Moskvich 402

Moskvich-402 - Soviet passenger small car, manufactured at the Moscow plant of small cars (MZMA) from 1956 to 1958.

All were released 87 658 "Moskvich-402", together with modifications.

Moskvich-407 - an improved version with an upgraded engine and improved verhneklapannym finish, produced from May 1958 to 1963.

Moskvich-403 - "transitional" model, combining body and engine, "Moskvich-407" with some sites and aggregates of perspective "Moskvich-408" and are available from December 1962 to July 1965.

History of the Edit

Preceded by "Moskvich-402", manufactured from late 1946 "Moskvich-400 / 401," was a reconstituted on the basis of the Soviet Union as reparations remains of equipment and production documentation pre-war Opel Kadett K38, designed by the mid-thirties and was in the series since 1937.

In Germany, its production after the war resumed was not, but from 1947 to 1953 (with the modernization in 1949) produced a more advanced model of the same family - Opel Olimpia, with the same body, but more modern and powerful verhneklapannym engine (1488 cm ³, 37 hp).

Thus, the first model of "Moskvich", even taking into account held by the Soviet side of modernization over the issue - increasing the capacity of the engine, install the transmission with gearshift lever instead of the floor and other improvements - and the technical level of performance is initially inferior to its German post-war " cousin, "" Olympia, "which in itself even in those days was by no means good.

Yes, and purely visual conservative pre-war car with a body by the end of the forties looked far better, not only against the background of new foreign models, but also in comparison with the much more advanced Soviet "Pobeda" GAZ-M-20.

Therefore, in 1950, work began on a new car with a "pontoon" body, which was in line with the those years in order ZMA range model designation "402-425" - the engine of the model "402" in the back of the model "425".

Subsequently, for the base sedan "Moskvich-402" designation was used only in the body of the design documentation, but its modification - the universal M-423 and four-wheel drive versions of the M-410 and M-411 - it is termed by the notation of their bodies.

Chief designer was Alexander F. Andronov. He managed to organize a relatively small group of works to create a radically new design of the car than was in the production of "Moskvich-400 / 401" - the previous model, it has retained, and then in modified form, only the engine, gearbox and rear axle gearbox.

Due to the lack of experience of the plant staff in the design of the vehicle is actively involved members of groups other automakers USSR. With the Gorky plant were invited BD Kirsanov, L. Belkin, M. Germans, Zisa - IA Gladilin, SD Churazov, A. Zheryadin, KI Faibisovich. In addition, Moscow motorcycle factory in the ZMA engine turned designer Igor Okunev.

The participation of experts from the GAZ-and had a strong influence on projecting the car, and given the fact that at the same time on a GAZ-e were in full swing development and production preparation of a new model of the middle class - the "Volga" GAZ-21 - does not seem surprising that the "Moskvich" borrowed from it many elements of its design. This visual similarity as it emphasized that the Soviet road to a new generation of cars.

The first prototypes of the new "Moskvich" were ready in 1951.

To view samples of foreign automotive joint and comparative testing as the design and refinement were purchased ZMA production models of foreign cars - Italian Fiat-1100 (1953-1962) and Lancia Aurelia (1950-1958), French Simca Aronde (1951-64) and Citroen 2CV (1948-1990), English Hillman Minx (1948-1956), Ford Consul (1951-1956) and Jovett Javelin (1947-1953), German Ford Taunus 12M (1952-1962) - part of which is embodied in a joint photo with serial and experienced "Moskvich" during one of the test runs. Of course, none of them was used as a prototype in the "pure" form, but their design is largely helped to choose one or another style and technical solutions for original design which had completely and design the new model "Moskvich".

Developed by drawing on the Gorky Automobile Plant (if not the only country in those years, which had its own power for the production of molds) have been made stamps. Stamped on them from the test panels in the process of refinement were collected seven prototypes "402-425", differing details of design - in particular, the shape of the gutter and roof fabrication technologies (some were part of "drain" on the windshield, like a GAZ-21 ) and grille (in particular, one of the options very much like that facing, which went into production, "Volga" - "a star", with the difference that the "Moskvich" star itself was absent, and the "mustache" above the central timbers was one instead of two at the GAZ-21).

One of three experienced "Moskvich-402", passed the state tests in February 1955, was exhibited at the Exhibition of Economic Achievements.

The first instance of the serial was released on April 20, 1956.

Thus, the pace of development and mass development of the model were quite high, especially given the very limited capacity of the MZMA - as already noted, even dies for body manufacturing had to outside companies.

The car was quite modern in appearance, structurally more rigid - and therefore more durable, much more spacious - in relative comfort housed five people - and comfortable inside than its predecessor body. He had a single trunk, which can be accessed from outside the car, not inside, as the M-400 / 401, and the lid had a remote drive on the lever in the cabin, curved windshield and rear glass, a high level of interior finish, was equipped with a heater protivoobledenitelem with windshield (previous model had a heater), flashing turn signals with self-resetting (M-400 / 401 povrotnikov from the factory did not have), radio (not often met in the base even on foreign cars in this class). The design was relatively straightforward and utilitarian, but at that time quite modern.

The new "Moskvich" was an independent front suspension besshkvornevuyu with double wishbones pivot instead of the independent podveki like "Dubon" from M-400 / 401 with trailing arms, 15-inch rim wheels instead of 16-inch, drum brakes with floating pads, 12-volt instead of the outdated electrical and moody 6-volt power from the M-400 / 401, for the first time in the country - telescopic shock absorbers.

Rear axle with gears and a three-stage negipoidnymi gearbox at this stage were inherited from the previous model, but the box was an extension, allowing shortened driveshaft and reduce vibration.

The main drawback of "402-D" model has inherited from its predecessor is weak, outdated nizhneklapanny engine, whose design dates back to mid-thirties. It had increased to 1220 cm ³ cubic capacity and power of 35 hp, which is not possible to directly compete with the best foreign models in this class that occurred in the years up to 35-40 hp specific engine on a ton of weight versus 22.7 in the M-402.

The development is built on a fundamentally new MZMA verhneklapannogo engine with hemispherical combustion chambers and an aluminum cylinder block (the project "406") did not take place for economic reasons (there was no exchange of funds for the purchase of overseas machinery equipment needed), and went into a series of engine M-407, which was based on the engine block of the same power unit "Kadetta" and M-400 / 401, but with a larger displacement, the aluminum cylinder head with overhead valves and other improvements to increase capacity to 45 hp in the working volume of 1358 cm ³. He could be manufactured on the available machine tools.

Upgraded car with this engine was designated the "Moskvich-407" and was produced from May 1958. In addition to the engine, he was distinguished as external decoration (for example, appeared on the side of molding) and some other details. In December of that year came and a new four-gearbox.

Series production of "Moskvich-402" was also curtailed in May 1958.