Russian traditions: samovars

Samovar: history of occurrence

Samovar has long been considered a symbol of Russian hospitality, he was an integral part of the lives of our people. Despite the fact that in China there is a device with a similar device, a real samovar can be seen only in Russia.

What was the cause of the samovar? Of course, the tea, which was first brought from Asia to Russia in the 17th century. Interestingly, the first drink that used to know only as a medicine, but eventually tea became a worthy competitor to Russian was brought down, which is used for cooking sbitennik. This instrument was outwardly very similar to the kettle, but inside it was a pipe that is used for laying of coal. That was the ancestor of sbitennik samovar.

It is still unknown when and who made the first samovar. The first documented mention of Tula samovars due to the 1778 year. Then the brothers Ivan and Nazar Lisitsyn samovar produced in a small workshop, which he built still their father.

Russian traditions and obychaiVsego only 25 years for the brothers to turn the workshop into a small factory with a capital of 3,000 rubles. and income of 1,500 rubles. (Sweat of time, money - hoo what!) Even then, it labored for 26 people. Case brothers continued the son of Nazar, Nikita. However, even after a century no one left of the genus Lisitsyn. But so far their samovars are known for their variety of form and decoration. Tula samovars Museum boasts a large collection of works of great masters.

However, Lisitsyn was still not the only ones who understood that the production of samovars - it sufficiently profitable. By 1808 the last eight of the Tula samovar factory produced, in 1812, Vasily Lomov opened his factory, which produced about 1,000 annually samovars. For high quality products in 1940, their samovars have the right to wear the national emblem.

How much cost the samovar? At the time, its value depended on the weight. Brass samovar could be bought for 64 rubles / pounds, and the copper was worth 90 rubles / pounds.

Meanwhile, production of samovars are expanding. Already by 1850 there were 28 factories, which produce annually 120,000 samovars and other products made from copper. And in 1890 the number had increased to 77 mills, employing over 1,300 people.


Tula samovars conquer Russia

Russian traditions and obychaiChto influenced such rapid development in Tula samovar fishing? Firstly, the proximity of Moscow and the favorable geographical position. Secondly, the presence of iron-ore deposits. And third, only the Thule was a number of excellent artists who can work with metal.

How were able to conquer all of Tula samovars Russia? Each year at the Nizhny Novgorod fair on the Oka River, ferrying hundreds of thousands of samovars. This form of transportation was the cheapest and safest for both of samovars. They packed a dozen in special boxes. Full box weighs about 4 pounds. By this time the price dropped samovars, so for 90 rubles could buy a dozen of samovars.

In the most famous and most successful manufacturers, such as Luba and Lomov, stores were not only in Tula, but also in Moscow and St. Petersburg.

Often profession samovarschika passed from father to son. But to learn it was very difficult. Over three years the future of the masters had to learn this craft. The entire production process took a samovar in the home, the factory only collected from the samovar ready items and trimmed it. Sometimes the whole village was engaged in the manufacture of only one of 14 components. Passed manufactured parts once or twice a week. Work at home could be interrupted until the summer to be able to conduct field work. There was virtually no cases where the master himself fully created whole samovar, there was always a clear division of work in seven areas.

For all of the production of samovars several manufacturers were truly "samovar kings." These include scrap and Batashevs. Their samovars were especially popular among buyers.

This prominence has generated a lot of factory-namesakes. For example, factories Batashevs by the end of the 19th century there were more than 10. However, the real heirs of the VS Batashev also had their own factory, which in the early 19th century, samovars produced 54 different styles. They were the leaders for their quality and originality of finishing products participated in numerous exhibitions. Now, many samovars Batashevs are in Tula Museum, among which are a set of samovars, made specifically for the royal family.

Types of antique samovars

Russian traditions and obychaiVremya passed, and samovars became more diverse by the end of 19th century styles of samovars close to 200.

The peculiarity of samovar production was the lack of complete mechanization of production. It can not be implemented due to a huge variety of types of samovars. Over time, there were strong competitors Batashevs - Shemariny, Kopyrziny, Vorontsov, and others.

By the early 20th century, began to appear new types of samovars: samovar "Parichko", kerosene and copper samovar, which was fastened at the side of the pipe, which is much accelerated the process of boiling water.

Kerosene samovars were produced only in Tula, and the demand was everywhere kerosene cost is cheap, especially in the Caucasus. Samovar "Parichko" distinguished by the fact that they had a detachable pitcher. They were fire-safe, the water stayed warm longer, and clean them was much better than everyone else.

Tula samovars made until the early 20th century - is not simply a device for boiling water, it is - true works of art.

Revolution and war, of course, affected the samovar production, but its development continued during the years of the NEP in the postwar period. Beginning in 1950, at the only factory in Tula, "stamp", there have been many instances of the exhibition and gift samovars. And in 1977, appears combined samovar, which can be boiled and charcoal, and with the help of electricity.

Samovar Tea and Traditions

Russian traditions and obychaiNesmotrya that since the creation of the first samovars technology changed, the tradition of tea drinking have survived until today.

Traditionally, the little round the samovar in each family stood in the center of the table, as if bringing people sitting behind him, he was a symbol of kindness and comfort in the house. In the East, during the ceremony of tea drinking man delved into itself, then in Russia, by contrast, tea spiritually bound people.

The samovar became a symbol of peace, did not give a table quarrels flare up, holding back people.

Notable and tea, which is brewed in Russia. It did not contain the flowers of plants in China, was not green, as in America, or black, as in England. Russian tea is always prepared from the apical bud plants and brew necessarily with sugar. In addition, it so happened that the men drank tea from glass cups, and women used a cup of Chinese porcelain.

Each family that has survived Tula samovar to the present day, should take care of it. After all, the samovar - a part of Russian culture, Russian traditions and Russian soul.