Sauna and Russian bath

From the history of baths

History of Bath has its roots in antiquity. Thus, the Egyptians still 6,000 years ago, giving great importance to purity of body, widely used accessible to everyone, well arranged baths. Egyptian doctors of that time were considered the best in the world and their art of healing rested mainly on the water bath and procedures. 1500 years BC bath was used extensively from the hygienic and medical purposes in India, ancient Greece. One of the oldest baths are Roman baths. They consisted of several sections: a room for undressing and rest after a bath, swimming pool for the first ablution facilities for washing.
In the bath the Romans not only washed, but were philosophical discussions, drawing, reading poetry, singing, feasting and even arranged the meeting was carried out of the Senate. It should be noted that the steam room warmed the room as well as in modern Russian baths and sauna: installed in a corner of oven-roasting pan, on a bronze lattice - stones over hot coals.
After the capture of Byzantium by the Turks, under the influence of Eastern culture over time, Roman baths were modified and became known as Turkish baths. Paul they warmed by hot air, then sprayed it with hot water, steam formed as a result. In hot climates of the East regular visits to the baths prevented the people from various diseases.
Roman-Irish baths have spread around the world. They are pure air at moderate temperatures 50-600 C. The hot air passes under the floor and the walls in special tubes. The process of evaporation is to move from room to room preparatory warm-up first, then to the steam room office, in which, through the slatted floor is served hot air. As a result of these procedures are actively sweating.
In Japan, very popular water baths. Bath such bath is arranged in a wooden barrel, which is filled with hot water at a temperature of about 450. Another type of Japanese bath is sawdust dry sauna. In pine sawdust is added herbs, then mix sawdust with herbs is heated up to 600. Sawdust absorb the sweat, while highlighting the aromatic and medicinal substances.
In the hot countries of the Middle East, where there is little fresh water, there is a sand bath. The hot sand well absorbs sweat zaryvshegosya in a sand lot man, then a very good swim in the sea.
Steam bath in Russia are also known for a long time, so even in the charter of the Grand Duke Vladimir baths were listed as "unfit for schools". Throughout Russia, in villages and towns on the banks of rivers, lakes and streams built steam bath. Russian steam bath is a wooden hut, which has two facilities: changing room and steam room accommodation. In the steam room housed the heater, and a room had two versions: with a furnace "black" and "on-white." The Russian bath is another species that occurs in the steppe and forest-free areas where there is no way to build a Log-room. In the Russian oven after baking bread shovel ash plank board and climb inside, where previously placed a bucket and a broom. Humidification of the hot walls of the furnace is formed by water vapor.
The designs of the Finnish sauna is very close to the Russian bath, even though they are often contrasted by attributing Russian more wet steam and sauna - dry. Meanwhile, the real Finnish sauna is no different from a Russian steam bath. In the Russian bath, sauna and steam has long been received by pouring hot stones in the fire.
Bath evolution has created two methods of artificial humidification in Finnish and Russian. Finnish - this is to pour water on the open rocks, and Russian - is to evaporate water in a confined space furnace. In the Finnish way, the higher the evaporation temperature, the more light, dry and steam will be dissociated. The temperature of the upper stones of the sauna stove reaches 3000S, you can certainly heat up more, but then correspondingly increase the temperature in the steam room itself. In the Russian bath covered stones can be heated up to 700-8000S, and if the oven is built correctly, a steam room is not overheated, and the dissociation of steam will be maximum. That is why the construction in the Russian bath large oven-stove, in which stones are inside the furnace for the door, which opens only to splash the water. Humidity in the sauna -3-8% at high temperature, in the Russian bath humidity - 60% at 55-700C. Thermal conductivity of moist air is much higher than the dry, so the deeper heating is achieved in less aggressive environments.

Effect of bath on the body.

Banya (sauna) - is a unique invention. Enjoying a bath procedures, people rarely think about how it affects the human body. But the effect is complex: a combination of heat bath and gives way to cold during contrast procedures, aromatherapy, massage, cleansing the body by special trains.
In a hot-air bath (sauna) for a short time a person gets into the atmosphere of high temperature, which arises under the influence of external influence, which does not overload much nor heart, nor the blood circulation. The rhythm of the heart, its capacity and speed of blood flow increases. The pressure usually does not change, in some cases even back to normal. Rhythm and depth of respiration within the recommended time bathing, as a rule, do not change or increased marginally.
Muscles, muscles of the limbs and trunk muscles of internal organs relax. Similarly, relaxing the nervous system that controls the activity of the cerebral cortex, mental activity.
Under the influence of heat release at any moment hovering 20-30 grams of pot, maximum of 60-70 g, and with it removed from the body of the decay products.
Cooling following the warming, aims to normalize the functioning of the body and body temperature. Vessels are narrowed to its normal size, reduced blood flow, but at the same time occurs, oxygen saturation, reduced metabolism. Too rapid cooling is harmful. Good gradual cooling has a refreshing, invigorating effect, the skin becomes supple and beautiful, increases the body's immunity. Colds, sore throat or flu less often observed in the regular visitors to the sauna (sauna).
According to some reports, a bath (sauna) activity revives the pituitary and adrenal glands that regulate blood flow to the hormones that control not only salt and water metabolism, diabetes and metabolism, as well as play a role in increasing the mental stability of the body, protect it against overload and stress .
Banya (sauna) can help to do manual labor, the athletes in the regeneration of muscles. Visiting the baths (saunas), supplemented by massage is recommended after a workout or competition. Under the action of heat increases flexibility, extensibility motor organs, increases flexibility, reduces chance of injury. For small injuries such as sprains, dislocations bath (sauna) accelerates healing and reduces pain.

Who is recommended to use the sauna.

Every healthy person can enjoy the sauna (sauna), but it is advisable to pay attention to some of the disease, age of an organism.
Official medicine recommends visiting a wet bath for the treatment of some diseases and suhovozdushnuyu bath (sauna) for other diseases. There's also a number of diseases in which the contrary, there are contraindications to the public baths.
Bath is a complex procedure, which is not limited to visiting the steam room. The use of medicinal ointments, rastirok, compresses, hot drinks and infusions, even exposure to cold - an integral part of the bath treatment. The bath is widely used aromatherapy treatment oils, mud, herbal medicine, massage and many other ways to impact on the body. So that would take pleasure in charge of health and need to get advice from your doctor.

Direction in the construction of baths and saunas.

On the site or in a country house for a bath (sauna) understand the structure or group of buildings with appropriate engineering equipment intended for washing the body, hygiene and physical therapy treatments. At the same time the traditional washing in the bath or shower is complemented by contrast, teploholodovym effect, lifts the psycho-emotional stress, positively influencing the processes of survival and vitality of the body, strengthening the body.
Feature of the Russian baths is the use of the sauna room, where a humid air environment with a temperature of 700C and to a relative humidity of 60-85% in a single drawing room air for an hour. A feature of the Finnish sauna is a sauna room with the use of suhovozdushnoy environment with a temperature of 120 ° C. and 80 relative humidity of 3-8% of the natural multiple ventilation, according to sanitary rules and norms 5 times for 1 hour. For prefabricated saunas, where due to the small volume of space is achieved by balancing supply and air vents, so it is necessary to maintain a 5.6 fold change of air per hour.
The above parameters moist air or suhovozdushnoy medium baths and saunas are provided with various types of furnaces, heaters, solid fuel or electric, both domestic and foreign manufacturers.
At present, based on current Regulations baths and saunas can be placed in separate buildings, as well as be in or adjacent (or built) in the building except residential. In connection with these requirements has created the following areas of the construction of baths and saunas

Construction of freestanding baths

Building built the sauna
The construction of the sauna cabin
In all cases, the effective area of ​​the sauna room for one person must be at least 1.5 m2 per person, at the height of the sauna room of at least 2.1-2.5 m.
For the inner casing and shelf locations sauna and Russian steam virtually no fundamental differences between themselves, so the word "pair" can be understood as a Finnish sauna, Russian bath and.
Design should be paired smooth sensation experienced by the person entering the premises to room temperature in the room where the air is heated up to high temperatures. The space should be organized so as to not cling to view extra details as possible to remove everything that underlines the enclosed space. Angles should be as small as possible, and they should not strike the eye.
The absence of corners meant by a lack of or minimizing such details as the trim, flat strips and moldings. Therefore, as recommended in the construction of saunas for personal use to install the door with the glass, thanks to which are in the steam room there will be no claustrophobia. Particular attention should be given coverage in the steam room, it should be soft and steady, and position the light over the top as you can shop in different parts of it, and under the bench.
Flooring stores do not have to be continuous, it is necessary for proper air circulation, for the same reason it is not necessary to sew up the side surface of the shelves, although very often the opposite occurs. Note the width of the stalls: wide upper bench gives a feeling of solidity, but in any case be a personal approach to customer requirements and the size of the room. Shops do open bottom, they should not interfere with ventilation, aeration, cleaning the floor.
It has long been sex in the bath was made of wood, and a floor soon becomes dirty and does not dry as the bottom pair and the lowest temperature and highest humidity. Therefore it is better to cover the floor with ceramic tiles.
Bath should relieve tension, which is especially important under stress and therefore need trees, which energootritsatelny or neutral. Most suitable for this traditional hardwoods linden, alder, aspen, or exotic abachi (Abasha, apah, apache), hemlock, Cedar. The surface of the wood in contact with the skin should not have sharp edges, burrs, stains resin. Metal parts should be hidden in a tree.
In the steam room must have a mechanical thermometer and hygrometer to measure the quality of steam, is also recommended to have an hourglass to control the time spent in the steam room.