The first Russian cars

The history of the domestic automobile business starts with the first Russian car Yakovlev and Frese, Lessner, Puzyreva, with coachwork Breytigana, P. Yakovlev. Workshops and factories where born Russian cars, were in St. Petersburg - then the capital of Russia. And it was natural - the capital of Europe flocked information about updates to technology, here came from abroad, the first horseless carriages.In the 90 years of the nineteenth century there were the first foreign cars and motorcycles, which have opened trade offices of the European automobile firms. Of course, the scale avtodela were more than modest: a few dozen cars and hundreds of other enthusiasts. And yet on Oct. 11, Old Style in 1898 in St. Petersburg held its first in the country racing in cars and on motorcycles. It was attended by 6 cars. Defeated Pavel Belyaev, fairly wealthy man and a big fan of technical innovations. He has performed on the tricycle, "Clement" engine "De Dion Bouton" power of 1.75 hp The first race attracted the attention of St. Petersburg. The store, "Clement-Gladiator-Febyus" was added customers. In 1902 began publishing the magazine "Car". Cars, motorcycles, engines, tires magnetos, carburetors - all came from abroad, through sales offices of foreign firms in St. Petersburg, which was vast.The first car in our country was born on the banks of the Neva River. The initiators of the first domestic building horseless carriage became as well known, two in St. Petersburg inventor - a retired Navy Lieutenant Eugene A. Yakovlev (1857-1889gg.) And a mining engineer Peter A. Frese (1844 till 1918.). One belonged to was established in 1891 on the Great Saviour Street, "The first Russian factory kerosene and natural gas engines, EA Yakovlev (now Plant Vulcan"), another - Joint Stock Company Construction crews "Frese and C °" in the house 10 to Ertelevu ( Now Malaya Morskaya street) lane. Yakovlev took to produce the engine with a horizontal cylinder capacity of about two horsepower, and transmission (two speed gearbox and differential). In this he relied on the expertise K. Bence, like other makers of cars of that time in Germany, France, Sweden, Switzerland, the United States.The tests took place in St. Petersburg in May 1896 and in June, after finishing and preparation, the car was sent to the All-Russia Industrial - art exhibition in Nizhny Novgorod, where she exhibited and performed the demonstration ride. Machine Yakovlev and Froese with a double body weighed about 300kg. and could reach speeds of up to 20 km / h. The first message of her placed in a number of 8 July 7271 (old style) 1896 St. Petersburg newspaper "New Era". At the early stage of motor along with automotive plants there, and bodywork. Most plants produced only the chassis and the buyer, buying gear, gave it to cartwright factory where, in accordance with his wishes were produced "karosseri" - so called when the body. Evidence of commendable Russian karosseri is a report on the IV International Motor Show held in St. Petersburg in 1913. Among its exhibits at booth number 29 were represented by five cars, "Mercedes" with bodies of St. Petersburg cartwright factory Breytigam. In a number of other factories cartwright leading positions are held such as the St. Petersburg factory enterprise "Frese," "Victory", "PD Yakovlev", "Otto" bubbles. Body Russian factories have repeatedly observed the highest awards at international auto shows years 1907-1913. in Russia. The first of these exhibitions in 1907, a large gold medal awarded by a body of "PD Yakovlev.Of all these factories only cartwright "Frese and C °" attempted to organize the production of cars and trucks. From 1901 to 1904. she produced dozens of cars with engine and transmission De Dion Bouton, experienced pilot trolleybus and combination with electric transmission. But the weakness of the manufacturing base is not allowed to develop begun.In 1909 was founded the "Russian car plant IP Puzyreva. Its founder set out to see to it that the Russian production would not only name, but it would be really Russian "... Works independently drew up all the car most of the Russian material, and Russian workers under the leadership of Russian engineers." The second task - to create a vehicle meets the requirements of movement in Russia, with regard to the peculiarities of our roads.In 1911, the basic model of the plant was designated "28-35", in 1912, "A28-40" was quite simple in design, had a large margin and was a bit heavy. It has a high cross, clearance is 320 mm. and a number of other innovations.On cars Puzyreva the world's first all in the driveline included claw couplings - the invention of the plant, protected by privilege. Gearshift lever will not stir outside the body, and inside it, the crankcase, gearbox and differential were cast in aluminum, rear axle had unloaded half full type. Engine capacity was up to 6325 cm3, and the power to 40 hpAt the IV International Motor Show in St. Petersburg in the spring of 1913, IP Puzyrev exhibited three vehicles - opened with a seven-seater torpedo body and closed with a five-seater body limousine - two 40-horsepower engine and sports chassis with the overhead valve engine.