ZIL 111 - a government car

Government limousine ZIL 111

The history of the base ZIL-111 started in 1956. ZIL-111D with a body "convertible" is a modified ZIL-111G with a body "limousine" produced since 1962, which in turn was a modification of the basic model ZIL-111.
The first car to receive the (still unofficial) this index was constructed in 1948, the ZIS-110M number 5. He is the only five cars in this series had a streamlined body with a single pontoon sidewalls, similar in appearance to the body "Packard Clipper" in 1947. Second ZIS-111 "Moscow" appeared in the early 1950s, he was a creation of designer Valentin zilovskogo sprout. It was built only two or three copies, one of which was shown at the Exhibition of Economic Achievements. At the exhibition visitors, this car did not cause great pride in the domestic auto industry. Frankly American car-like "Buick" of the late 1940s, nothing but a big bird on the hood, did not attract attention, and generally looked mediocre.

In the early 1950s in the American automotive industry has arisen a tendency to change the annual lineup. As a rule, these changes were only the exterior and interior, chassis remained the same for several years. Keep up with such a rapid fashion could not even Europe, not to mention the Soviet Union with its planned economy. Indeed, the car just did, put on the conveyor belt - and the next year to change all the seals, snap-in, spend millions of rubles for the sake of fashion. The only solution here was to create a machine progressive enough to "margin of safety" was enough for a few years.

Knowing this and seeing that the plant itself could not find a worthy replacement for veteran ZIS-110 ZIS leadership decided to hold a competition to create a project perspective the car - ZIS-111 new generation. Among a number of proposals liderovali two projects already built by ZIS-111 "Moscow" sprout and experienced car with the outline of "Packard" 1955 model year, a young designer from the LM Yeremeyev.

It was a clash of different schools, different approaches: a, zilovskogo, and another, dared to revise established views of the plant. Battles have been hot. ZIS sprout had already been built and almost ready to launch into production, but the option Eremeeva turned much more fresh and sovremennym.V finally won Yeremeyev. After the germ left the factory.
In 1956, a design project Yeremeyev was embodied in the life-size clay. In 1957, a new car under the name of ZIL-111 was released (in 1956, died IA Likhachev, and the plant was renamed in his honor). In a metal machine was a beautiful, yet rigorous. The front part was like at the same time, "Packard" and "Mercury" 1955-1956 period, while at the same time, comparing favorably to both of them. A much more elegant than the "Packard", and more representative than the "Mercury", he became the personification of the Soviet Union period, thaw. Large glass area and a panoramic windshield missed a lot of light into the cabin. Located on the side molding and sagittal "gill slits" are copied from the "Imperial" in 1956 (on a batch molding ZIL-111 was replaced by a figure known to us gulls). The rear portion was done in the style of "Packard." Large vertical lights, covered wings, reminiscent of the arches of Gothic cathedrals.

In 1958, with some modifications ZIL-111 went into the series. The designs of the ZIL-111 was not just a step forward compared to the ZIS-110, it was a real breakthrough. ZIS-110 was a design in 1941 and ZIL-111 is fully consistent with the requirements of 1955. During this period the automobile world of America has replaced three basic models, and by 1955 in the technological sense of the early machines of the 1940s has disappeared. New ZIL, like its predecessor, remained framed machine, this is probably where the similarities end there. New gasoline V-shaped eight-cylinder engine with a cast iron block and aluminum cylinder heads weighed 350 kg and gave 200 hp (ZIS-110 - 140 hp).
For the first time on a serial domestic car was installed two-speed automatic transmission with push-button control. The car was much lower. Due to the increased width of the bodywork and interior remodeling space in the car became more, respectively, the passengers could accommodate much more comfortable than its predecessor.
In 1959, the series went to changed ZIL-111 with the installation of domestic air-conditioning, called ZIL-111A. Cooled air conditioning and reduced humidity in the cabin when the outdoor temperature exceeds 18 ° C. The engine ZIL-111A also has an index, "111A" - it was connected with the installation of the compressor and some changes in the design of the drive components. Externally, ZIL-111A can be distinguished on the back nepanoramnomu glass, it was done in conjunction with the installation of the sides of the rear window air conditioner.
In 1960 appeared convertible ZIL-111V: big seven-seater had a canvas awning and 4 side lifting windows in chrome frames. The rise of the windows, as well as the rise of the curtain, implementation-lyalsya through a hydraulic drive. Tent, as in chaise ZIS-110B, in the folded position is covered by a decorative leather cover, and additional seating - straponteny - had double back with equal halves. Special gray convertible ZIL-111V changed carriages at parades ZIS-110B. Convertibles "111V" issued three years before putting on stream next modification ZIL-111G.

There is a version that the next change in the appearance of the vehicle was conducted at the request of Khrushchev, who noticed that the car is head of state (ZIL-111) does not differ from machine chairman executive committee (GAZ-13 "The Seagull"). In 1961 he was a prototype car, which is similar in form to the "Cadillac", but for unknown reasons, the series did not go. In the same year the car has undergone yet another facelift, and took its final form. The car went into production in 1962 and was called ZIL-111G. In fact, this is the same, "111A" with air conditioning, but with modified external forms. Starting with the ZIL-111G, air-conditioning became standard equipment and is not designated as a separate model of the plant. Externally, ZIL-111G is not copied any particular car, and was fully established factory designers, albeit with an eye to the American automotive industry trends. At the "111G" was used chetyrehfarnaya lighting system front and rear. And two round rear lights have been borrowed from the ZIL-118, "Youth". The front and rear of the car have been completely changed. The central part is the same, except for the outer door panels, stylized in accordance with other external changes. The sidewall of the machine reappeared sagittal molding that goes from the big corrugated lining behind the rear wheel arches. Uppercase words "one hundred and eleven Zeal" on the rear wing gave way to a laconic "ZIL-111." On the radiator grille has disappeared with bas-relief image of a seagull Yuri Dolgoruky, but instead of a shield, stylized medieval tower with an inscription at the top - "ZIL", and at the bottom - "111" there was a simple inscription "111" with diverging rays. In the back of the emblem in the form of the same shield with radiating been replaced individually mounted letters "W", "U", "L". Due to the changes required a new bumper jack: the old captured the special eyelets in the bumper, the new well was placed under the vehicle frame. Instead of manually screw jack ZIL-111 was designed and built pedal mechanical folding type jack 2E111G jack "Cadillac" of 1961. The same jack, with minor modifications, all future manned cars ZIL.
ZIL-111D appeared in 1964 as a modification of the ZIL-111V with the forms of ZIL-111G. The first automobile ZIL-111D chassis number 82 was collected in July 1964. It was installed upgraded brakes. The awning was a soft top ply fabric stretched over the arches and lateral levels of the framework. Each tent is individually adjustable frame units to ensure trouble-free operation. Fabric awning was attached with nails to the cardboard inserts front bar, rear arches and rear side belt body. To shape and further stretch an awning had padded jackets side. Inside the transverse arch were closed to them suspended upholstery, has a longitudinal rubber bands, which protects the fabric from sagging during raising and lowering the canopy. In the back of the tent was provided a window of a flexible plastic film, which was attached to an awning on three sides with zips. The window could detach and drop down. Tent rose and fell with elektrogidravliche-ray drive. The whole process of raising and lowering the canopy occupied 7-7.5 seconds. To fix the canopy in the raised position had lever locks and latches. Lever locks your brackets to the front awning bar and catch on the corresponding recesses in the bracket is fastened to the top of the wind frame. On rack locks were locking pins, which when lifting the tent included in the special slot in the bracket, fixed to the wind frame. Pins, clips were used to prevent lateral displacement of the tent. When folded tent fit into the slot and the closed cover, which is fastened to the outside of the body with the buttons, and the inside of the pawned between the awning and the rear seat and fasten to the inner sidewalls buttons. To shape the bags under his tent folded stacked lightweight bag, made of porous plastic. In the raised position canopy cover was removed and stacked in a special envelope, and the pillow and contracts evolved a special belt. Pillows and envelope stored in the trunk.
In electrical ZIL-111D match predecessor, ZIL-111V. The differences could be traced, perhaps, only in radio. On ZIL-111, 111G and 111V was a radio-13M, kabrioletny version of which was different from the basic lack of remote control, instead using the volume control the rear speakers. Was different device antennas. On ZIL-111V was two antennas, two telescopic, located on the hind wings. They were nominated by hand, and the reception was possible only if nominated by the antennas, which caused some discomfort. At buggy ZIL-111D designers installed a new radio AR-61-2-A and improved antenna, leaving one with the electric lift telescopic. It was situated in the rear left wing and worked in both the raised and lowered in the state, but with a smaller number of programs adopted and the sound volume.
Cars ZIL-111D was carried out in 1964-1967, respectively. During this period, was made about eight cars. Three of them were used for the parade and had a complete set of additional radio equipment, special handles and a set of flagpoles. Others were used as a government gigs for special trips. Compare convertible ZIL-111D with any foreign counterparts is difficult, because the ZIL was the only plant that as the base car did notchback limousine, sedan and wagon were made based on it. Seven-seater convertible, which is stored in the Club cabriolets and roadsters in Moscow, is made as a whole, that is not longer "stretch" as the wedding in Lincoln, a model for a whole frame of its own configuration. Similarly, a car with a big stretch to be called "Lincoln Continental" 1961 model year. Based on this gig with the swinging doors of specialized bodywork company was established long gig. Unfortunately, this car after the murder of President Kennedy got him notorious, and the release of the model was discontinued. However, here we compare ZIL-111D with a "Lincoln" would be incorrect, as "Lincoln" also "stretch" to the same unit, built by special order.
ZIL-111D, owned by the Club now cabriolets and roadsters, was once presented to the General Secretary of the CPSU Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev, leader Eric Honecker of East Germany - everyone remembers the "political kiss" between the two politicians, who was depicted on the Berlin Wall. It is on this car in 1974, met with Fidel Castro and Brezhnev, who came to East Germany with a visit of friendship, love a fast ride in a convertible with Comrade Honecker. Typically, the ZIL-111D softly and gravely walked in a motorcade escorted by motorcyclists and "thirteen", "Gull". After German unification and the removal from power Honecker some of its cars sold under the hammer. At the international exhibition in Brussels car was awarded the honorary diploma. Subsequent cars: ZIL-114-117 (1967-1976 years)

ZIL-111 all models was unquestionably reliable, stable on the road, with a great resource units, but the 50th anniversary of the October Revolution, he prepared a replacement - a new limousine ZIL-114. Drawn as a ruler, this machine represented the rational plane style of the late 60s. Engine with aluminum cylinder block was lighter and more compact than the ZIL-111, with a working volume increased from 6 to 7 liters, and power - from 200 to 300 liters. with. And the device ZIL-114 was a lot of unusual for the then Soviet vehicles: all-wheel disc brakes, height-adjustable steering column, front suspension besshkvornevaya on torsion bars. Equipment cabin was selected individually to taste this or that leader. In the early 70's at ZIL-114 appeared modification - Five sedan ZIL-117, along with almost the same, "Chaika" GAZ-13. Long ZIL-114 was the basis for universal emergency medical care, and "short" ZIL-117 - for a two-door convertible parade.