Since the time of Peter I Russian fashion developed in European style trends. In 1900-ies. Russian women's fashion focused on two fashionable European city - Vienna and Paris, and the male - to London. Members of the upper classes, as the main consumers of fashion, sought to fully comply with European style and fashion ideas scooped in these fashion capitals.
Women's fashion of the period was the epitome of style, "Belle Epoque" and Art Nouveau. The basis of the female silhouette was the perfect image of a woman of that era - a woman who was alien to the earth anxiety of everyday life and worries at all physical work. The woman of the era when it was not yet emancipated, ie did not work and did not have such a need was more like a beautiful flower, exotic insects, such as butterflies, birds ... artists of the era depicted in the image of a woman mermaid or undine, who lives in the water nymphs in the clouds, dryads, who lives in the woods, but in any case not in the image of a living person who walks down the street. Women at that time did not go on the ground, they soar! Therefore, the main idea of the female image of the time - weightless, airy and ephemeral. Fashionable silhouette, creating an image that consisted of excessively pull corset "wasp" waist, wide hips, flared bell-like flower skirt, which ended with friction (train), to create the illusion of "foaming waves" from which comes this beautiful unearthly creature.
By surviving dresses this period, we know that the waist is pulled up to the inhuman amounts to 42 - 45 cm, so that women are able to compare the size of their waists with volumes necks of their fans.
July 19, 1906, middle-aged lady
in the exercise of a light demi closet
Dress trimmed with frill, silk inlay and
inserts from severe lace.
Lace fingerless gloves and spectacular
leghorn, adorned with velvet and
English roses, silk umbrella
with a handle in the form of a heron.
Era of the 1900s. was the era of small women. In fashion, women have been increasing 1,55 - 1,60 m, but very busty. Therefore, in these years, apparel has sought to establish the illusion of a magnificent bust. Chest corset maintained and cultivated. Russia 1900. was captivated all possible recipes increase bust through massages, potions, poultices, etc.
The clothing has a single bust lush front (split breasts appeared only with the advent of bras) and draped it, using all sorts of ruffles and bed-cotton pads, ensuring that chest looked lush and defiantly beautiful.
A woman of this era was to be "semolina", ie woo man their volumes, have narrow sloping shoulders, but was not to be skinny. The primary role of women at that time was motherhood. In the peasant community was normal to have 10 - 12 children, and in the city - to 6 - 8. Therefore, the population of Russia was high and amounted to 1917, 150 million people, more than today, by 2007, the year. Russian women of that time never tans, tanning was considered a sign of prostolyudinok, peasant working in the field.
According to the canons of the French fashion women bright powdered rice powder, trying to effect a sickly pale form, but remained with the savory forms. This was the era of long hair. In fashion there were reddish brown-haired with long shiny hair, which fit into the complex yaponoobraznye hairstyles.
And cut dresses because of the form of sleeves and corsages, hats and shape of this period we always say about the nature, not the geometry. Fashion of that period did not like straight lines, angles, straight endings. Were relevant forms resembling a flower or insect wings - they can be seen in the form of arms, and in the forms of hats, etc.
Female silhouette lengthened by friction, so the woman, despite his small stature, look higher than it actually was, especially behind; and emphasized a narrow waist to create elegant, weightless silhouette, who stressed the chest, hips and air addition, women in general.
St. Petersburg, about 1903 known singer Anastasia Vyaltseva concert dress in luxurious houses Brizak silk. Dress trimmed with embroidery, in which applitsirovany black swallows, on his shoulders - boa of ostrich feathers.
Haute couture house in Russia featured their elitism. For example, the St. Petersburg House Brizak is the supplier of the Court and has worked exclusively for the needs of the court, that is, clients of this home were the Empress, her daughters - Grand Duchesses, the Grand Duchess - sisters and wives of the great princes and ladies of Court. At the highest orders of Empress House Brizak could serve two clients who do not belong to the court - crowd favorite actresses Anna Pavlova and Anastasia Vyaltseva. Another big fashion house St. Petersburg 1900. The house was Gindus, who shared the fate of the revolution era Brizak House and passed into oblivion.
The third major fashion house was the House Buldenkovoy Olga, who was also Provisioner Court, ie did the court dress. These were special shaped dresses that are not subjected to fashion trends, and are regulated by the Charter of the Court approved a special imperial decree back in 1830. In addition to major fashion houses were more than hundreds of small fashion houses and studios, which provides services to individual as well as a mass-produced collection. Thus, the Russian Fashion 1900. had both the individual and the mass market, but shows none of the Russian houses not hold. The first fashion show was held in St. Petersburg in 1916, however, in 1911, in St. Petersburg brought his collection of Paul Poiret. The difference between the two events is that in 1916, appeared on Russian models Russian models, and in 1911 he showed at the French Poire mannequins French model. The next fashion show in Soviet times there was only in 1959 when the Soviet Union came to House of Christian Dior. Moscow's most famous creator of fashion was Nadezhda Lamanova. She came from a noble family of the Nizhny Novgorod region, tailor's skill was trained in Paris, and in 1880 launched its operations in Moscow. Her work quickly gained recognition and she was named the Provisioner Court of Her Imperial Majesty. Empress, so dress in Worth in Paris, Brizaka in St. Petersburg and in Moscow Lamanova. Lamanova famous, in particular, their costumes, made in 1903 for the "Russian Ball" in the Winter Palace. She also worked a lot with the Art Theatre at the invitation of Stanislavsky, she designed costumes for Knipper-Chekhova, Germanova Andreeva and many performances of the Art Theatre. Preferred to work in engineering Lamanova tattoos or crappy way, when the fabric pinned on the dummy pins without using a flat pattern. The method of tattooing is considered the top tailor's skill, and all models of fashion and is now performed in this technique. Lamanova fate after the revolution was sad. She was the only one of the Russian fashion, not emigrate - not only is that by the time of the revolution she was already 60 years old. Her husband, the eminent Russian businessman and philanthropist cabins, was arrested by the Bolsheviks among the first Lamanova and hoped that it will be able to secure his release. These hopes have not come true, the cabin was destroyed, and she Lamanova was arrested in 1918 and imprisoned in Butyrskaya for being sewed dresses for the Empress. A few months later, she was released on applications Gorky and Stanislavsky and order Lunacharsky was appointed to lead company, making "new Soviet clothes."
In 1925, the model Lamanova in the folk style of the towels and towels (because these fabrics in this period, Russia was not) won the Grand Prix of the Soviet pavilion at the World Expo. Nadezhda Lamanova died in 1941 of a heart attack on a bench in front of the theater. Lamanova is the founder of Soviet design and construction, as the only professional fashion designer, has remained in the country after the revolution. Russian Fashion 1900. gravitated to the use of domestic materials. First of all, it concerned lace. 1900s.
- The era of the great interest in the pseudo-Russian style in architecture, furniture, painting, and, of course, the clothes. Therefore, Vologda, Yeletsky, St. Michael and other people's linen lace works were very popular and in demand. Lace, invented in the late XV - XVI centuries. Italians came to Russia from Western Europe at the XVII - XVIII centuries. However, the forms of lace, which remained with us, are considered national. Bright feature of the national taste is the love of decoration. That is why all things Russian work more wordy and busy than the things that were made in the West. Most things Russian work 1900. richly decorated with embroidery (as cross and satin), ribbons, applications, etc.
Strict visiting dress beige - the earliest work
of Lamanova stored in the Hermitage.
In addition to domestic, Russia was a major consumer of Europe, in particular, the Brussels and Flemish lace, which were purchased in Europe. Thanks to its preserved customs yearbooks, which contained information on all imported and exported goods over the border, we know, for example, that during the 1900s. Russia imported about 500 tons of ostrich feathers for decoration toilets. This fact is a clear demonstration that the Russian taste has always been peculiar attraction to the richness of decoration. Parts, accessories and decoration have always played for the Russian women a huge role. Brooch in the form of a bee. Silver, gold, diamonds, rubies, pearls and enamel. Firm Bohlin. Russia, Moscow, 1908-1917.
Russian women have always been a lover of jewelry and more consumers - as real pearls, diamonds and gemstones and jewelry, imitating them. In Russia, then, is supported by a number of jewelers also in demand overseas and imported jewelry. A very large number of items imported by the western boundaries of the empire - Warsaw, Riga, Helsinki. Decorative art of Russia of that time were very well developed. Produced as a relatively inexpensive mass production of serial stuff and very expensive jewelry individual work of gold, platinum, and for more modest consumers - from silver. Silver ornaments were considered quite unpretentious, gold was a slightly different composition of varieties, the most popular of which was pure gold pinkish hue. Figurative decoration of this period, that is, represent a particular branch, flower, butterfly, beetle, spider, etc.
Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis, 1909. "The Tale of the King." Favorite motif jewelry was a bat, the theme of which was, in general, is very popular in this era in Russia. For example, in the 1910s. In Moscow, the famous cabaret Nikita Baleeva "Die Fledermaus." It is in the jewelry very fully embodied prevailed in the period art nouveau.
Prominent representative of Art Nouveau was a Lithuanian painter and composer Čiurlionis. The color scheme of the Art Nouveau style of painting tended to greenish-blue-gray tones, which had an impact on jewelry. Russia has traditionally loved and colored stones - for example, the Ural gems were popular in this era. By 1910, the mu-shaped ornaments gradually became more geometric, there plotless brooch with aquamarine, amethyst, alexandrite, etc. Firm of Carl Faberge. Easter egg gift. It was Russia that gave the world the famous jeweler Carl Faberge.
The flowering of the style of Faberge falls exactly on the era of 1900s. Faberge was founded in St. Petersburg in the middle of the XIX century., But to be a success and popularity of their products have become a little later, after the company began to manufacture gift Easter eggs for the royal family. Creativity Faberge unique in that they have developed a Russian theme, using both domestic gems and stones are imported. Subject eggs was first used in jewelery is Faberge. In contrast to Europe, I prefer pale, muted colors in clothes, in Russia, have been popular rich, deep tones of crimson, purple, all shades of red ... This feature of Russian taste dictated, first of all, climate and geography of the country. Against the background of a long dark winter and discreet Russian nature, we will always love bright colors and rich decor, filling the lack of sun and bright colors of the world.
That is why the national soil poorly acclimatized idea of minimalism - not only in clothing, but also in architecture and other forms of visual arts. Dressed "rich" in Russia as in the capitals and in provincial towns. Provincial centers of fashion is becoming a major industrial centers - famous ladies of Kiev, Kharkov, Odessa, Riga, Vilnius, Kazan, Samara ... These cities were not only many fashion ateliers, but shlyapnits and shoe industries, jewelers ...
Russia during these years was the largest supplier of textiles to the Asian countries - Russian chintz sold to the Ottoman Empire (Turkey), Iran and China. The world-famous fabric Trekhgornij manufactory Prokhorovskaya factories, factories Tsindel and many others. Printed fabrics of these manufacturers were both for export and the domestic market. In the period of 1900. printed cloth fabric used in the then dominant motifs of Art Nouveau - irises, poppies, pansies, rose.
Russian distinguishes products that time busy and a lot of manual work. Sewing machines have been delivered to Russia in 1855, the firm Singer and widely used even in the villages, but handmade decor certainly accompanied by the creation of every piece of clothing.
At the time, the woman to go out without a hat was completely impossible. Hat was the main accessory Russian ladies of the time, for that matter, and European. Favorite hats were decorated feathers - so they were imported in such large numbers, as stated above. The main requirement for the cap of the time was that she barely touched hair, and it was completely invisible, as it is attached. Decor also sought to achieve the effect of weightlessness - bird on the cap had to look like she is ready to fly up in a minute and fly away.
The most highly prized ostrich feathers, herons and birds of paradise. Hat with the decor of these feathers were quite expensive that few could afford, so in the course were the feathers of domestic birds - gulls, eagle, partridge, wood and even poultry.
Another way to get a cheap hat was her purchase with it at a flea market. Bought things there - not just hats, but also dresses - alter, painted and finished to match his new mistress. One of the most popular flea market in Moscow was Sukharevsky, were brought to the used stuff from rich homes. The size of the hat had in the 1900s. a very strong tendency to increase, and the silhouette was a hat with a very broad asymmetrically curved fields. To retain this form in the hat was placed wire frame. By the end of 1900. Hats have become so huge that became the target of cartoonists, and they looked like huge Laundry baskets, filled with feathers.
Hat shops of the time worked on the principle trade school - the owner of such a shop took in training with accommodation for girls from low-income urban and rural families. Gradually, they mastered all manufacturing operations and the secrets of the craft, starting of course with the most simple. As a result, became the most famous shlyapnitsami talented and gifted of the masters, and all the others, was not much special abilities were, however, qualified specialists, who owned his craft professionally. Number hat studio in the capital and provincial towns simply incalculable - there were a great many. Some of them were very eminent and famous throughout Russia, for example, hat atelier "Vandrag", which was in Moscow, Petrovka.
Another characteristic accessory for ladies of that time was her glass - glasses then considered accessory "blue stocking" and similar emansipe. Parasol - as an indispensable accessory ladies of the time, it protects the owner from the sun, because, as noted above, an essential requirement for the appearance time was "aristocratic pallor". The most outstanding instances of such umbrellas were a real piece of decorative art, finished with embroidery and lace, had precious pens. The best shopping umbrellas were on the Nevsky Prospect in St. Petersburg and at the Kuznetsk bridge in Moscow. All the ladies in the 1900s. use fans. This was due entirely prosaic reasons - the lighting was candle or oil, respectively, the brighter the room was lit up, so it was hotter. With the massive shift to the need for electric lighting in the fan fell away, and he always went out of fashion items in the 1910s. Decor fans executed in modern style, typical of their features were uneven edge and favorite floral motifs of modernity - poppies, irises, etc. After the Russian-Japanese war in 1905 into a large vogue in Russia included everything Japanese, respectively, and the fans are often decorated in a Japanese style. Very popular were feather fan - from the cheapest of the cock, which were the maids, to luxurious, from the ostrich. Ostrich fans were made on precious tortoiseshell frame and finished by diamond cipher with a monogram of the owner. All noble families in Russia had a coat of arms and crown, who often used in the decoration of accessories - handbags, purses, fans, signets and rings. Lina Cavalieri Russian stores this time was mainly domestic.
Major shoe centers were Moscow, St. Petersburg and Kazan. For shoe design of this period was characterized by French heel or heel-a shot and a sharp nose. As with all other components of the fashion closet, a special characteristic feature of Russian footwear was richly decorated with beads, embroidery, pearls, etc. Embroidered in gold on the skin was very time consuming, require considerable physical effort, so it is performed by men. In 1900-ies. in Russia was common mail order sales than happy to use a resident from the capital cities. By sending a remittance and descriptions shopping, they ordered and received by mail corsets, umbrellas, hats, shoes and many other essential fashion items. Thus the capital of fashion almost immediately reach the Far East of the empire - the Far East, Siberia, Central Asia, etc.
Speedy dissemination of fashion trends and innovations facilitated by the fact that in Russia, 1900. were published more than a dozen national fashion magazines - "Ladies' World", "Paris fashion for Russian readers," "Modern Woman", etc. These logs contained not only the latest fashions, but the advice to buy fashion accessories, patterns, designs and embroideries etc. In the 1910's. came the first color magazines, and in 1900 they were all black and white. In addition to domestic, in Russia, and sold all the foreign fashion magazines.
Fashionista 1900. could change up to six times a day - started the day with a peignoir, then comes the turn of a house dress, then walking, then a business, tea, dinner, and, finally, ballroom or theater - depending on the plans for the evening. Virtually all the time secular women was changing toilets and decorating themselves. Of course, this requires not only the use of the services milliners, shlyapnits, etc., but also the presence of a staff of servants, including household cleaners and gladilschits. Every home is not only rich, but even the middle class, was always at least one laundress who washed and starches everything - from clothes to day dresses, as well as children and men, and another that all ironed. For the kitchen there was a cook worries, for the rest of housework - maid. Raising children was entrusted first nurse, governess, and then home teachers
In 1900-ies. Russia had taken a long time to mourn. On the death of a close relative - spouse, parent, brother - the mourning was worn for a year. Therefore, there was a certain fashion for black, mourning parts, accessories, dresses. Mourning was divided into a full, deep mourning, which was worn year polutraur, observe six months, and quaternary mourning, during which allowed to wear black instead of gray and purple. Quaternary mourning observed by a relative is not very close, for example, the cousin or nephew. But the widow, according to the rules of propriety, was attributed to the black within a year without any breaks. Jewelry is also divided into ordinary and mourning. Diamonds in time of mourning was not supposed to wear, by the black mourning jewelry from coal, and very popular at the time braided hair ornaments. Located on the economic recovery, rich Russia 1900 was very attractive for all kinds of foreign stars who are willing to come here on tour. Brilliant European beauties, actress and singer who brought with them the European fashion trends, Western notions of beauty and lifestyle. One of these brilliant ladies who claimed in the 1900s., Was an Italian singer, soprano Lina Cavalieri. It often and willingly came on tour to St. Petersburg, where he enjoyed great success and received rich gifts. Its luxurious toilets and jewelry have always been a topic of discussion in the press.
Another famous beauty of the time, which also enjoys going to Russia with performances, a Belgian dancer Cleo de Merode. She left a book of memoirs in which, in particular, notes that after traveling the world on tour, she never seen such a magnificent audience, as in Petersburg. Auditorium glittering diamonds, furs and gold epaulets, and no country in the world turned out to welcome her not richer than Russia. Another is always desirable and very popular in Russia foreign beauty was a Spanish dancer Caroline Otero. In 2006, published her biography in Russian - book Carmen Posadas "Beautiful Otero." In those days, a very common form of concerts were benefit performances - ie such statements when the entire collection of received benefitsiantka hall, and the audience a tray of her presents. These gifts can be made as individuals and on behalf of any associations or organizations, such as the Merchants Assembly, industrialists, etc. The gift then understood solely jewelry, ie diamonds.