pay staff salaries, it is unethical. " Salary under a contract with RAO "UES of Russia", which was based on the Board of Directors of the young specialist Boris A. Brevnov is a month ... 15 thousand dollars, or nearly 90 million. So, in respecting the "ethics." Recently, B. Brevnov ordered the trip to Sochi, where officially remained 10 days. Of course, he flew to the resort not to sunbathe, and to consult on the affairs of the company to lie down on the labors Boris Nemtsov. But secrecy and duration of trips, gave rise to some evil tongues say that at that time the chairman of the board of RAO allegedly visited his wife, who is in the United States. As for the affairs of the company, after joining her Brevnov they are much worse. Because of the shortage of fuel epidemic blackout spread from Primorye in the entire country. In previous years, the management of RAO actively helps its subsidiaries energos and power plants ready for the winter and store fuel. Now most of the thermal power plants it is only 2-3 days of work because there is nothing to buy. Many regional power company, receiving payment for electricity 10-15 percent "real" money, guided by the principle of "self comes first", and power plants of the money is allocated, as a rule, no more than one percent. To apportion even such meager pay by RAO "UES of Russia" has already developed a position of special transit account to which the money should come for the electricity, and banks - in the prescribed manner distribute it. But the new leadership RW and did not bother to get it implemented. A recently published B. Brevnov order provoke further growth of non-payment and lawsuits to the company itself. The fact is that because of the money shortage of RAO "UES of Russia" is guaranteed at the time on a special "energy" in order to pay bills for electricity. Now these guarantees Brevnov illegally canceled and receiving bills allowed only for the debts of consumers arising prior to August 1 of this year. But requires 40 percent of the debt, which is also illegal, to pay "real" money. Many such notes payable and self RAO "UES of Russia", "paying" in this way, to borrow the necessary resources and equipment. Therefore, cancellation of guarantees issued before the company's unconditional acceptance of "energy" bill and the failure thus meet its debt obligations and also to return the debt is nothing more than a basic scam. However, legal action on his victims, as usual, will not pay for the culprit, and his company. Of course, the expense of consumers, taxpayers, and employees of the RAO "UES of Russia" and its subsidiaries, and so for months unpaid, resulting Brevnov compelled to go to the "Volga". Actively engaged in it and replacing the heads of some of the regional power system, preparing for himself a favorable environment. However, he acts contrary to the law and waste, according to which these leaders recruit board and concludes contracts with them. However, as it has concluded a contract with himself Brevnov. Therefore surprising not under the control of its activities, by the way, bounded by the Charter of RAO only solution of current operational issues. These are not all of the case, competence, ethics and morality of a voluntary or involuntary performers final phase of the plan to decentralize Brzezinski and the collapse of the Russian economy. With such a shock of his career goals of the plan may well be achieved without the full prescribed by the IMF "reforms" of the Russian power industry. As after reckless or intentionally large part of the sale of the State Property Committee of shares of RAO "UES of Russia" (28 percent of them uplylo abroad), the Russian government effectively lost control of the most important strategic system.

 Afterword: unwanted Americans

This article is not directed against the U.S. and its people. It attempts to describe short-sighted policy of the rulers of the two countries in an amazing way for concurrent long-formulated goals and the stubborn refusal to listen to the many voices in calling for Russia to stop smothering, fraught world cataclysm because the severe disruption of the balance of forces and interests in the world. One of the last of such attempts undertaken by a group of prominent economists - Nobel Prize winners from the U.S. and Russian academics. In May this year they sent the Russian Government and the U.S. project, with specific recommendations for economic reforms in Russia. In it, in particular, are strongly advised to make economic reforms systemic and organized with the direct participation of the state. Representative of that frustrate Marshall, who came to Moscow, at his request took Boris Nemtsov, who in every way was kind messenger and promised with three boxes, crossed his aides. Those started playing them in "football", so the overseas visitor went back home empty-handed. But the U.S. administration has proved to be much more honest and frank. She invited one of the American authors of the project in the State Department, and his adopted official said that the work of Nobel Prize winners, contrived to help the resurgence of Russia, contrary to the strategic interests of the United States. As recently told a prominent economist Professor Michael Bernshtamm Stanford University, in the U.S. there is a list of undesirable for Russia Americans informally directed there Anatoly Chubais. By the way, Chubais was returned to power at the insistence of the U.S. administration and at the request of the IMF as a condition of the three-year loan. 8/24/97 but was influential American newspaper "Washington Post" published about him very unflattering article that because of the "questionable integrity of Mr. Chubais and corrupt Russian government" urged the U.S. administration not to support them anymore. As for the list of undesirable persons for Chubais, to which, as it turned out, and added Bernshtamm, the venerable professor learned about it by accident when his repeated attempts to make a business trip to Moscow strongly suppressed by the administration of the home university. The reason, apparently, is that when he was an economic adviser to the Supreme Soviet, he spoke out against the "shock therapy" Gaidar and Chubais against privatization. Is it possible to doubt the success of the completion of the plan Brzezinski, developed in the interest of Geopolitics of the United States when there is a touching solidarity care authorities of the two countries on clean sterilized Russia held this promotion and protection of dissent? Privatization and development of gangster capitalism in Russia "Business World", in March 1995, "Industry News", December 2000 Apparently, the criminal division of state property created by the labor and deprivation of many generations of Soviet people, enters its final stage. Scheduled for next year in whole or in part, recklessly, as before, is to sell the remaining state owned tens of thousands of businesses. Obviously, new group of reformers wanted to achieve, that is the current generation of post-Soviet people lived in the era of the final victory of capitalism. But the gangster capitalism, set the country to the top of this century. However, the intention to continue Gaidar new century another experiment on human beings do not give a simple and sophisticated opportunism and cynicism, as the resources of the country is largely exhausted. All that we have been through, what reminds offer our readers an interview. It was held in March 1995, and then I talked to have been in then vice-premier of the Russian government and the State Property Committee Chairman Vladimir Polevanov. And he remained in these positions, replacing the GKI Anatoly Chubais, a total of 70 days. The fact that they released some of the mysteries voucher across the country and of his intention to stop the looting of state property threatened by the plans and well-being of fathers nomenclature capitalization in Russia, and their "colleagues" in the U.S.. After all, a reason to State Property Committee to "help" Chubais were sent 35 (!) American advisers, the services of which Vladimir Polevanov refused. And the same amount of money in the U.S. $ 110 million was established in Moscow privatization fund, most of which were stolen. Interview was for the newspaper "Business World", but because of internal censorship, it is published in it with significant cuts. Now readers are invited to the full details of this conversation, the contents of which did not lost its relevance today. Moses Gelman, December 2000 When I came to the State Property Committee, tried to change the strategy of privatization in the interests of the population, Chubais said to me in clear text: "What are you worried about these people? Well, thirty million die. They do not fit into the market. Not think about it - the new rise." From an interview of Vladimir Polevanov - Vladimir, has been two months since you were forced to leave as head of the State Property Committee. Did they change something with your assessment of what happened as a result of the privatization of the country's economy? - No, I have not changed. Indeed, in their assessment, I relied on many facts. The facts, as they say, are stubborn things. - Officially one of the goals of privatization sounds like a transfer of capital goods as private property and the creation of a class of owners. Private property in a competitive environment to promote efficient use of the means of production by the natural selection of their owners. The competition and the free flow of capital goods under normal market conditions their owners are the most professional and capable people to multiply their money. And today we have the funds are concentrated mainly in the hands of some trade and financial structures are not capable of full-scale industry investment. How all of this is consistent with the declared transformation of our economy into the market, and with other official purposes of privatization? After two years, the division of property under the checks did not bring significant investment in companies, and they were destroyed without the true owners. - The state program of privatization of state and municipal enterprises in the Russian Federation for 1992 was planned seven major goals. 1. Formation of a layer of private owners to promote a socially-oriented market economy. Formally speaking, quantitative achievements privatization unmistakable. About 60% of non-state enterprises became the order of 40 million people - shareholders, in 20 subjects of the Federation privatization is almost completed. But in reality pursued rapid redistribution of property is not primarily economic, and political goals. Therefore, the shareholders did not and could not become effective owners. It is well known to the shares sold economically participation in management of the company, dividends and sale of shares. Participation in the management of the company for ordinary shareholders impossible, since this is essential if not control, the large (greater than 10%) of shares. Now visible concentration of ownership by buying shares in enterprise management, "informals" and commercial structures makes the management of JSC for the majority of working unreal. Dividends to the ongoing economic crisis, default, loss-making enterprises also doubtful. It is no more than 5-10% of the companies to operate profitably, and only their shareholders can count on some dividends. A similar situation exists for shareholders voucher investment funds (Chiefs). Only about a quarter of the funds of 646 on the basis of the 1994 accrued dividends to its shareholders, mainly in the amount of 50-70%. But shares in denominations of thousand-average. Selling shares is higher than their face value in an atmosphere of the current economic downturn for the vast majority of shareholders is not possible. Consequently, owners of mass illusion. Actually manages and effectively owns the property a small part of the population. Somewhere around 5%. 2. Improving the efficiency of enterprises. And privatized, and inefficient state-owned enterprises operate as its own change of ownership could increase production efficiency. This is possible by replacing old equipment with new, the use of more advanced technologies, increasing productivity, in-depth market research, better management. All this takes time and also the huge investment, which was not. 3. Social protection and development of the social infrastructure of the funds received from privatization. Realized privatization model has given two years to all budgets only $ 1 trillion. rubles, which is half the size (at the rate of exchange) privatization revenues received, for example, in Hungary, although there is only one-third of state property was sold, and then for six years (here and below is a former monetary scale). 4. Contribute to the stabilization of the financial situation. Russia's fiscal position is not stable. The federal budget deficit for the 10 months of 1994 amounted to 49.8 trillion. rubles, or 10.7 per cent of GDP, while in 1993 it was 6.4 percent. 5. Creating a competitive environment and the promotion of de-monopolization of the economy. The goal is not achieved, because technologically backward production on most domestic enterprises are unable to compete with more developed West. Largely because of this output in the engineering industry in 1994 decreased by 45%, more than half of the lost market of consumer goods. Desire to monopolization any cost significantly destroyed agriculture, technology and tore economic links between enterprises, which especially affected the forest industry, metallurgy, electronics, chemistry, etc. But it grew and monopoly, since instead of whole monopoly enterprises, a host of isolating are monopoly producers of intermediate goods and services. 6. Attracting foreign investment. According to the State Statistics Committee, the volume of foreign investment has decreased sharply from 2.921 billion in 1993 to about $ 1.1 billion in 1994. Moreover, foreign exchange investment is mainly directed to the extractive industries, while sharply reducing flows to engineering and construction. 7. Creating conditions and organizational structures to scale privatization in 1993-1994. System of the State Committee for Property Management and the Russian Federal Property Fund, the Federal Agency for bankruptcy, check investment funds set up across the country. The seventh goal of the privatization program has been fully implemented. Thus, of the seven goals of privatization is fully implemented the seventh, the first part and almost failed as the other five. - It is difficult to agree with your assessment of the achievement of even the latter purpose. Indeed, the conditions for the expansion of privatization, if we consider it an informal way, and not created. With respect to such structures as the voucher investment funds, trust them citizens cheated. - Indeed, during the voucher privatization in Russia there were only institutions of a market economy, which did not exist before in Russia. This investment funds, including checking, holding companies, oil companies, financial-industrial groups. But benefit from them while a little. Privatization was not carried out in order to increase the efficiency of the economy, and for the sake of privatization. Dominated political goal: to create a forced wide class of property owners to make "reforms" irreversible. The goals of privatization distorted incompetent actions and willful violations, both in the center and in the field, in sharp criminalized situation. Privatization was conducted without the mentality of Russian citizens who are one of the core values ​​is considered a strong state. As a result, wholesale privatization of the Russian state was seriously weakened. And I must say, the attitude of the majority of the population of the country particularly negative. It is not done nothing of the promised people. And do not get three "Volga" each. On the contrary. Acquired by a country for decades fell into the hands of a small group of persons. But the main problem is that the new owners of the property for the most part are not able to operate it: one due to incompetence, others due to lack of funds. Privatization of financial capital, trade and consumer services in terms of the declared goals also proved to be ineffective. Investment in manufacturing worthless bankers prefer to "make" money money. Trade and services exclusively running the show in the domestic markets. Moreover, the service sector decreased significantly compared to earlier times. On trade, they prefer to trade in goods mainly imported, thus curtailing domestic production, and hence inflation. Privatization has destroyed many of the technological links between enterprises. For example, in the aviation industry were divided KB, aircraft engines and assembly production. In agriculture, the processing plants were separated from the production of agricultural products and monopoly dictate their purchase prices, setting them well below market. While processors are designed for the same means of collective and state farms. Now, many farms have to purchase a mini-refineries products, which is very expensive. A current privatized firms do not operate at full capacity. And this could have been avoided, and the creation of complex privatization agricultural associations. Other examples can be. In the process of privatization of shares in many companies for a song through a joint venture (JV) were bought up by foreign capital. This could reluctantly welcomed if the new owners did not seek to eliminate thus its potential competitors, and at very low cost. In many cases, it threatens the strategic interests and national security of our country. Entering the Federal Counterintelligence Service (now FSB) data indicate a critical situation developing in the defense industry of Russia, which, according to experts, is aggravated by the fact that the privatization and corporatization are conducted without regard to their specificity and role in ensuring the implementation of the state defense order. With the privatization of defense industry enterprises by foreign companies and firms seeking to penetrate into their governance structures, buying shares at voucher auctions. To avoid, in this review by the FGC, provided the "State program of privatization of state and municipal enterprises," in most cases we use the services of intermediaries registered in Russia. In cases where the enterprises of the Russian defense industry on the list of facilities that are not subject to privatization, foreign businessmen seeking release from their composition of structural units, which are recognized as joint ventures. According to foreign experts, creation by Russian defense firms, even small venture will provide ample opportunities to influence their administration with subsequent access to existing and emerging technologies. For example, the Dutch firm "AFM Fico" holds a similar tactic to the software "Elmash" and the Bulgarian company "Plasthim" and German "EOS2" - to the software "Tantalus." Noted the increased interest of foreign investors in such industries as electronics, aircraft, rocket, nuclear power, produce competitive products. Working through intermediaries, they are trying to take control of not only individual companies, but entire industries. Here are some examples. Firm "Baldwin Interprises Inc." (USA) through a front company JSC "BC BRANSVIL" has bought a 10% stake in plant defense "component", which is 87% of the total output fulfills the orders of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Russia and FGC. Charter of the plant provided that ownership of 10% or more of shares gives the investor the right to make the board of directors of the company representative. Concern "Siemens" has acquired 20.8% of shares of JSC "Kaluga Turbine Works" associated with the development and manufacture of steam turbines for nuclear submarines. American aviation company "Boeing" and "Sikorsky" using AO "MMM" and "Sadko Arcade" through voucher auctions bought 28% stake Helicopter Plant. Mil. The goal - to eliminate the domestic production of aircraft of the same class as a competitor in the global market. To do this, a dummy business structure "Aviabank" firm "Boeing" also intends to take control of JSC "AVIS" (formerly Samara aircraft factory). About 30% of the shares of the Moscow Electrode Plant, transferred Institute "Graphite", producing graphite for strategic military rocket, owned Russian firm dummy "Graniks", which provided the means associated with the CIA, U.S. citizen D. Haye. Under pressure from the U.S. Institute "Graphite" refused to accept the orders of the Military Space Forces of Russia and started production of products for the U.S. "stealth" technology. As pointed out by the heads of intelligence and counterintelligence, Primakov and Sergei Stepashin, in a letter dated 8/26/94, "On the trends in Western policy towards the Russian military-industrial complex", "The West as a whole gained in Russia as a large amount of new technology that NATO has set up to analyze them special "Information-technological compatibility of information technology and global networks of power and Eastern Europe." Through this program, the Russian experts invited for classification in accordance with European standards derived from Russian technologies and forming proposals for their use " . Analysis of the situation on the stock market of defense industries, has shown that the acquisition of foreign companies in the Russian property brokers is in the nature of hidden intervention to undermine the defense and the economy. Often foreign companies to invest in the Russian economy investments make demands to provide them with accurate and complete information on the evolving political situation in Russia, as well as information that reveals the economic, technological, financial condition proposed investment object. The transfer of such information to foreigners does not imply any warranty on their part for an unconditional opening of at least credit lines. With privatization of the State Committee challenge is to keep the information as a state secret. On a number of joint-stock items for savings reduces administration regime-sensitive organs, paramilitary security, service counter foreign technical intelligence, closes special communication nodes, which significantly reduces the effectiveness of protective measures, a prerequisite for leakage not only technological, but also state secrets. Thus, additional measures to maintain national control over all stages in the process of development and production of arms and military equipment, primarily in the missile and space and aviation industries, as well as to ensure the integrity of the defense industry enterprises and institutions in their privatization. Foreign companies seeking to acquire the shares of companies such fundamental to Russia's economic sectors, such as engineering, oil and gas production and refining, power generation, water, river and air transport, communications facilities. For example, 19% of JSC "Electric power" (St.-Petersburg) acquired firm "Mardima" (UK), 20-25% of plans to acquire "Siemens". Goal: ousting "Electrosila" with traditional markets, the use of the plant for labor-intensive, low-skilled and low-paid transactions, and the main products in their plants to produce and sell it under their own brand names. Shares of the aviation industry through front companies buying company "Nick corporation" (USA). She has already managed to acquire 30% stake in the company, "Aviazapchast" (Moscow). Specialists consulting firms in Western Europe and the United States believes that these "portfolio" investments are speculative, short-term. They are largely based on undervalued securities of Russian companies (compared to similar companies in other countries) and rapid increase in their prices. Clearly, the acquisition of foreign capital stock of many domestic enterprises would be nothing wrong if they were sold at market prices. Then we would share, is making important hosts, with the intention to develop production. Not only foreign but also domestic. Despite the significant increase in prices, and hence the value of fixed assets, market price vouchers for the period October 1992 to October 1994 averaged 12.5 thousand rubles. Buying and reselling large quantities of vouchers, voucher investment funds effectively ensured the transfer of state property for a song to the new owners. In a recent (from 12.09.94 g) ballots English consultancy "Independent Strategy" ("Independent streytedzhi") states: "Most of the fixed assets were sold in Russia during the privatization of some $ 5 billion. Even if we assume that the price is equal to the gross domestic product, and in the leading countries of the West, these funds exceed GDP in 2.4-2.8 times, the Russian economy with a GDP of about 300-400 billion of the proceeds from privatization, just is negligible. " In this regard, the agency recommends that British investors do not miss the chance to take part in the purchase of shares of Russian companies, which "promises considerable benefits." Top 500 privatized enterprises in Russia worth at least $ 200 billion were actually sold for a song - for about $ 7.2 billion. Thus, one of the largest companies in the country - the Likhachev Automobile Plant (Moscow) with the value of fixed assets of at least $ 1 billion - sold ... for $ 4 million. Buildings and structures of the Moscow Institute for Management and Specialists chemical industry with an estimated value of $ 100 million sold in just 8 million. Such facts are plentiful. In fact was the largest in the world history of squandering public property, which in itself was one of the causes of the current crisis in the country and laid the foundation for many future conflicts in the new redistribution of property. - Probably, if two years ago, the shares were sold at the current rules of the second stage of privatization (ie investment competitions) to those who have invested more in the company, the same ZIL today not to breathe its last? (As we know, these contests were also subsequently bluff.) - This is not the only "flaw". After all, even before privatization due to the "shock therapy" of the company lost much of its working capital. Money is it that most of the new owners to maintain their businesses simply do not. Therefore, the destruction of the financial system, the depreciation of the ruble, the high, inaccessible to most lending rates, the intervention the dollar and other currencies will not contribute to the development of commodity production and, consequently, the formation of new owners. It can be argued that privatization is carried out a set of measures to establish a market-based system, has become a powerful factor in the destabilization of the economy and social sphere. Society to share in a very small group of super-rich, grab a tasty morsel public pie, and a significant portion of the poor, reinforcing the social tensions in the country. In developed countries, the ratio of income of the richest 10% and poorest 10% is less than 10 to 1. We, the ratio is 27 to 1. While even in Latin America it is 12 to 1. Although it is the country of this part of the world is a classic example of the explosive social stratification. By the beginning of March of this (1995) year to 43 million Russians, which is 5 million more than in January, had incomes below the level or on the brink of survival. And three-quarters of the population is classified as poor. Thus, the division of property, and its privatization is not given the promised results. Rather than attend to the fate of people, the government is the third year trying to reach the false targets: to eliminate the budget deficit and reduce the rate of inflation, not eliminate their causes. Today, we are not protected by either the people or territory, or our way of life. That is not protected the priorities which is a constant concern of normal power, for example, the same U.S. government. And the means to provide such protection, the economy and the growth of production, support for domestic producers and domestic market development, etc. After the first stage of privatization of property owners, real estate managers, were shadow structures, part of the nomenclature and directors. If privatization is not preceded by the "shock therapy", after which most of the population lost their savings, the spectrum of the national base of Russian owners would have been much wider. Vouchers are created only the illusion of concern for the people, because they discounted the accepted rules of exchange for shares. And the same rules would help to focus the bulk of vouchers in the hands of a relatively small group of individuals. Since the purpose of the voucher privatization are not achieved, you must carefully analyze what has happened in the economy, to assess the results and to find strategic and tactical solutions to improve the situation. And do not drive horses down the path of the second stage. Force the further privatization could be the undeniable success of the first stage. So I insisted on the suspension of the second stage of privatization to the enactment of legislation and proposed to eliminate errors and violations in the redistribution of property. However, I did not rule in certain cases, the temporary re-nationalization of enterprises, if it would allow to eliminate errors and violations, and then re-privatization. Continuation of the same in the current environment of monetary stage of privatization, the sale of land and the means of production, where most of the population has no money, will lead to further stratification of society. Then significantly increase the probability of a social explosion. To avoid this, people must get back their money taken by the state loan and discounted to the beginning of the "shock therapy." To do this, it is not necessary to conduct monetary emission. Failed state can answer their property. Movable and immovable. Then it will be observed at least some justice. Otherwise, the remnants of state property fell into the hands of the same few current real masters of the country, as well as foreign capital, which today is unprofitable to invest in the Russian economy. That is why they are employed by speculative selling of the stock. - But the company without investment and renewal of their fixed assets are destroyed, and such resale will soon cease, as share prices unemployed and dividend-bearing assets tend to zero. Section of the property is 1.5 trillion. rubles (in 1990 prices) for checks in denominations of 10 thousand rubles, apparently intended to exchange for shares of equal value. But this exchange substituted auction sale of shares for the checks. On average check merchandised action in 1000 rubles. It turns out that the checks otovaritsya total of 150 billion rubles. And where did the rest of the property (in 1990 prices) worth 1.35 trillion. rubles? And why not check ratings indexed according to the two that followed, the revaluation of fixed assets? This would increase their price is about 150 times, that is nominal voucher would increase to 1.5 million. Thus the cost is not issued on vouchers assets increased (in 1994 prices) to 202.5 trillion. rubles. - This property is for a song was given a small group of people who make up about 5% of the population who have become rich in the first stage of privatization. These are the people of whom it is said in the beginning of our conversation. But possession of the property without investments and dividends will soon lead to its extinction. Therefore, the leaders of many companies want their re-nationalization. But the state does not have funds to buy now and resuscitation of his former property. Unfortunately, the sale of the property for a song, also in violation of the interests of the state and enterprises, and continued in the last (1994) year. This happened, for example, with an investment competition Novokuznetsk aluminum smelter. Federal Property Fund, contrary to the decision of the Government, has allowed the payment of investment buyer of shares not in dollars, as envisaged, and in rubles, and also ... for four years. The "forgotten" to include in the terms of the tender sale of indexation for inflation and changes in the exchange rate. I had to intervene and cancel this illegal decision. This happened largely because of the lack of control actions of the Federal Property Fund from small local committees of the property. After all, for example, in a relatively small Hungarian privatization is designed for 10 years. And there revealed many violations, even though only 30% of privatized state assets. Therefore, the new Hungarian government began a thorough check of the results of this action. We have no mechanisms of privatization, which would ensure maximum profit, control, preservation of property management and its performance, and more. All this benefits certain groups of people like to fish in troubled waters. The fact that none of us was trying to objectively assess the value of privatized assets, indirectly indicates range of opinions in its assessments abroad: from 6 billion to $ 100 billion. Although in global terms the cost of our last year's (1994) GDP is about 350 billion dollars. And while this is no formal assessment of the profit from the sale of shares is not invested in the economy and into the pockets of individuals. This is one of the principal reasons for the need to suspend the privatization. Pause as long as the results do not overestimate inventory balances allocated to the sale of Russian assets. It can be argued that privatization in the forms and the pace and means what she held and conducted, led the country to the brink of national disaster. Indeed, much of the economy, finding new owners, has ceased to operate. - What, in your opinion, if you summarize, you need to take to reduce the negative effects of privatization? - I have already said, it is necessary to temporarily suspend its current stage and at the same time strengthen the management of the state property under his or her remaining shares. Further privatization should be determined by the relevant federal law. To sell or not to sell the land, it seems, the people should decide. In a referendum. Paradoxical situation. The government can not be reduced to zero and the budget deficit for this borrowed money, where possible. And at the same time for a pittance selling domestic and foreign stocks nouveaux riches of oil and gas production companies, bringing the budget more profit in the currency. If these revenues from the state refuses, again will have to cut funding for health care, science, culture, education, the army ... - If the government sell off its remaining shares, it will lose the last opportunity to somehow influence the restructuring of the economy. After all, he will not have any rights in the AO. Meanwhile, with the destruction of the old add-in, and then as a result of privatization of corporatized enterprises were virtually no macroeconomic management, the functions of which are lost today. In addition, the broken many of the technological and economic production chain. Therefore business today is often contrary to the interests of the state and society. Do not you think that you can resolve this contradiction restructuring of the economy at the macro level by integrating relevant government authorities - ministries and departments - as well as commercial and industrial structures within the holding company? In this industry will enter the holdings in the form of process chains, providing complete production of consumer goods. A state shares will be a contribution to the charter capital of the state of the company and will be transferred to the trust by the former government agencies without the budget. To earn a living, former employees of state agencies will be required to actively promote the production and marketing of products, receiving a percentage of future profits. Therefore, the current officials in holdings will be to market across the country, indicative planning, organization of investment and complex supplies and many others, including the protection of the interests of shareholders and the state. A Ministry of Economy will macroeconomic and intersectoral management, not policy, and by appropriate economic environment for producers. - To avoid disasters, it is necessary to balance the interests of all sectors of society. In the first place, the material, reducing completely unacceptable difference in income between a small (about 5%) of a group of wealthy and 43 million of our fellow citizens living below or on the poverty line. To do this, we must give them the opportunity to gain by eliminating the economic crisis. Without restoration of control of the economy, its structural adjustment and normalization of commodity-money circulation did not. If Russia does not appear sufficiently broad class of wealthy owners and employees, the work of social inequality mine, mechanism which is already running. Structural reorganization of the economy will gain control over it. But it is not centralized. New integrated market structures - holding companies, financial-industrial and industrial groups - will distribute previous macroeconomic management and decentralize it. And the integration of public and private institutions will allow for a comprehensive, balanced by the interests of the policy. This reorganization had to spend the day before, when the state held in his hands all the levers of economic management, able to maneuver, and the government supported by the population of the country. But did not. Among the active management of SPC counter. At the doorway of one of its leaders even hung a poster with words to every one that it included, forgot about the holding. Although up to the Russian Revolution acted dozens of similar companies in particular "Rosugol". They joined corporate enterprises and businesses, working on cooperation on the production and marketing of the final product. In the same "Rosugol" included not only the mines and coal-storage warehouses, but also machine-building plants that produced mining equipment, plant for coal, etc. Today, we have the old technological and economic ties are broken, and all die alone. To turn the country on the path of true market reforms need to start to recognize that the current policy has led our society to a national disaster and requires a fundamentally different course of reforms. People believe in the promises of the last, if they understand and are aware that they will be asked to do. To do this, the authorities themselves have to change their mentality thinking. They should realize that some businesses whose main purpose - to maximize profits, not able to create a market economy and promote the interests of all its members. Just as motorists themselves are not able to create and maintain a safe traffic. This requires traffic police as a body of regulation and control, and the laws governing the behavior of the subjects of the system. As for the crisis in the economy, without strict government control and regulation in these troubled times, no cost, no country in the world. Suffice it to recall the U.S., when, during the crisis of the 1930s Franklin Roosevelt became president. He then introduced essentially a dictatorship. The first thing he did - subdued banks, threatening them with nationalization if they refuse to adhere to their charted course. In unreliable banks appointed State Governors. Nationalized a group of plants that fed electricity industry in six states. Adopted a law on emergency rehabilitation industry, laws regulating wages, fair competition, etc. In two months, the country believed Roosevelt, and after five years, the U.S. came out of the crisis. A similar thing happened after the Second World War, West Germany, Japan, South Korea, where the establishment of a dictatorship in the economies of these countries supported the occupation forces. For example, in Japan, the U.S. military command at the time dismissed the 400,000 civil servants working for the former regime. And in West Germany until 1952, German authorities were obliged to all of its decisions in the economy to coordinate with the command of the occupation forces. The outcome of these actions we see today in the Russian shops. For the majority of our fellow citizens abundance showcase imports like museum pieces. And the government, instead of addressing the causes of the crisis, with a persistence worthy of a better cause, vainly struggling with its manifestations - the budget deficit and inflation. As windmills. Although it is clear that we have today is not monetary inflation - money, on the contrary, a substantial shortage - and the inflation gap. It is caused by outdated technologies, depreciation of fixed assets, decommissioning. In this case, with price inflation, due to the inflation gap, fight exclusion from the counter much of the population due to the decline in effective demand. Small investments in industrial production led to its curtailment, reduce wages, higher unemployment and eventually a reduction of budget revenues. Therefore, the country is gradually slipping into the Middle Ages. More and more people survive by their vegetable plots, the number of dealers. Production becomes less attractive. Enough to compare the average monthly salary in the industry, agriculture, and financial institutions in the government. Striving to achieve in terms of false crisis targets, the government has artificially created a catastrophic shortage of currency, leading to a reduction in trade turnover. Therefore, a significant portion of cash flow deficit was covered ... non-payment. And to this day, the government will persist, constraining credit issue. A shortfall replaced dollars. We have them - oil and gas, they are to us - a piece of paper, turns us into high "commodity." How we live, bend ... - Do not you think that privatization in its current form, and economic conditions is a reflection of the fragmentation and even some adventurous thinking of some politicians and in this sense is a continuation of the former Union of sovereignty - when destroyed cooperative economic system, the principle of "if not car, and the wheel from him, but the sovereign, privatized. " Although it is obvious that the wheel will not get you anywhere. - With the proclamation of the sovereignty of three years ago, began a sharp worsening geopolitical and economic situation in Russia, which, unfortunately, has not yet fully taken into account either in foreign or domestic policy of the country. After all, Russia has lost its first two-tier strategic defense, leaving the former Soviet republics bordering the most combat-ready strategic weapons, air defense long range. With the emergence of dozens of new states emerged thousands of kilometers of new Russian border, there is little equipped. Their transparency has allowed, for example, Estonia to become Europe's leading exporter of non-ferrous metals, not making them a single gram. In some of the sovereign states of the Commonwealth of Russia had to protect their external borders. Lost the strategic Baltic Fleet, and the Black Sea fleet is falling apart. Destabilize the situation and the flow of refugees from CIS countries. Rejecting the old priorities and vital interests, Russia has lost all previous allies, without acquiring new ones. We refused, and thus on their traditional markets, including the arms, which instantly conquered other countries, primarily the United States. But the collapse of the economy, we have lost not only the look, but half of its domestic market. The key complex problem of national security - protection of territory, people, way of life - in fact not intended to fully and, of course, is not satisfied. In other words, the policy of our country is no systematic comprehensive approach to the survival and prosperity of the country and its people. Therefore, privatization was fragmented procedure by making a considerable fraction in the destruction of its economic and military potential. As a result, Russia's security in all its aspects - military, economic, technological, and others - has been so low that it is in the long term threatens the loss of sovereignty. Which, by the way, from the moment of its announcement in due measure has not yet emerged. How did not appear in the other republics of the former Soviet Union. Because their economy was primarily a part of a cooperative system. Now destroyed. And without restoring old ties, neither Russia nor the other CIS countries will not be sovereign in the true sense of the word. After all, tools to create their own full basis they do not. Therefore, all of them, including Russia, if not prevail mind seems, will continue to become a country with a colonial economy. For these relatively small countries like Kuwait, AEO, Iraq, and several others, with a relatively small population of a similar path of development is acceptable. But not for Russia. What we are seeing today, and with the trend of destruction Federation. ... After almost six years - Vladimir, that you could add to what was said today in 1995? - When I came to the State Property Committee, tried to change the strategy of privatization, including to our fellow citizens to create national wealth, would receive their share of the property, and they are better off, Chubais said to me in clear text: "What are you worried about these people? Well, thirty million die. They do not fit into the market. not think about it - the new rise. " Having caught actually in sole control of the country electricity, Chubais, covering market conditions, it seems, has launched its "dream", not waiting care of people, especially the elderly and the disabled, of life only from starvation. Now doomed to die rather help, leaving them still without heat and light. But the work has to be big. Chubais because it led to the 30 million people who "do not fit into the market" with not fit into the market, and has recently been born in Mari El girl, who lived only ten minutes, which is not able to save the doctors in the hospital due to power electricity. - Do not you think all this is reminiscent of the racist ideology of the leaders of the Third Reich? The only difference is that Chubais divide people on the "usefulness" is not based on nationality, the Aryans or not, but based on their susceptibility to the market, allowing more live only "fit" in it. Although both "fits into the market" elected by the same privatization oligarchs known. But you yourself, then Anatoly judging by his actions, not marketers. - A few years ago, Chubais said that he and his "colleagues" have chosen bandit capitalism in Russia as an alternative to communism. Since the choice of bandit country's development has been realized, Chubais actually pleaded bandit. Meanwhile, the man does not hide its substance and even flaunting it, continues to be at the helm of policy-relevant system. Now on his team off entire regions, as there is no fuel. Although there is no fuel because of the ban Chubais in power barter payments, which are a kind of clearing payments. A monetary system of the country destroyed in his own active participation. However, the huge amount of RAO "UES of Russia" spent hurl. Take, for the purchase of shares on Chubais's team broadcaster REN TV, which cost, by some estimates, 150 million. Chubais, RAO "UES of Russia" continues in effect its previous longstanding policy of the economic collapse of the country and provoking social discontent of the masses. Today, these protests are directed against Russia's new president, and the protesters because of the heat and light outages have joined "the man with the gun." Contend that under the guise of market fireworks demagogic president challenged, but for some reason he is in no hurry to change the hired managers of destroying the national grid. - What do you want for 70 days in the SPC could make balls of this, because of what you have removed, and how you are freed from the office? Ask me about it in March 1995, I found it tactless. - In short, we have to suspend the sale of extortion in the aluminum industry, what I strongly supported the then First Deputy Prime Minister Oleg Soskovets. After that, as you know, most of the industry is sold out. Also, I'm not allowed to privatize Sakhalin Shipping Company, which helped to complete in 1995 north delivery. Later, it became a shipping company, and ensuring the northern areas had serious problems. As follows from the name of the SPC, his team were to manage state property. However, in the Committee as and when I got there after Chubais, there was no division on this very control. Although the state-owned stake was the very impressive on it almost did not get the state dividends. Meanwhile, SCI employees are on the board of all the relevant corporations. Then I need to lower the rate of privatization of property, not to turn the privatization of collectivization contrary. The fact that SCI did not manage state property, testified, in particular, such a glaring fact, the absence of the registry of the Russian state property abroad. Its quantity and quality do not really know to this day, although it is estimated that the value of this property is 100 billion dollars. I ordered him to begin an inventory, but did not succeed. It is no secret that in the SCI command of American advisers who were paid out of funds created in Moscow on U.S. money fund is privatization. He headed the fund infamous Maxim Boyko. Its employees under the guise of privatization collected - let's call it this way - the confidential information on the strategically important Russian enterprises, and at the same time in the fund embezzled money. Of the $ 110 million spent, the fund, Boyko unable to report for only 70 million, and the rest of American taxpayers money disappeared to God knows where. As you know, recently on this issue once again broke the scandal in the U.S. Congress. Since I was able to slow down the implementation of the privatization program, the U.S. Russia and publish it behind the scenes, that it could not go unpunished. January 25, 1995 at the session of the IMF had to decide whether to grant us the first tranche of the loan of $ 6 billion. But his extradition IMF linked to the need for further privatization of the country continues to Harvard scenario, which I headed. Shortly before the session of the IMF then U.S. Secretary of State Warren Christopher called to Geneva, his assistant in Russia Andrei Kozyrev, then performed the functions of both the Russian foreign minister, and demanded to remove Polevanov of the State Property Committee. Which was done on January 24. The next day, the IMF tranche issued. According to the intentions of the current government to continue the sale of businesses in almost the same rules, it seems that in the Moscow White House nothing and have not learned. After all, in order not to ruin the economy, must be carefully pre-selection and selection of the new owners, capable of production, primarily for the benefit of employees of the privatized enterprises, which means that the whole of society and the state. [1] The newspaper "Industry News" published a manuscript of a new book of Moses Guelman "In the morass pseudomarket reforms. Chronicles collapse of the Russian economy and the possibility of recovery." What a book - you can learn by reading the author's appeal and become familiar with its contents. The manuscript is published with the extension. In this issue of the newspaper published: Independent, How did this book, What the story book, and how it can be read, in marshy path Gaydar ...

Moses Gelman