The history of Anapa
The city - they are as people. Each has its own history and the birth of fate. Intricacies of the events, disasters, tragedies and conquests imprinted on the walls of urban buildings, in the bark and branches of silent witnesses - the old trees, potholes and asphalt paving, and the very ground on which stands the city.
Anapa is a very ancient history, what happened to its present territory and included in the record, more than one millennium. Still, after a unique location attracted here from time immemorial, various tribes and nations.
The first settlements appeared in the vicinity of Anapa another 10 thousand years BC. However, for the prescription of time to determine exactly who was then living on these lands is not possible ... Only in the vicinity of the village Supseh, near Anapa, archaeologists found several primitive flint tools.
The tribes living here in the Bronze Age (3000 BC), "heritage" is much more - Anapa land and its surroundings still find tombs - the remnants of the so-called Maikop culture. Judging by the finds, the people of that time engaged in farming and raised cattle, made ceramics, processed stone and metal.
The tribes that inhabited the area of the current Anapa to the 5th century BC, called Cindy. Made of bronze ornaments, tools, and some types of weapons are complex and peculiar grace. In Anapa Archaeological museum displays many rarities of that era - bracelets, necklaces, weapons and utensils.
Cindy were known for their aggressiveness, engaging in periodic conflicts with its neighbors to the north (the Scythians), and with the neighboring tribes. Armed only with swords and spears, they terrified the enemy, but, nevertheless, have established quite friendly relations with the Greeks that settled at the time the Northern Black Sea region. Capital Cindy - Sindica city, many sources referred to as the Sindhi harbor existed on the site of Anapa in the 5th century BC.
A little later, on the shore is extremely easy to navigate the bay appeared Gorgippia - a major seaport of the kingdom of the Bosporus, founded by the ancient Greeks.
Gorgippia was named after King Gorgippia. A talented and dedicated leader, he raised his patrimony to a high level, trade flourished in the city, greatly expanded living quarters. Grateful residents Gorgipii erected his benefactor gorgeous copper statue in the central square, and they called his name Gorgippia city. Governors of the Bosporus king succeeded each other at the post Gorgippia rulers. In honor of the most significant events of the townspeople have installed marble slabs with inscriptions, which to this day sealed the case and the names of famous gorgippiytsev. Some of these boards now exhibited in the Archaeological Museum of Anapa.
Basis of the economy Gorgippia that helped improve the welfare of local residents was agriculture. Grown on these lands, wheat, barley, millet, beans, beans, grapes. Bred sheep, goats, cattle, horses and poultry. Well advanced winemaking and salting fish, various crafts and trades. Gorgippia was active trade with Athens and other Greek cities, city-kingdom of the Bosporus and the barbarian settlements.
About the spa treatment natural factors also did not forget. In the old days many churches in the southern Greek gods arranged a special terrace for sunbathing. Gorgippia also famous for such terraces. Literally from the very beginning of its existence Gorgippia and the area around it was chosen as a resort ancient Greeks, who inhabited these places. Mineral springs Semigor, located 18 km to the north-east of the city is also "resort area" of the ancient Bosporus, attracts local notables to heal.
Prosperous Gorgippia died in an unexpected way in the middle of III century AD after the invasion of wild barbarian tribes. However, the barbarians did not stay here long, but on the ruins of the ancient city settled a small local tribes - natuhaevtsy. Gradually they established trading links with the legendary Russian principality Tmutarakan that by the end of the 1st millennium AD there existed on the Taman Peninsula.
In the 13th century, a favorable geographical position of the former Greek colony of Genoese sailors and rated merchants. Overseas visitors are familiar with surprising speed and built a fortified castle, which is also the center of trade and exchange with the surrounding tribes. Shopping stronghold of Genoa on the Black Sea was mapped by the name of Mapa.
This is interesting!
"Mapa" - the water, with Maps of the - "an Mapa," is a version of the current name of the city of Anapa.
Italian merchants transported to distant Italy with the hospitable shores of Anapa grain, meat, fish, timber, fur and leather. One of the main places in the "business" of the time occupied by the slave trade. Beautiful Circassian, captured during the raids, enjoyed great demand, because their owners were looking forward to the distant eastern harems.
The Genoese withdrew from the Northern Black Sea under the onslaught of the Ottoman Turks. The Turkish conquest, in which was conquered by the Genoese small trading post, a few centuries determined the fate of those places that have become part of the vast Ottoman Empire.
In the late 18th century on the steep bank of the plane was built by the Turks a powerful and well-fortified fortress of Anapa, which on three sides by sea and by land was protected by a moat and rampart. Rebuilt castle peopled very colorful people: soldiers from Turkey, Circassians, Armenians, Gypsies, - the population is actively replenished by immigrants immigrants.
In just a year there appeared a very well-developed infrastructure - hotel, winding residential neighborhoods, military buildings, customs, mosques, baths, the residence of Pasha, has opened a lot of shops and coffee houses. Anapa fortress was a military and religious outpost in Turkey, northern Black Sea coast.
But the most important, perhaps, exotic hypostasis strength expressed in the following - Anapa was a well-developed market for the slave trade. Following the example of Genoese merchants Turkish "entrepreneurs" have recognized the benefit of human trafficking. "And with the battle ships taken slaves in Anapa load" - wrote in his poem "Tazit" AS Pushkin. How many slaves - Circassians, the Circassian, Slavs, passed through the hands of slave traders and prudent Anapa forever departed over the sea - we can only guess ... In neighboring Crimea and to this day remains a saying that Tatar indignantly tell their husbands when they are treated badly, " Am I a slave to you got from Anapa? "
Over time, the Circassians, who live around the fortress, converted to Islam and became allies of the Turks against Russia.
This is interesting!
One version of the name "Anapa" - its origin from the Abkhaz language, "Ana-ne" - a river that is point located at the mouth of the river. There is a hypothesis that "Anapa" - a word Circassian ("Ana") - the table, "few fine" - edge). "Anapa" - tabular ledge shore.
Brand new and perfectly protected Turkish outpost was left of Russia, which led at the time the war with Turkey, and had great views of the local shore. Therefore, soon to Anapa were thrown elite Russian troops. For four years, the Turkish fortress was committed six campaigns of the Russian army. Anapa tried to learn from the sea and by land. How many of gunpowder and blood soaked the land, how many were killed by Russian and Turkish soldiers, there was the legendary generals - this will remind future generations only fragments of chronicles.
Anapa surrendered to Russian troops June 12, 1828. About this event anapchanam today eloquently reminds Holy Onufrievsky temple, named after the holy elder Onuphrius, whose memory is celebrated on the day of the conquest by the Russian troops defiant fortress. Near the center of the modern Anapa can see the gates and left after the valor of the Russian troops at the behest of Emperor Nicholas I, who personally visited Anapa in 1837.
Life of the Russian garrison in a conquered fortress was not sweet: hostile mountain tribes, isolation from the outside world, an acute shortage of drinking water and food, scurvy, crude huts and dugouts, anguish and despair ...
Gradually, these places come from immigrants and Little Russian provinces. In the mid-19th century, Anapa was given the status of the port city "for residents of the settlement of commercial and industrial class." Only that "fledged" city turned to rubble Turks during the Crimean War, but in 1866 Port of Anapa revived, begins its development and actively invites to your guest residence of the Russian cities and villages.
The abundance of sun and heat, suitable for the cultivation of grape crops, attracted the attention of first mayor of Anapa, Lieutenant General Dmitri Pilenko. As head of the Black Sea region, a man very well educated and active, he personally laid in the vicinity of Anapa first vineyards. Later he took a sample and other anapchane then viticulture has become here an unprecedented scale.
Family Pilenko generally left its mark on history not only of Anapa, but also Russia. It is from this kind is Elizabeth Y. Kuzmin-Karavaeva (nee Pilenko), better known to the world as a nun Mother Mary. In Anapa she spent her childhood and adolescence.
By the beginning of last century, Anapa assessed as "excellent and cheap country dacha" Capital know. And stretched out in the summer to the sea carriage and crews, bringing the station in a quiet seaside Tunnel province of the family of wealthy citizens. Take a sun and sea baths, eat local fruits come here every year to 400 families. The first nodules significantly raised the rest in Anapa, the demand for rental housing, and very soon there began the rapid construction of houses and mansions. The lease adventurous visitors anapchanami rented furnished rooms with full and partial boarding, bathing. Vacationers also offered other spa services - entertainment tours and other entertainment.
Beginning of the development as a resort of Anapa doctor put Vladimir Adolfovich Budzinskaya. For the first time by chance once in this seaside town, he was a lifelong conquered her unique charm. Budzinskaya, a man of great intelligence and energy, he settled in Anapa and developed active in the construction of new resort villas here and the first health resorts.
Healthcare Services - "motels" - with the most modern equipment at the time in Anapa opened one after another. In 1900 he opened the sanatorium "Coast" in 1909 - "Bimlyuk" in 1913 - "The Glorious". Dr. Budzinskaya actively participated in various congresses, conferences, exhibitions, invites to practice in Anapa in the summer of eminent doctors of that time, publishes brochures and magazines, is actively involved in public life, Anapa, even becoming mayor.
The resort is slowly gaining ground, and in the exhibitions "National Hygiene" and "Russian Riviera", arranged in the Russian capital in 1913 and 1914 and Anapa Semigorye have been awarded top prizes - gold medals.
After the tumultuous years of the Revolution, Anapa, like Spa, has reached a new stage of development. Came to light order VI Lenin, who in 1921, to rest and heal at the coast off more than 55 thousand children. For this good cause by the Soviet government had allocated about hundreds of trains and several steamers.
In the late 30's Special Commission People's Commissariat of Anapa resort it was decided to convert to a good and exemplary children's resort. The task was successfully accomplished, and in the prewar years in Anapa already hard working children's summer camps and resorts.
During the Second World War, was captured by the Germans Anapa and completely destroyed. It was only in 1947 began a gradual recovery and development.
Now Anapa - a thriving resort for children and families, as well as a cozy, clean city, where houses and streets, and neighborhood seem to breathe history - rich and unique ...
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