Russian Orthodox church

Russian Orthodox church, largest autocephalous, or ecclesiastically independent, Eastern Orthodox church in the world. Its membership is estimated at more than 85 million.

According to tradition, the Russian Orthodox Church is what came of a community of believers founded by the apostle Andrew, who visited Scythia and Greece, along the northern part of the Black Sea. According to the tradition, while on his missionary journeys, Andrew eventually reached Kiev, the current home of St. Andrew’s Cathedral. Later, Princess Olga of Kiev converted to Christianity, and eventually her grandson, Vladimir the Great, made Byzantine Rite Christianity the official religion in Kiev. This marked the birth of what became the Russian Orthodox Church, part of the Eastern Orthodox Church.

Like other Orthodox churches, the Russian Orthodox Church is trinitarian, believes the Bible to be the Word of God, and teaches that Jesus is God the Son. In these matters, the Russian Orthodox Church aligns with Scripture. However, their doctrine has much more in common with Roman Catholicism than with evangelical Christianity. Russian Orthodox services are liturgical and filled with symbolism. Mary has a special place in Russian Orthodoxy as the Mother of God. The Russian Orthodox Church promotes the use of icons (sacred images) and teaches that salvation is conferred through the observance of the sacraments—the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith alone is not taught in Russian Orthodoxy. Members of the Russian Orthodox Church regard the decisions of their church councils to be infallible.

The Russian Orthodox Church is one of the autocephalous (self-governing) Eastern Orthodox churches. Being the head of a self-governing body, the bishop of the Russian Orthodox Church does not report to a bishop higher than himself. There is no pope in Russian Orthodoxy. While the minimization of bureaucracy is commendable, the fact remains that the Russian Orthodox Church, like all other churches of this type, depends on a wide and many-faceted power structure consisting of bishops, monks, priests, archbishops, cardinals, nuns and so on. In contrast, the early church, in obedience to Christ’s teachings, considered themselves all brothers and sisters and did not hold any one man above another, because God was their Father and Teacher (see Matthew 23:8–10).

 History of the Russian Orthodox Church

 In the pre-Mongol period, the Russian Church was the metropolis of the Patriarchate of Constantinople, who appointed his metropolitan from the Greeks.

However, in 1051, this throne was first occupied by the Russian Metropolitan Hilarion, a very educated church figure. The history of the Russian Orthodox Church testifies that the construction of majestic temples in Russia began in the Xth century, and since the XI century the first monastic farms have already been created.

The first monastery (Kiev-Pechersky) was founded by the Monk Anthony of Caves, who brought the Athonite monasticism to Russia in 1051.
It was he who became the center of Orthodoxy in Russia. Later monasteries were not only spiritual centers, but also centers of culture and education, where historical chronicles were kept, theological books were translated, iconography flourished.

Russian Orthodox church

Unification of principalities

Asking the question: "The ROC - what is it?", It should be noted that during the period of feudal fragmentation of the 12th century, only the Orthodox Church remained the main bearer of the idea of the unity of the Russian people, which opposed constant princely internecine strife.

In the 13th century, Tatar-Mongol hordes attacked Russia, but they could not break the Russian Church either. Morally, spiritually and materially, it contributed to the creation of Russian political unity. In the 14th century, Russian principalities began to unite around Moscow. Great Russian saints became spiritual assistants to the Moscow princes.

Russian Orthodox church

Great Companions

Metropolitan Alexy became the tutor of the holy prince Dmitry Donskoy. St. Metropolitan Iona of Moscow helped the Moscow prince in preserving the unity of the state system and ending feudal wars.

The Orthodox Saint Sergius of Radonezh blessed Dmitri Donskoi for the Kulikovo Battle, this military feat was the beginning of the liberation of the Russian lands from the Tatar-Mongols.

Many are not in vain interested in the topic of the Russian Orthodox Church - what is it? "
- And here, first of all, it should be noted that the Orthodox Church helped preserve the culture and national identity of the Russian people.

For example, in the thirteenth century the construction of the Pochaev Lavra was begun, so Orthodoxy was asserted on the West Russian lands.
Between the fourteenth and the middle of the fifteenth century, up to 180 monasteries were established in Russia. A significant event was the founding of the Trinity-Sergius Monastery in 1334 by St. Sergius of Radonezh. In this monastery the Monk Andrey Rublyov has found application to his marvelous talent.

Aftokephalia. Patriarchs of the Russian Orthodox Church

Over time, the Russian state began to gain strength and liberate itself from the invaders, and with this the Orthodox Church in Russia became more powerful and powerful. With an understanding of what the Russian Orthodox Church is, there comes an understanding of its huge role in the history of the state.

Before the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1448, the Russian Church gained independence from the Patriarchate of Constantinople.

The Metropolitan Iona, appointed by the Council of Russian Bishops, became Metropolitan of Moscow and All Russia. And already in 1589 Job - the Moscow Metropolitan - became the first Patriarch of Russia.

In the XVII century, Russ attacked the Polish-Swedish interventionists. But the Russian Church did not give up here. The great patriot Patriarch Yergemon was tortured by the invaders, but he was the spiritual leader of the militia of Minin and Pozharsky.

In the annals of the Russian state, the heroic resistance of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra from the Poles and Swedes in 1608-1610 is described. The next patriarch, Nikon, took up reforms, resulting in a split in the Russian Orthodox Church.

These reforms continued in the XVIIIth Peter I. Since 1700, after the death of Patriarch Andrian, the new Primate of the Church was no longer elected, since in 1721 the Holy Governmental Synod was created, which was ruled by state officials. It lasted about two hundred years and was detrimental to the ROC.

Restoration of the patriarchate

In 1917 the All-Russian Church Council was convened, where the Patriarchate was restored. Metropolitan of Moscow Tikhon became Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia.

But the Bolsheviks considered the Russian Orthodox Church their ideological adversary, so it was subject to complete destruction.

From 1922 to 1924, Patriarch Tikhon was under arrest. When it was formed, the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad.

After his death, the struggle began, and as a result, the Russian Orthodox Church was headed by Metropolitan Sergius (Stargorodsky).
In the Soviet Union, only a small number of temples were left for worship. Most of the clergy were shot or were in camps.

By the time of the Second World War, the whole church structure was almost completely destroyed, but the catastrophe of hostilities made Stalin resort to moral help from the Russian Orthodox Church. Priests and bishops were released from prisons.

The culmination was the process when, in 1943, Patriarch Metropolitan Sergius (Stargorodsky) was elected at the Council of Bishops, and in 1945, Metropolitan Alexy at the Local Council.

In the Khrushchev era, many churches were closed, during the Brezhnev period all persecutions for the church ceased, but it was tightly controlled by the authorities. So, it is very difficult, it was the ROC. What is survival and persecution, she knows, alas, not by hearsay, at one's own bitter experience.

Moscow Patriarchate

In 1988, the celebration of the Millennium of Rus' became a landmark event for the Church and for the state. The restoration of churches was established. Next patriarchs were Alexius I, Pimen and Alexy II. Today the modern Russian

The Orthodox Church is headed by the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Kirill. In our difficult times it was precisely on his shoulders that a heavy burden lay - to seek the ways of reconciliation of all Slavic peoples. After all, that's why the Orthodox Church was created.

The modern Moscow Diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church, established in 1325, has about 1506 churches.
To the parishes and monasteries of the diocese belong 268 chapels. The structure of the diocese is divided into 48 deaneries, where the monastery is included.

The deanery districts are united in 1153 parishes and 24 monasteries. In addition, there are 3 congregations in the diocese, which are in full subordination to the metropolitan. The ruling bishop of the Moscow diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church is Metropolitan Juvenaly of Krutitsy and Kolomna.