ZIS-115, built supposedly on orders from Joseph Stalin himself, and the government ZIL-111 times of Nikita Khrushchev Hrusheva. But the state needed not only in big cars for the highest officials. For special services, special cars were built.
Before the advent of the GAZ-23, government security forces used for prosecution and maintenance of tuples GAZ-M20G, which was a "victory" with a six-cylinder engine GAZ-12. Unfortunately, until today, apparently, did not get a single copy of this interesting machine.
Time passed, the car park of the country changed. On city streets has become the dominant machine "twenty-first." Look at movies and pictures of those times the city streets! Since a special machine had to "get lost" in a variety of their own kind, faced with the task to update the fleet of special services.
Committee for State Security USSR Gorky Automobile Plant was tasked with developing special vehicles designed to provide effective chase escort processions and perform other specials. of tasks. The lead designer of the project GAZ-23 was appointed in 1959, Boris Akimovich Dekhtyar.
As the power plant was chosen as the most powerful and modern at the time the eight-engine GAZ-13 with automatic transmission. Of course, the "pure" form, he could not be installed under the hood body GAZ-21. Engine oil sump adapted (pan), the left exhaust manifold, something of little things. As a result, was born on GAZ-23 engine. Furthermore, in order to place it in the back of the engine had to turn around the axis of the crankshaft by two degrees. In 1962 the plant began limited production of the GAZ-23.
Heavily and had to work hard on brakes. Standard material for the linings of brake pads do not withstand heat loads. Had to use pads with overlays of high temperature resistant material. In addition, the GAZ-23 were used cast iron brake drums, which are then safely moved on a GAZ-24.
During the years of release (from 1962 to 1970) came from the factory gate 603 GAZ-23 (according to I. Paderina). Of the modifications are known:
• Base model GAZ-23 - a car with an 8-cylinder engine and automatic transmission;
• GAZ-23B differed from baseline improved lining (chrome trim windows, window-sill chrome, left mirror), and was directed to "work" in the fraternal countries, where it was supposed to blend in with the same export vehicles GAZ-21;
• GAZ-23A - originally designed as a vehicle with manual transmission, but it never went into production (rather weak box). Perhaps, later appropriated by the index of A GAZ-23 with special equipment - two batteries, special. lock the trunk, and that in the trunk ...?
• The factory documentation appears as modification of the GAZ-23A1 as a car with special equipment.
Discharge of curiosities. In May 2011 Boris Akimovich Dertyar and told me an interesting fact. Modification of the GAZ-23B (with lots of chrome) goes mainly to Cuba to work with the authorities. There's long stretches along the coast road good, and intelligence task was to patrol the road and prevent attempts at landing on the shore of the island of freedom commandos, saboteurs from the neighboring United States. For this purpose, and served as a high-speed car GAZ-23. In these high-speed machines drove muscular guys. Since the climate in Cuba, in general, quite hot, it is almost always open for drop windows and air vents. Accordingly, chrome rack, separating the standpipe glass front door of the vents remained "vulnerable" due to its convenient location, often served as a guard rail for passengers, especially during sudden twisting, as well as a door handle when the door is closed. Since the guys were muscular, this counter is often the victim of such use and is curved. And in this connection to the plant even complaint was directed. Boris Akimovich, unfortunately, did not specify how the plant responded to this complaint ....
The terms of reference plant for the manufacture of GAZ-23 was indispensable presence of only one exhaust pipe (for conspiracy). Thus, apparently to distinguish GAZ-23 from the usual "Volga" is not possible.
In 1970, together with the removal from the production of GAZ-21 (and GAZ-22), and stopped production of the GAZ-23. He was replaced by a GAZ-2424 with a V-8 engine and automatic transmission based on GAZ-24. Then followed the model of GAZ-2434 (based on GAZ-2410), GAZ-31 013 (based on GAZ-3102) ... Then the production of special vehicles to do the Gorky Automobile Plant rolled up, as was the park government vehicles consist of almost 100% of the cars of foreign production, but in terms of "lost in the flow" ... appearance on the street "Volga" GAZ-24, not to mention the GAZ-21, is perceived by us as archaic ...
Source: D. Gvozdev gaz23